Big dragline with electric drive

FIELD: excavation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dragline bucket suspension and control system. Proposed dragline has rated load capacity by suspended weight exceeding 100 tons. It has support installed for turning on base, boom assembly projecting outwards from support and installed for turning together with support, bucket, rigging and control system. Bucket is suspended from extreme end of boom by means of adjustable hoist cables and is controlled by at least one adjustable drag cable stretching from support to bucket. Rigging has first and second sheaves of boom head arranged on extreme end or near extreme end of boom assembly at fixed distance from each other, one after the other, so that first sheave is located closer to support then second sheave. First and second hoist cables pass over first and second sheaves of boom head, one cable passing over each sheave. First hoist cable passes downwards over sheave and is connected in operating position with front part of bucket. Second hoist cable passes downwards over second sheave and is connected in operating position with rear part of bucket. Control system uses computer to control relative travel of first and second hoist cables through load-lifting device. It is installed to change angle of tilting of bucket in vertical plane by differential displacement of one hoist cable relative to the other.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of dragline operation, provision of accurate adjustment of bucket displacement angle.

9 cl, 22 dwg

 

This invention relates to a system for hanging and management of the dragline bucket.

Draglines are large excavators are intended for loading their cargoes material, moving and unloading of material, usually soil. Draglines are often used in coal mines to remove the going to waste overburden covering the shallow coal seam.

Figure 1 illustrates a typical large dragline with the actuator in accordance with the prior art. Conventional dragline contains made with the possibility of rotation of the support 1 mounted on the stationary base 2. Coming out arrow 3 Assembly mounted on the made with the possibility of rotation of the support can be rotated. Winch 6, 9 mounted on the support for removal or release of the cables or ropes. Usually there are two main sets of ropes or cables, hereinafter called the cargo ropes 4 and the traction rope 5. Cargo ropes 4 are from intended for lifting winches 6, installed on a support up and out along the boom, through the blocks or pulleys 7, mounted in the farthest point of the boom, down to the node 8, which consists of the bucket and rigging. Traction ropes 5 are from the traction winch 9, installed on the support 1, the output node 8, which consists of the bucket and rigging. The site, consisting of the C bucket and rigging, consists of the bucket and "Rigging", which represents a complete set of chains, ropes, cables, and other items used for hanging the bucket.

Conventional dragline equipped with a mechanism for moving, usually representing moving the reciprocating walking cradles or track chain.

Figure 2 shows typical components of a node, consisting of a bucket and rigging, in accordance with the prior art. Although it is recognized that there are variations in the design and names of the items that will be used the following definitions, known to any person skilled in the technical field:

Traction rope 5, which are used for pulling the bucket when filling (usually two).

The conveyor chain 10, which connect the pulling rope with a bucket.

Cargo ropes 4, which are used for lifting and moving bucket (usually two).

Lifting chain 11 (upper and lower), which connect the bucket to the cargo ropes.

The spacer 12, which separates the left and right lifting chain to allow placement of the bucket between them. It is situated at the junction of the upper and lower lifting chains.

The rope 13 to unload, which provides the ability to capture or unloading of the bucket by pulling to the Yahweh ropes or removal of traction with the traction rope.

Block 14 for unloading, which is a pulley around which can freely move the rope to upload.

Circuit 15 for unloading, which represent the intermediate circuit connecting the rope to unload the front end of the traction chain.

The coupling element 16, which is a three-way connecting member, which connects the cargo ropes, chains and block to unload.

Traction trilateral coupling element 17, which connects the traction ropes, a traction chain and chain to unload.

Egalitarian connecting elements 18, which provide load equalization between the different elements and provide linkages, for example between two cargo ropes and one coupling element.

Cable locks 19, which are used for forming the ends of the ropes and allow their compounds with other elements.

Set of 20 teeth and the cutting edge, which represents the front (cutting) edge of the bucket.

The scoop 21, which represents the main body of the bucket used to move the payload.

Arcuate element 22, which imparts structural integrity of the bucket and on which there is a point for attaching the rope to upload.

The coupling element 23 for discharging, which made the focus of a place on the curved element, attached the rope to upload.

Traction coupling elements 24, which are designated on the front of the bucket, which are attached to the conveyor chain.

Hoisting a swinging bearing journal 25, which are designated, in which the lower load chains attached to the bucket.

The upper beam 26, which constitute the structural reinforcing elements along the top edges of the bucket.

Rear beam 27, which represents a structural reinforcing element along the top edge of the rear part of the bucket.

Other useful definitions:

"The angle of displacement", which is an acute angle between the bottom of the ladle and horizontal.

"Rated load suspended on the load" (RSL), which is the maximum recommended load that can be suspended from the cargo ropes.

"The main boom tip", which is the far extreme point of the boom 3 from the support 1. This point corresponds to the location of the pulleys 7 tip arrows.

Radius main boom tip", which is a radius, measured horizontally outward from the center of rotation of the support 1 to a point located directly under the pulleys 7 tip arrows.

