Multifunctional foam composition for integrated special treatment of surfaces, rooms, and objects against dangerous agents and substances

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means and methods of integrated degassing, disinfection, and shielding of sites and zones, where presence of high-activity poisonous substances, poison-gases, chemical weapons, pathogenic microorganisms, their vital activity toxic products, insects (including carriers of human and animal diseases), radioactive substances are revealed or suspected, and also to means and methods to extinguish burning of inflammable liquids and to prevent in inflammation of spills of inflammable liquids. Multifunctional foam composition of invention includes, as active substance, 0.1-5% of didecyldimethylammonium halide clatrate with urea. Use of indicated clatrate provides simultaneous effect of foam compositions, wherein clatrate acts both as multifunctional active substance and as foaming agent. Invention can further be used to eliminate consequences of use of weapons of mass destruction and to eliminate consequences of man-made accidents and emergency situations.

EFFECT: expanded protection possibilities.

24 cl, 3 tbl, 6 ex

 

The technical field

The invention relates to means and methods of complex decontamination, disinfection, disinfection, decontamination and shielding areas and volumes, where identified or implied by the presence of highly toxic substances (VP), toxic substances (S), chemical weapons (CW), pathogenic microorganisms (MO), toxic products (TA) of their activity, insects, including vectors of pathogens of humans and animals, radioactive substances (PB), and for extinguishing fires of flammable liquids or prevent fire spills of flammable liquids (flammable liquids).

The invention can be used in the liquidation of the consequences of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the elimination of industrial accidents and emergency situations (ES), extinguishing and preventing fires, by processing, areas, or volumes of contaminated toxic chemical, biological, radioactive substances, or in the event of a spill of flammable liquids, to:

- the destruction of toxic chemicals (degassing);

- disinfection;

- disinfection;

- decontamination;

- shielding of the source of potential danger from the atmosphere and exclusion of its distribution in the environment;

- shielding flammable liquids from contact is with air;

- extraction, including toxic dust.

The invention provides any of the specified purposes, or any combination thereof. In this regard, the term "decontamination, disinfection, disinsection, decontamination and shielding" refers to comprehensive any task or any combination of the tasks specified above, and are covered by the term "treating" or "special processing", accepted in this field.

The invention can be used as in the case of establishing the fact of contamination or spill, i.e. in the aftermath of, and in case of suspicion of such contamination or spill, as applied by the tool, and the decay products are not toxic.

The level of technology

There are many known substances used for decontamination, disinfection, disinfection, decontamination and shielding. However, these substances are used, typically, to resolve predominantly single task. Known to some substances that solve complex of two tasks, such as conducting decontamination and disinfection, disinfection and disinfestation, or decontamination and suppression. For example, chloramines, or peroxide, alkali and the like, are used as a comprehensive tool for decontamination and disinfection. When disinfection and disinsection is used gaseous chlorine or formaldehyde. For casticin the first degassing and decontamination, e.g. removal of toxic and radioactive substances from the surface is known, the use of surfactants. Solutions of surface-active substances are used in the fire area of fire and to prevent the risk of fire spills of flammable liquids.

To date, however, was not known substances, from which you could create a song to solve any of the problems associated with potential chemical, biological, radiation and fire hazard or to escape danger, or to address a few of them in any arbitrary set.

This is because in this area traditionally and predominantly applied liquids or solutions containing the active substance or complex of substances that interact and neutralize dangerous agent. Then this liquid products of neutralization was removed from treated surfaces with varying degrees of completeness. In the case of fire or prevent ignition of the liquid remained on the surface until the creation of conditions preventing burning or fire.

Thus, the complex contradictory requirements precluded the possibility of establishing a universal and drugs suitable for complex applications as a means of treating in case of disasters,industrial accidents or use of weapons of mass destruction.

In addition, in emergencies or danger of its occurrence is the uncertainty in the source of danger. That is, if you suspect a disaster occurs some period of time, even when it is not identified the source of danger, its type and extent, and there is no forecast nearest danger and remote consequences of emergencies. This does not prevent the error of the decision on liquidation of the proposed hearth, valid when there is no danger to people or the environment. In this regard, there is an additional requirement to minimize damage in the event of liquidation of the proposed hearth, when its actual absence.

The authors of the present invention proposed use as an active agent, providing comprehensive actions, in particular for the decontamination, disinfection, disinfection, decontamination and shielding, Quaternary ammonium compounds, such as the clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea, while the composition on the basis of this active substance is applied in the form of foam.

