Device for visual observation and measuring inner spaces

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials by the use of optical means.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises endoscope of side vision with measuring scale that is secured in the central flange provided with circular scale. The flange is set in the bushing at the outlet face of the space for permitting rotation of the flange together with the endoscope whose lens is mounted at the center of the space. The axis of sighting is positioned in the zone of ring weld joint that connects hemispheres of the space. The device is additionally provided with flexible passage for lightening internal surface of the space by flat laser beam under various angles. The passage for laser illumination is composed of semiconducting micro-laser mounted at the axis of gradient lens that is mounted at the outlet face of the light guide coincident with the back focus, second gradient lens mounted at the outlet face of the light guide, cylindrical lens, spherical lens, and flat mirror.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

5 dwg

 

The invention relates to non-destructive testing and can be used for visual and measuring control of the inner surface of pressure vessel, in particular a ball-tanks for storing compressed gases that are widely used in aerospace and other products.

The characteristic feature of this class of objects is large of diameter-controlled cavity D and the diameter of the inlet d, i.e. D/d≫1.

Known scanning the measuring endoscope for inspection of ball storage tanks of compressed gas containing optical channels to illuminate the inner surfaces and transfer their images from controlled cavities and quantitative estimation of defect size using a measuring eyepiece scale with the scanning mechanism of the spherical surfaces and scales to determine the polar coordinates of defects [1].

However, this device does not allow to estimate the size of the defects, i.e. to measure the depth (height) relative to the surface on which they are located.

This makes it difficult to use to control the ball-cylinders traditional endoscopes intended for the control of adjacent objects as small linear field of view endoscopes time-consuming to conduct inspection of ball containers, this item is a large diameter (1÷ 3 m).

Known endoscope [1] is set in centering the flange c of the circular scale, which in turn is inserted into the socket mounted on the input end of the controllable cavity. The axis of sight of the endoscope is directed at right angles to its longitudinal axis and is mounted in a position in which it is in the meridianal plane passing through the center of the sphere perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the endoscope and coinciding with the circumference, which is circular weld seam connecting the two hemispherical parts ball capacity. During the rotation of the flange with the endoscope about its longitudinal axis is scanning the whole area of girth weld and using a circular scale on the flange is determined by the angular coordinate of the defect, and using the eyepiece scale of the endoscope measured its transverse dimensions.

However, using this endoscope is impossible to measure the height (depth) of defects.

Used in traditional endoscopy control methods of relief defects with the help of light [2] and shadow [3] section using sources partitioned illumination of the object is a flat light beam, mounted directly to the distal part of the housing of the endoscope, is effective only at small distances the endoscope-an object that severely restricts the performance of control also known devices allow you to highlight an object flat beam only in one direction, which does not allow to measure the depth (height) of defects, type (cracks), oriented parallel to the plane of incidence of the beam.

The purpose of the invention is the elimination of the above-noted disadvantages of the known device and qualitative improvement of its functionality.

For this purpose, in the device containing the side-viewing endoscope with ocular measuring scale attached to the centering flange with a circular scale mounted in the sleeve at the output end of the controlled cavity with the possibility of rotation of the flange with the endoscope relative to the longitudinal axis of the endoscope, the lens which is positioned centrally controlled cavity and the axis of sight is in the meridianal plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the endoscope and coinciding with the area of the girth weld that connects the hemispheres capacity, added optical channel highlighting the inner surface of the cavity is a flat laser beam at different angles (angles), consisting of a rigid section that is installed in the flange parallel to the longitudinal axis of the endoscope and a flexible section length t≤R, where R is the vessel radius, the bending is installed on the outer housing channel laser illumination, milling the mA scale for fixing the angle of bending of the flexible section, the axis of rotation of the flexible section passes through the center of the sphere and parallel to the axis of sight of the endoscope, and the plane of rotation of the flexible section perpendicular to this axis, the axis of symmetry of the planar laser beam and the axis of sight of the endoscope intersect on the surface of the sphere at one point, the angle α between a plane of laser illumination and a plane passing through this point perpendicular to the axis of sight of the endoscope, is selected from a ratio of α=arctan(t/R), optical channel laser illumination consists of a semiconductor microlaser installed on the axis gradient lens is located at the input end of the light guide coinciding with the rear focus Gradina second similar gradient lens is installed at the output end of the fiber, the cylindrical lens with focal length f'Clocated on the optical axis of the output Gradina, spherical lens with focal length f'withalso located on the axis of the output Gradina, and a flat mirror located behind the spherical lens on its axis at a distance of Δ angle γ=90°-(α/2), the focal distance of the lens is selected from the relation fwith=Δ+S, where S=R/sinα, focal length cylindrical lens is selected from the relation tC=r/tgϕwhere r is the radius of the laser beam at the entrance of cylindrical lenses, ϕ≥β - the angle of the flat laser beam, β half angle of field of view of the endoscope, the height (depth) of the defects are measured using the ocular scale of the endoscope on the ratios of ΔN=·n, where n is the number of divisions of the eyepiece scale, per proportional to the height (depth) of the defect corresponding to the curvature of the laser stripes on the image of the defect, with the intercept ocular scale in the plane of the object, depending on the magnification of the endoscope and the conversion factor profile, depending on the angles of illumination and observation of the defect and determined experimentally in Metrology calibration device object of known thickness, set at a distance R from the lens of the endoscope along the axis of sight is perpendicular to it, the planar dimensions ΔX(OS) of the defect are measured using the same scale, but on value ΔX=ni·ciwhere n is the number of divisions of the scale, falling on the image of the defect along a predetermined direction, c is the scale interval in the object plane, which is determined experimentally using Attigliano linear scale, placed on the axis of sight of the endoscope perpendicular to it at a distance R from its lens.