Traction and cargo ropes can be allocated back to the appropriate is the following they winches or released from their respective winches to ensure free movement of the bucket in space. Rotary support can provide the "wobble" topmost node of the dragline and, consequently, bucket and rigging on a horizontal arc.

Normal operation of the dragline begins in position when the bucket is freely suspended in space above the earth. Then the bucket is lowered to the ground and set at a desired position by releasing the rope with a cargo winch and/or the traction winch. Then bucket fill material by removal of traction ropes on the traction winch. At some point, the bucket can be raised or when separated from the ground by diversion of cargo ropes. This operation in the rope 13 to unload creates a tension that makes the front of the bucket to rise through the arcuate element 22. A certain amount of excavated material, known as the "payload", is held in the ladle after taking it out of contact with the ground. After that, the bucket can be moved to the place of his discharge by drainage and release of the cargo and the traction rope and/or rotation of the support 1. Payload is unloaded by releasing the traction rope until then, until there is no tension in the rope to upload and it will not provide the tilt bucket forward. This operation can only occur under or nearly under the pulley end of the boom.

In a typical large dragline with electric drive (for example, BE 1370 or Marion 8050) bucket capacity is approximately 47 cubic meters. The weight of the bucket, as a rule, is 40 tons. The weight of all rigging, as a rule, is 20 tons. Rated load suspended on the load for these machines is approximately 150 tons. Therefore, manufacturers recommend to work with a payload weight of approximately 90 tons.

There are some limitations, which are of conventional design, rigging impose on the operation of the dragline.

a) After filling the bucket, he cannot be removed from contact with the ground as long as the bucket will not be close enough to the support 1 to create tension in the rope to unload enough to raise arcuate element of the bucket. Figure 3 shows that, if the bucket is raised too early, the front part of the payload will be lost. This means that the bucket after filling his need to "get to the point where it can be raised and can hold a sufficient payload. This leads to an increase in cycle time, increased wear and reduce the efficiency of the lift.

b) discharging from the bucket of a dragline can be made only on the perimeter, limited by the radius of the tip of the boom. This is because the tension of the rope for unloading will be reduced sufficiently to ensure lowering the front of the bucket only when the tension t is debt ropes will be low, that is, when the traction ropes will be sufficiently released. This effect is illustrated in figure 4. There are dynamic ways of making unloading in areas inside and outside the perimeter bounded by the radius of the tip of the boom, however, the manufacturers do not recommend the use of these methods.

When moving the bucket angle of its movement is determined by two main factors: (i) the position of the bucket relative to the boom, and (ii) a length of rope to unload. Payload held in the ladle, to a very large extent depends on the angle of movement: too gentle slope of the front part of the payload will be lost, and at too steep inclination of the upper rear part will be lost. This effect is illustrated in figure 5.

Have been proposed various solutions to improve the management orientation of the bucket of a dragline in the vertical plane, that is, better regulation "angle move" through the use of differential control of two cargo ropes, one of which is connected in the operating position with the front part of the bucket, and the other is connected in the operating position with the rear part of the bucket. By adjusting the position of one of the hoist rope relative to another can be adjusted oriented position of the bucket in a vertical plane to move the La unloading, not based on the slack rope to unload with all the attendant problems mentioned above. Designs of this type have been proposed in the application 34502/89 patent Australia (to name Beatty) and in the descriptions of inventions by patents of Russia 972008 and 606945. As in the application the name Beatty, and in the description of the patent of Russia 972008 provided that the angle of movement of the bucket govern by the movements of the cargo ropes, while the cargo ropes pass through spaced side by side pulleys tip shafts having a common axis, such as those widely used in the construction of draglines. In the application the name Beatty 7 shows a design in which the rear cargo rope 63d can be shortened in relation to the front of the cargo rope s by using a pulley 58A, pressed in the lateral direction to the cargo rope 63d using cylinder 57a, to ensure displacement of the bucket from moving to the discharge position or shaking.

The lack of structures as the application name Beatty, and the patent of Russia 972008 is the fact that they saved a significant amount of conventional rigging elements, such as spacers and lifting the swinging supports, which due to their combined weight limit the maximum payload that can be moved without exceeding the specified manufacturers who rated load suspended on the load. In addition, when placing the pulleys tip arrows side by side in the usual way on the cargo ropes will act increased load, when there will be a rise of the bucket in the position closer to the arrow, due to the triangulation between cargo rope and bucket due to the fact that the attachment of the cargo rope on the bucket removed from each other by a certain distance. This limits the freedom of movement of the bucket relative to the boom, and also leads to significant changes of the angle of movement of the bucket with the winding or coiling of the cargo ropes.