The clathrate didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea (CDGK) is best known in the form of chlorides, bromides, iodides and fluorides. They are crystalline powder, odorless. These clathrates possess surface-active properties.

Nai is more typical representative of this group of compounds, which is produced in industrial scale, is the clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea.

CDGK are recognized bactericides (see, for example, RU 2214837, 2003; EN 2095086, 1997).

However, the presence of these compounds good surface-active properties allowed to consider these compounds as potential active agents to create the foam compositions of complex action.

In prior art air-mechanical foam used in fire-fighting, localization of a spill. These foams are formed by surface-active substances (surfactants), which are foamable composition. However, to achieve the functional purpose foam compositions in addition to surfactants include active substances that solve the particular problem. For example, in foam for containment of oil spills enter the adsorbent (adsorbent), when extinguishing fires "active component" of the foam composition is water, which reduces the temperature and isolation of the flame due to evaporation.

The aim of the present invention was the creation of multifunctional composition and the means of its application for the decontamination, disinfection, disinfection, decontamination and shielding surfaces and areas where there is or is suspected presence of hazardous agent (AG is now) or substance (s).

Disclosure of inventions

The authors of the present invention proposed application of clathrate didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea (CDGK) in compositions as the active substance. Use CDGK provides comprehensive action foam compositions, namely, decontamination, disinfection, disinsection, decontamination and shielding, while CDGK is current (active) substance with multifunctional properties and foaming agent.

Liquid polyfunctional composition based CDGK contains up to 5% by weight CDGK. Mostly, but not necessarily, CDGK is a clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea.

The composition can optionally contain additional auxiliary components. These components include thickeners, colorants, oxidizing agents, additional surfactants (surfactant), compatible with HOUR, cosolvent CDGK, as well as substances that regulate the physical and chemical characteristics of the foam in an amount up to 6% by weight of the initial solution composition.

The use of antifreeze, such as higher alcohols, glycerol, ethylene glycol and the like, provides for the application of the composition at low temperatures. In addition, these substances can perform the functions of extractants for compounds contaminants, bad R is storymy in the water.

Polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethylcellulose, methyl - or ethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl acetate, liquid glass, etc. can be used as thickeners for increasing the viscosity of the solution and, hence, the half-life of the foam. In addition, thickeners increase the adhesion properties of the foam, contributing to improved associate it with the treated surface and more long-term presence of foam on it in adverse conditions.

Dyes can be added to improve the visualization of the foam. The dyes can be fluorescent, such as rhodamine, fluorescein, etc. to ensure visualization of the foam in the dark.

Oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide or compounds which, when dissolved in water produce active oxygen or halogen, for example chlorine, substantially without affecting the physical characteristics of the foam, increase its decontaminating, disinfecting or pest activity.

Additional surfactants that are compatible with H, may be introduced into the composition to increase the firmness of the foam, the regulation of the size of the bubbles, the thickness of the liquid film between the bubbles. The additional concentration of surfactant in the composition can reach values up to 6% by weight depending on the values of the critical micellization concentration (CMC) for this is th surfactants. When this upper limit of the surfactant concentration, as a rule, may not exceed its value PFC. To a compatible surfactant include nonionic surfactants, cationic surfactants or laboration surfactant.

The composition is applied in the form of a foam ratio of from 30 to 1000. The foam ratio is the ratio of volume of foam to the volume of the original solution. The value of the ratio of foam, varying in the interval from 40 to 200, is optimal, but not required. The ratio of air-mechanical foam is, as a rule, mode, dispersion and/or concentration dispersible composition. Is the multiplicity of the foam can be adjusted depending on the task and the requirements to receive pins.

High foam, with a ratio of more than 100, sometimes referred to as "dry" foam, because they contain a small amount of liquid per unit volume of the foam. In such foams, the liquid film has a small thickness, making it difficult to pull particles into the foam, and the half-life is significantly reduced.

Foam low expansion (less than 30) contains a greater amount of fluid per unit volume, and the thickness of the liquid film, limiting the bubbles, the higher. In the process of syneresis of such foams is more intense deposition of foreign particles, initially absorbed by the foam, back to the surface.

The medium expansion foam are the best indicators is the parameters of stability (half-life of foam), the ability to tear off foreign particles from the surface on which the foam is applied and to hold them in the liquid film between the bubbles of gas at the syneresis foam.