Diagram of the device represented in figure 1-3, which shows the optical-structural diagram of the device (figure 1), the optical scheme of the laser Cana is and partitioned illumination of the object plane beam (figure 2), diagram of the scanning laser illumination (figure 3) and the embodiments of the laser lights with different orientation of the defects relative to the plane of arrangement of girth weld (figure 4).

The device contains a standard side-viewing endoscope 1-angle 2β and L≥R, where R is the radius of the controlled cavity with a measuring eyepiece scale, anchored in centering the flange 3, is installed in the sleeve 4 at the exit end of the controlled cavity 15 of radius R with the possibility of rotation of the flange with the endoscope relative to the longitudinal axis of the housing of the endoscope. The lens of the endoscope is positioned centrally controlled cavity 15, and the axis of sight is located in the meridianal plane controlled cavity in which is located an annular weld seam connecting the two hemispheres, components controlled spherical cavity. In the flange 3 has a housing 2 additional channel laser illumination of the object, consisting of a rigid section with a length LW≤R1flexible (turn) section length Lg≥R1connected by a hinge 5, located in the center of the sphere. Through the mechanism 7 scale 8 and the pointer 9, placed on the outer housing channel illumination, rotation (bending) of the flexible section of the hinge 5 with fixing the angle of this surface to the company, what is happening in the plane passing through the center of the sphere perpendicular to its meridianal plane in which is located an annular weld seam, using the above scale 8. In case 2 are elements of the optical scheme of the laser channel illumination (figure 2). The axis of the rigid part of the housing 2 parallel to the longitudinal axis of the housing of the endoscope 1. The flange 3 is circular scale 10, which with the pointer 11 mounted on the sleeve 12, is read the value of the angle of rotation of the flange 3, which established the endoscope 1 and the channel laser illumination 2 relative to the longitudinal axis of the housing of the endoscope when scanning girth weld 14.

The rigid endoscope 1 contains the building blocks of the illuminator 12 observations 13. Unit 13 may be ocular with a standard measuring scale (not shown in virtue of being well-known) or with the television surveillance system.

The optical scheme of the channel laser illumination (figure 2) contains microlaser 1, gradient lens 2 mounted on the ends of the optical fiber 5. The ends of the light guide 3 coincide with the focal plane of the lens 2, the cylindrical lens 4 with a focal length of fC, spherical lens 5 with a focal length of fwithand the mirror 6. Lenses 4 and 5 are sequentially installed on the axis gradient lens 2 at the output of the light guide 3. The mirror 5 is installed on the same axis at a distance of Δ from the spherical lens 5 at an angle γ it.

In figure 2, R is the radius of the controlled cavity, t is the distance from the center (0) of the sphere to the center of the mirror 6, and S is the distance from the center of the mirror 6 to the point of intersection of the axis of the laser beam with the surface of the controlled sphere, S=R/sinα, α - the angle of this axis to the meridianal plane of the sphere. Between angles γ and α there is an obvious correlation γ=90°-(α/2)arising from the law of reflection rays from the flat mirror. Focal length spherical lens is selected from the relation twith=t+Δand focal length cylindrical lens from the relation tC≥r/tgϕwhere ϕ≥β - angle planar laser beam.

Figure 3 shows the diagram of the scanning movable part of the channel laser illumination in the classical orthogonal projections. Here α - the angle of the axis of the flat laser beam to the meridianal plane controlled areas, ω - the angle of rotation of the movable part of the housing channel laser illumination in the plane perpendicular to the axis of sight of the endoscope.

Figure 4 in three-dimensional axonometric projections of the options presented laser illumination for typical cases, the orientation of defects such as cracks relative to the plane of the ring weld, and the corresponding image of the laser stripes (light what's sections) defects in the plane of the eyepiece scale of the endoscope.

The device operates as follows.