In the patent of Russia 606945 described excavator, which has a bucket suspended from using cargo ropes attached respectively to the front and rear of the bucket and in which a mechanism is provided in the tip of the boom, driven to offset provided at the main boom tip sheave of the hoist rope attached to the back of the bucket outwards, which leads to shortening the length of the hoist rope attached to the back of the bucket in a vertical direction relative to the length of the hoist rope attached to the front of the bucket in a vertical direction to move the bucket from a centered position, an employee to use or move in oriented position, allowing you to unload. The disadvantage of this is th design is what area of the tip of the arrow has the additional complexity of the design and greatly increased weight, which leads to a significant reduction of the nominal capacity of the excavator on a suspended load. When the bucket is held in the normal provisions of the move or decreased, the pulleys are located close to each other and there is a problem of high loads due to triangulation, as in the constructions according to the application in the name of Beatty and the patent of Russia 972008 (see figure 1 of the patent of Russia 606945). Furthermore, the method proposed in the patent of Russia 606945, it is not suitable for use in large draglines with electric drive, because the weight of the mechanism in the cap of the arrow will cause unacceptable loads on the boom, and to an unsustainable increase in the inertia of rotation of the boom and the housing when the housing rotates on its base to unload or other similar operations. In addition, the mechanism proposed in the patent of Russia 606945, are completely unsuitable for a large dragline with electric drive, because there is no known construction of the hydraulic cylinder can not ensure the creation of the efforts that must be created by the hydraulic cylinder in the cap of the arrow.

At various times it was suggested to use the computer to control some of the operations of the dragline for a variety of purposes, such as the exact position is the planning bucket in the discharge position above the hopper for unloading in the bucket load on the conveyor. The management of this type was proposed applications 87303/77 (the application of "Mitsubishi") and 28179/84 (application name Winders, Barlow and Morrison, the application of "WBM") patent of Australia.

As in the description of the application "Mitsubishi"and in the description of the application "WBM" disclosed the use of a computer to precisely control the transition of the dragline from one mode to another. In these applications, special attention is paid to the precise rotation of the dragline of the oriented position used for the operation of the stock, the second oriented position, used for unloading, and exact adjustment of the point of discharge to ensure that a payload can be unloaded into the hopper, strategically placed on a conveyor belt to remove material from the zone. In this sense, as the decision on the application "Mitsubishi", and the decision on the application "WBM" allow to increase the accuracy of the operator by means of the "message" computer-controlled parameters when switching from one mode to another, but these solutions do not lead to improve the overall efficiency of the operation of the dragline owing enable accurate control of the angle of movement of the bucket, in particular when drawing, moving, and cleaning.

The present invention is the creation of rigging bucket of a dragline and a control device that allow you to eliminate or reduce to the mini is the mind of some or all of the above drawbacks of the simple and however, effective manner or which will at least have the opportunity for a useful choice.

The problem is solved due to the fact that a large dragline electric type normally used for operations on the open development techniques and with rated load suspended on the load of more than 100 tons, contains made with the possibility of rotation, a support mounted on the base, a shaft Assembly, the protruding outward from the support and configured to rotate together with it, the bucket hanging from the far end of the boom by means of adjustable cargo ropes and managed at least one adjustable traction rope extending from the support to the bucket, rigging, equipped with the first and second pulleys tip arrows, located at the far end or near the far end of the boom Assembly and at a fixed distance from each other, one after the other, so that the first pulley is located closer to the support than the second pulley, the first and second cargo ropes passing through the first and second pulleys tip arrows, one each, with the first cargo rope passes through the first pulley, and he goes down and is connected in the operating position only with the front part of the bucket, and the second cargo rope passes through the second pulley, and he goes down and is dine in the working position with the back of a ladle, and, a control system that uses a computer to control the relative displacement of the first and second cargo ropes through lifting device located with the possibility of changing the angle of inclination of the bucket in a vertical plane by differential movement of one of the hoist rope relative to the other to hold the bucket at a selected angle of inclination to the mode of operation of the dragline, the selected operator.

Preferably the first and second pulleys are separated from each other at a fixed distance about the same as the distance between seats, in which the first and second cargo ropes in position attached to the bucket.

Even more preferably each of the first and second pulleys has an average plane extending from the midpoint of the pulley is perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the pulley and in which the middle plane of the first and second pulleys are arranged essentially in a common vertical plane.

In addition, one cargo rope can be wound on the first drum, and the other rope can be wound on the second drum, the first and second drums are located on the base and arranged to rotate independently from each other to provide differential movement.

Additionally, the first cargo rope can be attached to the bar is dstone to the front of the bucket, and the second cargo rope can be attached directly to the rear of the bucket without the use of intermediate rigging, such as spacers or swinging support.

Preferably in one or more of the preset modes, the computer controls the specified working angle continuously during the entire time spent in this mode.

In addition, one or more operating modes can be selected from the group comprising modes decreased, moving and cleaning bucket.

Preferably the computer is used to limit the speed of dynamic transition, indicated by a rope to the bucket.

Even more preferred modes of operation of the dragline selected by the operator, include any one or more of the modes of tapping out, bailing out of contact with the ground, moving, unloading and cleaning.

Notwithstanding any other embodiments of the invention, which may be within its scope, the following describes one preferred embodiment of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 illustrates a conventional dragline.

Figure 2 illustrates the common elements of the site, consisting of a bucket and rigging.

Figure 3 illustrates the problem with conventional dragline.

Figure 4 illustrates a conventional dragline at the time of unloading at the place corresponding to the HQ of the radius of the tip of the boom.