A foam composition is dispersed system consisting of cells, in which the dispersion medium is water and the dispersed phase is a gas. If the foam is formed by air-mechanical way, gas is air. In this case, the foam can be obtained using a variety of known foam, such as foam bubbling type, centrifugal type, air-foam barrels, generators, mesh type and the like, the Foam may contain as the dispersed phase gas other than air, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other gases used as eject gases in the foam balloon type, where the solution is ejected under the action of gas and, optionally, additional mixing with the air, forms a foam.

The mechanism of action of the foam composition CDGK when applied to the surface briefly described as follows.

At the first stage of the initial stable system, when the wetting of the surface on which the foam is applied and the surface is isolated from the surrounding atmosphere. In this time of transition pollutants in the foam layer and restorani is. If the particles are not soluble in the liquid composition, there is separation of the particles from the surface and dragging them to the foam layer. If the pollutant (contaminant) is present in the form of a film, then it disappears and the contaminant in the form of a colloid or suspension is drawn into the foam layer.

Next, at the expense of syneresis foam starts to break down, the height of the layer, which separates and isolates the surface from the atmosphere decreases. The thickness of the walls between the bubbles is increased, the particles begin to violently move in the liquid film under the action of alternating forces, and the mass, including the mass transfer at the molecular level increases.

Over time, the foam layer is completely destroyed and on the treated surface remains the only non vaporizing part of the composition in the form of a film. The particles that were drawn into the foam layer, and their degradation products, if they do not dissolve in the liquid phase of the composition, are covered with a thin layer CDGK, additional components of the foam composition, if they are present in the composition.

Because composition based CDGK has good wetting properties, when applied foam is wetting the surface to be coated foam. If the foam is applied to the open soil, dry masonry, concrete is whether powdered cement, the depth of wetting is a few centimeters.

Foam coatings have good adhesion to the surfaces of the environment and for coatings that are resistant to vertical and horizontal surfaces (including negative angle).

The foam obtained from the composition according to the present invention mainly has the bubble size is from 0.5 to 1.5 mm, which are at the moment of generation of foam the most part (by volume) of foam.

The optimum thickness of the foam layer over the treated surface is at least 10 cm, at the same time, the half-life of the foam, according to the criterion of the expiration of the liquid is from 10 to 30 minutes, with the time complete collapse of the foam (i.e. before the appearance of zones or areas of the surface without visually detectable foam) not less than 3 hours.

The application of the foam desired layer, i.e. the thickness not less than 10 centimeters, can be carried out only once, or by repeated application of additional layers, to maintain the desired thickness of the layer and/or the lifetime of the foam. Repeated application of the foam, it is advisable to carry out when using the composition in adverse conditions that contribute to a more rapid destruction of the foam.

When applying the foam on the water surface, the lifetime of the foam decreases, but only slightly. Time is isn foam in this case enough so managed to get a reaction of neutralization of toxic substances or agent, being on the water surface. If necessary can be carried out applying an additional layer of foam until the moment of its destruction.

The application of the foam is carried out using a variety of foam, such as foam bubbling type, centrifugal type, air-foam barrels, generators, mesh type and the like, the Foam may contain as the dispersed phase gas other than air, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other gases used as eject gases in the foam balloon type, where the solution is ejected under the action of gas and, optionally, additional mixing with the air, forms a foam. In particular, can be used generator balloon type, where applicable eject gas dissolved under pressure in the liquid composition. This gas may be carbon dioxide in the case of aqueous compositions or freons in the case of using as a solvent an aqueous-organic solutions or suspensions.

If necessary, the foam layer can be quickly destroyed by applying substances, defoamers, such as cement, gypsum and the like, inorganic binder, resulting in a solid mass, which can be quickly removed and taken for the further disposal. As substances that Deplete the foam formed from the composition of the present invention, can be used traditional kremniiorganicheskie defoamers, such as polymethylsiloxane or polymethylsiloxane in a mixture with silicon dioxide, the latter may be in the form of promoting adsorption of the degradation products. As defoamers can be used lower alcohols and ketones.