Flexible (movable) part of the channel laser illumination is set by using the mechanism of its bending in a position in which its axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the housing of the endoscope.

Then the flange with the endoscope and channel additional laser illumination is installed in which is mounted to the inlet of the controlled sphere sleeve.

Include the unit of the light source of the endoscope and produce a visual inspection of girth weld, the rotating flange in the sleeve. If a defect is fixed with its angular (polar) coordinates and measure its planar (planar) dimensions using the eyepiece scale ratio Δx=ci·niwhere ni- the number of bars per image defect, ci- price division of the scale shown to the inner surface of the controlled areas. Calibration of the scale is performed by a standard method based on the placing on the distance R from the lens of the endoscope in the direction perpendicular to its sighting axis linear scale with a known distance between dashes.

If you want to measure the height (depth) of the bulk defects (cracks, corrosion sinks, flows and splashes on the platen annular weld) include microlasers using the mechanism of bending of the flexible (movable) part of the channel of the laser illumination, turn it to the angle 0≤ω≤180° in the plane passing through the center of the sphere parallel to the axis of sight of the endoscope, fix the angle of rotation, using the scale mechanism of bending of the bending section of the laser channel backlight, see in the plane of the eyepiece scale endoscope image laser strips and measure the height (depth) of the defect in the corresponding section on value ΔN=·n, where n is the number of divisions of the scale, coinciding with the curvature of the strips on the defect (figure 4), c - price division of the eyepiece scale when measuring the height (depth) of the defect is given to the inner surface of the controlled areas and pre-defined during calibration of the device using an object of known thickness placed at a distance R from its lens and illuminated by a laser beam at an angle α.

Literature

1. Measuring the scanning endoscope OG-50. The prospectus of the company ZAO IIEP Range.

2. The prospectus of the company "Sverest, USA, Endoscopes measuring XLM series.

3. Bychkov OD Inspection of internal surfaces. - M.: Energy, 1975, 120 S.

Device for visual and measuring control of internal cavities containing a side-viewing endoscope with ocular measuring scale attached to the centering flange with a circular scale mounted in the sleeve on the input side is controlled by the spine with rotation of the flange with the endoscope relative to the longitudinal axis of the endoscope, the lens which is positioned centrally controlled cavity and the axis of sight is in the meridional plane, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the endoscope and coinciding with the area of the girth weld that connects the hemispheres of the cavity, added optical channel highlighting the inner surface of the cavity is a flat laser beam at different angles (angles), consisting of a rigid section that is installed in the centering flange parallel to the longitudinal axis of the endoscope and a flexible section length t≤R, where R is the radius of the cavity, the bending is installed on the outer housing channel laser illumination mechanism with a scale for fixing the bending angle of the flexible section, the axis of rotation of the flexible section passes through the center of the sphere and parallel to the axis of sight of the endoscope, the plane of rotation of the flexible section perpendicular to this axis, the axis of symmetry of the planar laser beam and the axis of sight of the endoscope intersect on the surface of the sphere at one point, the angle α between a plane of laser illumination and a plane passing through this point perpendicular to the axis of sight of the endoscope, is selected from a ratio of α=arctan(t/R), optical channel laser illumination consists of a semiconductor microlaser installed on the axis gradient lens is located at I the bottom the end face of the light guide, coinciding with the rear focus Gradina, a second similar gradient lens is installed at the output end of the fiber, the cylindrical lens with focal length f'Clocated on the optical axis of the output Gradina spherical lens with focal length f'withalso located on the axis of the output Gradina and flat mirror located behind the spherical lens on its axis at a distance of Δ angle γ=90°-(α/2), the focal distance of the lens is selected from the relation f'c=Δ+S, where S=R/sinα, focal length cylindrical lens is selected from the relation f'Cr/tgϕwhere r is the radius of the laser beam at the entrance of cylindrical lenses, ϕ>βwhere ϕ - angle planar laser beam, β half angle of field of view of the endoscope, the height (depth) of the defects are measured using the ocular scale of the endoscope on the ratios of ΔN=·n, where n is the number of divisions of the eyepiece scale, per proportional to the height (depth) of the defect corresponding to the curvature of the laser stripes the image of the defect, with the intercept ocular scale in the plane of the object, depending on the magnification of the endoscope and the conversion factor profile, depending on the angles of illumination and observation of the defect, and it is determined experimentally by Metrology calibration device p is the object of known thickness, set at a distance R from the lens of the endoscope along the axis of sight is perpendicular to it, the planar dimensions Δx(OS) of the defect are measured using the same scale, but on value Δx=ni·ciwhere ni- the number of divisions of the scale, falling on the image of the defect along the given direction, withithe scale interval in the object plane, which is determined experimentally with the help of certified linear scale, placed on the axis of sight of the endoscope perpendicular to it at a distance R from its lens.



 

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