Figa-C illustrate a bucket under the optimal angle of displacement, angle of movement, providing gentle tilting of the bucket, and the angle of displacement, providing a steep tilting of the bucket.

Figa-To illustrate the basic configuration of the rigging and the rigging configuration according to a variant embodiment of the invention.

Figa-illustrate conventional pulleys of the main boom tip and sheave tip arrows according to a variant embodiment of the invention.

Fig and 8A illustrate variants of the Central control system according to a variant embodiment of the invention.

Figv illustrates the sequence of operations management, carried out by the Central control system and the operator.

Fig.9 illustrates the various modes of operation.

Figure 10 and 11 illustrate respectively the bucket, paged front and rear according to a variant embodiment of the invention.

Fig and 13 illustrate a bucket having a rear cargo rope attached to the back of the bucket.

Fig illustrates the line of action of the resultant lifting force to one variant embodiment of the invention and the line of action of the resultant lift force during normal standing side by side pulleys of the main boom tip.

Fig illustrates the increase in range due to one variant embodiment of the invention.

The image is the group includes a system control the angle of movement of the bucket by the immediate suspension of the bucket 30 (pigv) to two cargo ropes 31 and 32. The first cargo rope 31 is attached to the front of the bucket. For conventional ladle point 33 of the connection may be arcuate element 22 at the point or near the point of coupling of the usual rope for unloading (shown in figa). Possible other ways of attaching to the front of the bucket, including the use of intermediate cables, ropes or chains, which are directly attached to the front of the scoop. The second cargo rope 32 is attached directly to the rear beam 27 of the bucket. You can also use the intermediate chains and ropes for direct connection to any rear point on the bucket without the use of heavy rigging, such as load chains 11, the spacer 12 or hoisting a swinging support 25 (figa).

The angle of movement of the bucket change by differential shortening or lengthening of one of the hoist rope to another. After the joining of the cargo ropes directly to the bucket can be excluded from the design of many elements of conventional rigging. The weight of these elements may be replaced by increasing the payload bucket without exceeding the rated capacity of the dragline on a suspended load. This represents an improvement compared to the system described in the descriptions of patent applications in Australia with numbers 34502/89, 38089/78 or 2879/84, in which a rear cargo rope attached to a conventional lifting swinging the supports that, therefore, requires regular lifting chains, spacers, lifting the swinging poles and associated reflective shields.

Another feature of the invention is to change the normal position of the pulleys of the tip of the boom in such a way as to minimize twisting of the bucket and an excessive load acting on the ropes when the bucket is located in the immediate vicinity of the boom and/or from the pulley end of the boom. On figa shows the normal arrangement of pulleys tip arrows, which pulleys are located side by side, while on FIGU shows how the position of the two pulleys is amended according to the invention that between them was fixed distance, while to achieve this goal one pulley is located behind another instead of placing them side by side. It is preferable to arrange two pulley at a distance from each other, which is a distance of the same order as the distance between seats, in which the first and second cargo ropes in position attached to the bucket, and most preferably a distance approximately equal to the distance between seats, in which the first and second cargo ropes in the working position when uedineny to the bucket. The first pulley 34 is located closer to the support 35, the second pulley 36, which is located in the most extreme point or at the far end of the boom 37. The first cargo rope 31 passes through the first pulley 34, and he goes down and is connected in the operating position with the front part of the bucket, as described above with reference to figv. The second cargo rope 32 passes through the second pulley 36, and he goes down and is connected in the operating position with the rear part of the bucket 30.

Preferably, though not necessarily to each of the first and second pulleys had a medium plane passing from the midpoint of the pulley is perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the pulley, and to the average plane of the first and second pulleys are located essentially in a common vertical plane. The placement of the pulleys in the same vertical plane leads to the automatic setting of the middle line of the bucket 30 in the same plane with the middle line of the arrows 37, while the fact that the two pulleys 34 and 36 of the tip arrows are located at a given distance from each other, keeps the bucket from twisting or rotation around the vertical axis during execution of operations.

An additional advantage of the placement of the pulleys of the main boom tip at a given distance from each other, as shown in figv, is that "triangulation" between the two cargo Cana is AMI 31 and 32 and the bucket, which occurs due to the placement of the pulleys tip arrows side by side and clearly shown in figa (see reference number 38), eliminated or reduced. Triangulation causes significantly increased loads acting on the front of the cargo rope, when the bucket approaches the boom, as shown in figa that leads either to overload the cargo ropes and reduce the service life of ropes, or to reduce payload, which can be moved inside of the bucket.

Another advantage of placing the pulleys tip arrows on the same line, one after the other, is the increase in the effective radius of the dragline for chopping or unloading. The load on the boom is not changed with respect to the normal location of the pulleys side by side by maintaining the same line of action of the resultant of the total lifting load. On FIGU shown that the line 39 steps the resulting lifting of the load in the configuration according to the invention crosses the arrow in the same place as in a typical configuration with the location of the pulleys side by side, which is shown in figa, while moving the full payload. However, when the bucket is installed in position designed for tapping out, as Fig, the effective range of the machine is increased by the distance of 40, which is approximately 5 metres for rely length of 100 meters. This increase in the radius of action is without prejudice to the dragline, because at this point, the bucket is empty and, therefore, is a condition in which the load is low. Increase range significantly improves the efficiency of the dragline, which is clear to any person skilled in the art. Range is additionally increased by reducing the tension of the traction rope, which usually provides a drawing of an empty bucket back towards the centre of the machine. This decrease is due to the elimination of intermediate compound 14 pulling the rope with the usual rope to upload.