One of the advantages of the application of the foams according to the invention is that the foam is deposited on the surface, isolates it from the surrounding atmosphere. Pollutant (contaminant) enters the foam layer and can be dissolved. If contaminant in the foam layer is not destroyed, for whatever reasons, for example due to restrictions or insufficient time for the destruction or neutralization, in particular to reduce the time of liquidation of consequences, the foam layer, which is already embroiled contaminant, may be additionally applied composition or preparation containing another agent, it is more efficient destructive this contaminant. For example, if contaminants be spore forms of microorganisms for effective disinfection with the help of foam according to the invention requires a time of about 3 hours under normal weather conditions, in case of rapid establishing that there is a dispute on the foam layer, to the which already drawn controversy with the treated surface, can be applied to other disinfectant, such as a composition comprising formaldehyde, which in this case will provide a more effective destruction of the dispute. A similar example is a variant, when the foam is applied to the surface contaminated with mustard gas, which is weakly hydrolyzed to low-toxic products in foam with almost neutral pH value. Mustard gas extracted in the foam layer, can be completely destroyed by processing the layer of foam is more effective degasser, for example chlorinated alkaline solution applied to the foam layer. At the same time, it should be noted that the application of the foam to the surface with contaminants screens it from the environment, excluding emissions contaminant in the atmosphere, "conserving" it for the exposure, if necessary, for additional processing.

The advantages of using foam compositions include low flow solutions required for surface coatings. The rate of consumption of traditional liquid preparations for disinfection, decontamination and decontamination of the environment is about 3 liters per square meter of surface. At the same time 3 gallons of foam solution at medium expansion foam 50, and the desired thickness of the foam layer 10 centimeters can, theoretically, handle 150 square meters of the surface.

Taking into account the real about the stop namely, adverse weather conditions, contributing to the destruction of the foam, the necessity of repeated treatments to maintain the foam layer with a thickness of 10 cm for a period of not less than 3 hours, the actual area treated foam on the basis of 1% CDGK in extremely adverse conditions, amounted to about 3 square meters.

Foam of the present invention are prepared by dissolving CDGK in water or aqueous solutions containing additional components. CDGK can be represented in the form of pure CDGK in the form of powder, granules and the like can Also be used concentrated preparations containing CDGK, such as drugs Veltolen", "Wilcox" or similar. The solution CDGK can be prepared in water, aqueous solutions of antifreeze, provided that the used antifreeze does not adversely affect the properties of the foam. For example, as anti-freeze can be used glycerin, ethylene glycol, etc.

Concentrate for the preparation of compositions can be in liquid or solid form. In this case, the excipients included in the concentrate, will provide the characteristics needed for long term storage of the concentrate, increase the speed of dissolution upon receipt of working solutions to generate foam. Then in the concentrate composition in addition to the active agent - the DHA and optional additives the above additional auxiliary components it may contain co-solvents, for example lower alcohols, antifreeze (for liquid concentrate), and substances that contribute to the dissolution of solid forms, disintegrant and fillers. The concentrate may be packaged in a container that is convenient for the consumer, such as polymer bags, sealed rigid containers, etc.

Examples

The following examples illustrate the present invention but do not limit the specific embodiments, as for professionals clear equivalent or similar technical solutions.

Example 1

Foamable compositions based on KDBC

The composition of the prepared compositions and characteristics of the foam are shown in table 1.

Prepared aqueous solutions on the basis of the clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea (CDBK) in water, was obtained from solutions of the foam by the method of air ejection or sparging and determined the performance of the obtained foam (time decay half pillar foam, full time decay indices of dispersion) under normal weather conditions.

Table 1
Concentration CDBC, mass%FoamHalf-time foam, minTime is full of the th collapse of the foam, minDispersion (bubble size), mmThe method of producing foam
0,180601201b
0,110601201e
0,280601201b
0,210601201e
0,5601601b
0,5601601e
1,0100601801b
1,030601801e
2,0100701801b
2,060701801e
4,080701801b
4,0100701801e
PR is a comment:

b - foam obtained by the process of bubbling air through the solution layer CDBC;

e - foam obtained by the ejection of the solution CDBK through the mesh.

Foam with similar characteristics was obtained by generating foam from the tank under pressure of carbon dioxide. When this foam depending on the type of nozzle for dispersing the head was formed as a dispersion system in which the gas phase was only carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide from the air. Foam in which the gas phase was only carbon dioxide was characterized by a lower ratio of from 40 to 100.

Example 2

The influence of additives on the properties of foam

Introduction in a solution containing 1.0% of CDBC, hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of up to 0.5%; dye (blue polichem) in concentrations up to 1.0%, resulted in a negligible reduction ratio foam (90) and the time half-life (up to 50 min), when the initial settings of 1.0% solution CDBK: frequency - 100, the half-life of 60 minutes

The solution CDGK (1% by weight)prepared in 20% glycerol, kept their performance foam with increased lifetime of the foam.

A solution containing 5% CDGK, allowed obtaining foam with a magnification of from 30 to 1000, depending on the mode of generation of foam, while the lifetime of the foam was more than 3 hours.