Another advantage of changing the position of the pulleys tip arrows so that they are one after the other, is to reduce the amount of regulation necessary to regulate the lengths of the two cargo ropes to maintain a constant angle of displacement during movement of the bucket forward or backward under the vertical plane of the boom due to the configuration having the shape of half of a parallelogram and is depicted on FIGU, in contrast to the triangular configuration figa.

These advantages are achieved without any substantial increase in weight of the main boom tip, because the elements used in conventional draglines, just installed in other p the situation (one pulley is shifted out, and the other back). Therefore, no significant reduction of the nominal load suspended on the load or increase the inertia of rotation of the node, consisting of a body and arrows, which would affect the maximum load and the duration of the cycle during rotation around the vertical axis.

Due to the dynamic nature of the modes of operation of the dragline in the construction according to the invention may occur excessive sagging of one or both of the cargo ropes. This slack must be addressed quickly to ensure that the ropes will be properly wound on the drum of the hoisting winch.

Sagging may occur due to the exclusion of the various elements of conventional rigging, which previously served as the elements creating an own weight of the structure, and thereby ensured the maintenance of the General tension in the cargo ropes. It may also occur due to uncontrolled changes of the angle of movement of the bucket during use or during the transition between modes of operation.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a method of regulating and fix this sagging. It can be implemented using either a passive or active system. In a passive system can be used independent of the tension mechanism to eliminate sagging ropes designed for the holding enough tension in one or more cargo ropes to ensure proper winding of the ropes. In an active system can be used by the sensors to determine the magnitude of the SAG of the rope in one or both of the ropes and may be capable of issuing commands to the Central control system for the actuation of the main control mechanism of the cargo ropes to change the length of any of the two cargo ropes accordingly to maintain sufficient tension for proper winding.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention may be capable of unloading from the rear of the bucket. Because the invention provides the ability to change the angle of movement of the bucket to any angle due to the differential control of the cargo ropes 31 and 32, it is possible to design a bucket that has a low back or no back wall, which provides the ability to move the payload in a direction opposite to the direction of movement of the payload of the usual bucket during unloading. The advantages of this configuration include the reduction of total mass of the bucket, which can be replaced by an additional increase in useful load, and increase range when unloading. Figure 10 illustrates the bucket described above, for comparison with 11 showing the device of the bucket 42, which is moznosti unloading from the rear.

In the ladle 42 of the rear wall 43 of the conventional bucket 30 is replaced with an open rear end 44 with the second cargo rope 32 suspended from the cross beam 45, or similar element, passing across the open top of the rear part of the bucket. When using a configuration that enables the unloading of the rear to unload the payload of the second, or rear, cargo rope 32 extend relative to the first, or front, of the hoist rope 31 to tilt the bucket is oriented in the position shown at 11, in contrast to the operation, which causes the tilting of the bucket in the opposite direction and provided to a conventional bucket, shown in figure 10.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention may provide for the possibility of optimization of the angle of travel for shaking or unloading by shifting the position of the attachment points in the rear cargo rope in different places at the rear of the bucket. For a bucket of conventional design, the lower the location of the attachment point of the rope will cause the bucket to hang at a large angle when its under the main boom tip and Vice versa. This ability can lead to additional improve the operational flexibility of the design according to the invention by ensuring that they can be easily reached corresponding angles move to vigro the key and shaking.

On Fig shows the normal bucket 30 with point 46 attach the rear of the hoist rope on the upper rear beams 27 of the bucket. On Fig shown that by shifting the rear attachment point at position 48 in the direction of the bottom 47 of the bucket angle unloading or shaking a can be significantly increased by changing the static equilibrium of the bucket. It also allows you to increase the range of the bucket unloading or vytryahivanie.

In the works that characterize the prior art describes a number of mechanisms for the differential lengthening and shortening of one of the hoist rope relative to another. These mechanisms include a separate winch, intermediate guide pulleys, split drum lifting and clutch.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention the differential control of cargo ropes is provided with a separate or split drums, with one designated hoisting cable wound on the first drum, located in the base or housing, and the other lifting the drum is wound on the second drum, also located in the grounds or in the building. The first and second drums can rotate independently of each other to provide a differential control.

Preferably, if the first and second drums are next to each other n the common axis so that so that their inner ends are located next to each other, with each of the reels is driven by electric motor, located respectively on the outer end of the drum. Alternatively, you can use a single drive motor with the mechanisms of regulation of speed or couplings for independent control of the rotation of the two drums.

In accordance with the following aspect of the invention is directed to a system that enables the precise control mechanisms independent regulation of ropes.

The invention may include a Central control system or a computer that provides the ability to change the angle of movement of the bucket so that this angle is consistent with all aspects of the operations performed by the dragline. The Central control system is also designed to minimize risk to the operator of the dragline. In the Central control system uses empirical and analytical methods to determine and continuously maintain an optimum angle of movement. The main tasks of the Central management system are the following:

a) collecting and storing information about the state of the bucket and rigging using sensors direct or indirect action and algorithms for computing trigonometric functions;

(b) the provisions of interaction with the operator;

c) determining solutions for issuing work control signals within the defined static and dynamic constraints;

d) actuation and control system for the regulation of freight ropes with security.

On Fig shows a diagram of the main elements of the Central control system. They include the Central logic module for determining the angle of movement of the bucket, the module for determining the position of the bucket and the man-machine interface.

Module positioning of the ladle can use the information from the position sensors to determine the current values of the length of the traction and cargo ropes and solve the problem of determining the position of the bucket relative to the structure of dragline geometric methods. He may also use the information directly from electronic devices to measure distances, such as lasers, to determine the position of the bucket.

In the module for determining the angle of movement can be used in sensors of direct action, such as electronic inclinometers installed on the bucket to determine the current value of the angle of movement of the bucket. It can also be used telemetry sensors, such as laser scanning devices or radar, to determine the angle. He may also use the information from which the provisions of the bucket in combination with empirical or analytical methods to calculate the angle of displacement. The empirical method involves the use of data obtained by previous measurements, for comparison with the current position of the bucket and determine what will be the current angle of movement. This is usually called "lookup table". The analytical method involves the measurement of the angle of displacement depending on the current position of the bucket by using well understood methods perform trigonometric calculations and kinematic calculations.

In one embodiment, the Central control system can be performed to determine the angle of movement of the bucket without the use of a sensor of the angle of movement of direct action (see figa). This is possible by determining the position of the bucket when using or sensors direct action to measure linear displacements, or telemetry sensors and calculating the angle of movement of the bucket using trigonometry or kinematic calculations. The Central logic unit can perform this by using directly the analytical or empirical computational methods. The current mode of operation (e.g., shaking) and the position of the bucket will determine what action should be performed, the Central control unit for achieving a given angle of movement of the bucket through the mechanism to regulate the deposits of ropes. In addition, in one embodiment of the invention controls the angle of displacement from the Central control system can be minimized by using pre-defined differences in the change of the lengths of the cargo ropes for the individual modes of operation during the entire time spent in these modes.

The Central control system also determines the speed of dynamic transition, which can be provided by the mechanism of regulation of the ropes. These transitions can occur due to a change in the operation mode (for example, movement to discharge) or due to the necessity of maintaining a constant angle of movement by changing the position of the bucket when it is in the same mode (for example, during the ascent). By regulating the speed at which these transitions occur, it is possible to minimize the magnitude of the dynamic loads acting on the dragline, which in turn decreases the number of cases of mechanical failure.

In the Central logic unit receives data from the module for determining the angle of displacement and the team requested through the human-machine interface, and in the end this unit actuates a mechanism of regulating ropes semi-automatically. Requests from the man-machine interface have a look, firstly, the normal signals, Postup is affected by the operator, and, secondly, commands operation mode is selected. Figure 9 illustrates some of the possible modes of operation, as is obvious to any expert in this field of technology. They include:

a) deriving anywhere under the boom;

b) the conclusion of the bucket from the ground contact position when the bucket is ready to lift and/or rotate;

c) moving;

d) unloading;

(e) tapping out;

f) cleaning (top layer of coal, if necessary).

The Central logic unit receives a request for a specific operation mode, and changes the angle of movement of the bucket properly through the regulatory system of ropes. Positive feedback from modules determine the position of the bucket and angle of movement allows the Central logic unit to perform the continuous regulation of the system to maintain an appropriate angle for the mode of operation and operating conditions.

In addition, the Central logic unit controls the speed with which it performs the various changes of mode. For example, the rate of discharge should be carefully adjusted to minimize changes in the loads acting on the structure of the dragline.

In addition, the Central logic unit determines whether the specific mode or action within the constraints on the parameters of the dragline, stipulated by the different operational requirements and safety requirements. For example, this is necessary if the operator gives a command that contradicts or physical disability, or the logic operation of the dragline.

The Central control unit also registers the data on the previous movements of the bucket in advance and predicts the most likely immediate action, using empirical and analytical methods.

The man-machine interface allows the operator to easily control the system. The selection of the mode can be carried out using direct switching controls of the operator using the remote control, coordinate movements, keyboard input, touch screen, voice commands, or any other convenient method. The man-machine interface also allows you to change the procedures of the software in the Central logic unit. This can be done in order to perform a manual correction for fine adjustment of operational parameters for a particular operation, for example to adjust the angle of the bucket during the cleaning of the top layer of coal. The man-machine interface also allows you to stop the system in case of an accident.

The functions of the Central control system can be represented by the following operations (see figv).

1. The positioning data received from the linear sensors for traction and grupowy the ropes.

2. The position of the bucket is determined by using analytical and empirical methods.

3. The angle of movement of the bucket is determined by using analytical and empirical methods.

4. Data related to the state of mode selection, proceed through the man-machine interface.

5. Data related to the current state of the adjustments come from the man-machine interface.

6. Receiving data relating to the current position of the main switch operator.

7. Receiving data relating to the current state of sagging cargo ropes.

8. Receiving data relating to the current state of the tension of the ropes.

9. Receiving data related to dynamic constraints.

10. Receiving data relating to static constraints.

11. Determined action by using the input data 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 using pre-defined priority levels.

12. Typically, the mechanism of regulation of the ropes will be issued a command for changing lengths of the ropes in accordance with the action specified in item 11.

13. The action selected in item 11, can be an emergency stop.

Tasks of the Central control system can be implemented in the process using the standard logical sequence and hierarchy of commands is shown below for the system, in which separate motors are used to control the movement of individual drums for the front and rear cargo ropes, as described above.

Input data and signals in the control scheme:

1. Select "Calibration" mode or "Work" (digital signal).

2. The calculated X-Y coordinates of the position of the bucket (by measuring the length of the rope).

3. The calculated angle of movement of the bucket (through analytical and empirical calculations).

4. Current status (analog or digital signal) values sagging both cargo ropes.

5. The position of the main switch of the operator panel (set point speed analog signal).

6. The selected operator mode of operation, for example, drawing, moving, unloading, etc. (digital signal).

7. Choice/the current state of the correction performed by the operator (analog signal).

8. The condition of the engine hoist - "overall status", status, restrictions, etc. - (digital signal).

Performing a logical sequence of operations in the control circuit (in priority order):

1. If the system is in the Calibration mode, suspend all operations and move on to fine tuning the settings. If the system is in "run"mode, go to (2).

2. To check the security status of:

(a)when approaching the boundary of the level of tension ropes to reduce the level of the reference signal for engines, want to move traction/cargo ropes - go to (3C);

(b) if there is a boundary value of the tension of the ropes, to include brakes and block the normal manual control - go to procedure emergency shutdown and restore the necessary level of tension;

(c) when approaching the boundaries of the zone positioning of the bucket to reduce the reference signal for the corresponding engine - go to 3d);

(d) if there is a going beyond the boundaries of the zone positioning of the bucket, turn on the brake and block the normal manual control - go to procedure emergency shutdown and restore the position of the bucket in the specified range;

(e) if the amount of the slack of the rope exceeds a predetermined threshold value, to start the recovery procedure tension ropes (in accordance with (5));

(f) if the condition of the engine lifting normal, go to (3). If not, to determine the fault code and if you want to go to the crash.

(3) to Calculate a given angle of movement of the bucket depending on:

(a) the current position of the bucket;

(b) the current mode selected by the operator;

(C) the current status of correction set by the operator.

(4) to Calculate the corresponding adjustable increment of length of the hoist rope on the basis of the results from (3) and taking into account the current dynamics the definition and static constraints.

(5) to validate that the new angle of movement and adjustable increment rope length will not cause any violations that threaten the safe operation, (see (2)), and if necessary to adjust.

(6) If a given angle of movement is less than the current calculated value of the angle, to issue a command to the actuators of the cargo ropes on lengthening the front of the rope towards the rear on the corresponding increment - go to (8).

(7) If a given angle of movement is greater than the current calculated value of the angle, to issue a command to the actuators ropes on shortening the front of the rope towards the rear on the corresponding increment - go to (8).

(8) go to (1).

Thus, the Central control system not only provides the ability to manage the transition of the dragline from one mode to the next, as was previously suggested in documents describing the prior art, such as the description of the application 38089/78 patent Australia, issued by Mitsubishi, and the description of the application 28179/84 patent Australia, issued in the name of Winders, Barlow and Morrison, but also provides the ability to maintain the bucket at a selected angle of inclination to work during the mode of operation of the dragline, the selected operator. Therefore, the control system can continuously provide the optimum angle decreased iligal move during all phases of the operation, use or move or Orient the bucket at the optimal angle shaking or angle unloading during selected stages of the work. This allows to significantly increase the efficiency of operation due to reduced cycle times and increased payload for each cycle.

The invention provides many advantages not realized until the present time, including the following:

The suspension system eliminates the need for the following items rigging: the equalizer lifting, coupling element, the upper lifting chains, the lower lifting chains, spacer, lifting the swinging poles, reflective panels for lifting the swinging poles, rope for unloading unit for unloading and chains to unload.

The weight of the items excluded from the rigging system can be directly replaced by the payload bucket without exceeding the rated capacity of the dragline suspended on the load, resulting in increased performance. An additional result is that maintenance costs and downtime are significantly reduced.

The suspension system allows to increase the maximum height to which it can be raised the bucket of a dragline, as the place of the direct connection of the rear of the hoist rope to the bucket can be "allocated" almost to the pulley end of the boom, and not to the upper part of the normal rigging bucket.

The suspension system allows ponimat the bucket immediately after filling, and not to pull it to the place that is located close enough to the support of the dragline, where the tension of the rope to unload enough to lift the front of the bucket. An additional result is that the early "capture" bucket improves the geometry of the lift, i.e. the cargo ropes have a more vertical position.

By changing the position of the pulley end of the boom so that one of them is in front of the other instead of placing them side by side, the load acting on the cargo ropes, are significantly reduced when the bucket approaches the boom and/or the pulleys of the main boom tip, and the range of the dragline when vytryahivanie or unloading is greatly increased without increasing the maximum loads acting on the structure.

In addition, the placement of the pulleys of the main boom tip at a fixed distance from each other, which is a distance of the same order as the distance between the places where the cargo rope attached to the bucket, to reduce the amount of differential regulation of the cargo ropes needed to maintain an optimum angle of movement, especially when the modes decreased, moving and cleaning.

The best angle of displacement during shaking or unloading can be obtained by changing the position of the designated process the organisations rear of the hoist rope on the bucket and implementation of this accession in various places on the bucket.

Can be used in the control system, which provides the possibility of continuous change in the angle of movement of the bucket so that this angle is consistent with all aspects of operating modes and parameters of the dragline. The control system allows the operator to choose any mode of operation, including drawing, the output bucket of contact with the ground, moving, unloading, tapping out and clean the top layer of coal. The control system automatically optimizes the angle of movement of the bucket for any of the modes of operation by actuation of the system changes the length of the cargo ropes. In the dynamic load acting on the dragline, significantly reduced since the implementation of dynamic operations (such as loading of the bucket) manages the computer, not the operator. The control system provides the possibility of optimizing payload transported in the bucket, by changing the angle of movement of the bucket depending on various parameters such as material properties, which draws the bucket. The control system reduces the risk of operation of the dragline in this mode, which can cause damage to the machine or personal injury. The system provides the implementation of the respective action through the application of empirical and analytical methods using input data from the Dutch is ing direct and indirect actions, and from the telemetry sensors for determining the position and angle of movement of the bucket. The control system provides the ability to perform manual correction functions and allows you to perform an emergency stop. The control system allows the operator to issue commands to the system in a simple way that requires a minimum of retraining.

Regulation sagging ropes ensures proper winding of the rope on the winch drum.

Automatic adjustment of the angle of movement of the bucket during the cleaning operation of the top layer of coal can significantly reduce the loss of coal.

The suspension system provides the possibility to upload the payload from the bucket of a dragline in place, located at a distance of up to two thirds of the total radius of the tip of the boom, inside relative to the main boom tip.

1. A large dragline electric type normally used for operations on the open methods of development, and with rated load suspended on the load of more than 100 tons, containing made with the possibility of rotation, a support mounted on the base, a shaft Assembly, the protruding outward from the support and configured to rotate together with it, the bucket hanging from the far end of the boom by means of adjustable cargo ropes and managed by means of the PTO at least one adjustable traction rope, extending from the support to the bucket, rigging, equipped with the first and second pulleys tip arrows, located at the far end or near the far end of the boom Assembly and at a fixed distance from each other, one after the other, so that the first pulley is located closer to the support than the second pulley, the first and second cargo ropes passing through the first and second pulleys tip arrows, one each, with the first cargo rope passes through the first pulley, and he goes down and is connected in the operating position only with the front part of the bucket, and the second cargo the rope passes through the second pulley, and he goes down and is connected in the operating position with the back of a ladle, and a control system that uses a computer to control the relative displacement of the first and second cargo ropes through lifting device located with the possibility of changing the angle of inclination of the bucket in a vertical plane by differential movement of one of the hoist rope relative to the other to hold the bucket at a selected angle of inclination to the mode of operation of the dragline, the selected operator.

2. A large dragline with electric drive according to claim 1, characterized in that the first and second pulleys are separated from each other at a fixed distance about the same as the distance between places, the cat is where the first and second cargo ropes in position attached to the bucket.

3. A large dragline with electric drive according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that each of the first and second pulleys has an average plane extending from the midpoint of the pulley perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the pulley, and in which the middle plane of the first and second pulleys are arranged essentially in a common vertical plane.

4. A large dragline with the actuator according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that one of the cargo rope wound on the first drum, and the other rope is wound on the second drum, the first and second drums are located on the base and arranged to rotate independently from each other to provide differential movement.

5. A large dragline with the actuator according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the first cargo rope attached directly to the front of the bucket, and the second cargo rope attached directly to the rear of the bucket without the use of intermediate rigging, such as spacers or swinging support.

6. A large dragline with the actuator according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that one or more of the preset modes, the computer controls the specified working angle continuously during the entire time spent in this mode.

7. A large dragline with electric drive according to claim 6, characterized in that one or more of the modes is the works selected from the group includes modes decreased, moving and cleaning bucket.

8. A large dragline with the actuator according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the computer is used to limit the speed of dynamic transition, indicated by a rope to the bucket.

9. A large dragline with the actuator according to any one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the modes of operation of the dragline selected by the operator, include any one or more of the modes of tapping out, bailing out of contact with the ground, moving, unloading and cleaning.



 

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