A solution containing 5% CDGK, allowed the introduction in n the th to 5% by weight of nonionic surfactant brand OP-7 no significant changes of the parameters of the stability of the foam.

The solution CDGK (1% by weight), prepared with the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5% by weight) had higher rates of lifetime of the foam.

Example 3

Evaluation of the bactericidal properties of air-mechanical foam based CDBK

Foaming characteristics: frequency - 100, the dispersion is not less than 0.5 mm, the half-life of at least 30 minutes, the time for complete disintegration - not less than 3 hours, the thickness of the foam layer is about 10 cm above the surface.

Investigated the influence of the air-mechanical foam containing 1 and 2% by weight CDBK formed by the method of sparging, the inactivation of a test microorganism E.coli.

The test preparations were applied to a glass substrate, and then at the bottom put a layer of foam. Exposure time was 60 minutes, the temperature was 20aboutC. Then made flush with the substrates and analyzed flushing fluid sample from the damaged foam and controls.

As a result determined that flush with the surface of the test plate after processing its foam in the fluid sample from the damaged foam and in the sample from the remaining foam microbial growth is absent. Control representing flush with the substrate which was not subjected to treatment, showed solid growth of E.coli.

Parallel experiments with solutions CDBK without foaming showed a similar result.

Investigated the influence of the airbag is mechanical foam, containing 2% by weight CDBK formed by the method of sparging, the inactivation test of anthrax, strain STI-1.

The test preparations were applied to a glass substrate, and then at the bottom put a layer of foam. Exposure time was 180 minutes, the temperature was 20aboutC. Then made flush with the substrates and analyzed flushing fluid sample from the damaged foam and controls.

As a result determined that flush with the surface of the test plate after processing its foam in the fluid sample from the damaged foam and in the sample from the remaining foam microbial growth is absent. Control representing flush with the substrate which was not subjected to the treatment, showed a steady growth of microorganisms.

Parallel experiments with solutions CDBK without foaming showed a similar result.

Investigated the influence of the air-mechanical foam containing 2% by weight CDBK formed by the method of sparging, the inactivation test B.subtilis spores.

The test preparations were applied to a glass substrate, and then at the bottom put a layer of foam. Exposure time was 180 minutes, the temperature was 20aboutC. Then made flush with the substrates and analyzed flushing fluid sample from the damaged foam and controls.

As a result determined that flush with the surface of the test plate after processing of its pins is th, in a sample of fluid from the damaged foam and in the sample from the remaining foam microbial growth is absent. Control representing flush with the substrate which was not subjected to the treatment, showed a steady growth of microorganisms.

Parallel experiments with solutions CDBK without foaming showed a similar result.

It was thus established that foam with a concentration of, for example, about 0.5% current substance and exposure is approximately 30 minutes is effective against vegetative bacteria, while at a concentration of, for example, about 1% as applicable to the substance and the exposure 90-120 minutes is effective against spores of microorganisms.

The obtained results equivalent to the results of disinfection carried out with a solution CDBK that gives you the ability to use assessment data disinfecting activity solutions CDBC, as such, and with various additives to predict disinfection ability of pen-based clathrate didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea.

Example 4

Shielding and containment of spills of flammable liquids foam based CDBK

To assess the shielding properties of the foam used 0.5% solution CDGK, in particular, obtained by dissolving 2.5 percent by weight of the drug Veltolen in the water. In the experiments used the foam with a magnification of 40 to 60, as the least stable is inuu, with a thickness of about 10 cm

Because the foam is dispersed system with multiple barrier layers "gas-liquid", formed from the liquid films between the gas bubbles, the diffusion of toxic gases (e.g. chlorine, hydrogen sulphide), and vapours of flammable liquids (gasoline) through the foam layer thickness of about 10 cm was practically absent. Smells appeared only after the destruction of the foam layer (more than 3 hours).

Foam provide excellent shielding properties. After covering the test plates coated with a hydrophobic powder Aerosil layer of foam secondary aerosol particles Aerosil not found.

Similar results were obtained with the use of talcum powder, labeled with dye.

Film of kerosene printed on the metal plate after spraying foam on the basis of 0.5% CDGK, was destroyed in less than 3 hours. The resulting suspension of kerosene in solution CDGK under normal conditions did not ignite.

Example 5

Degassing foam based CDBK

Degassing foam based KDBC is carried out by hydrolysis. S or highly toxic substances (VP), insoluble in water, extracted or detached from the surface subjected to degassing, and pass into colloidal form, being drawn into the liquid film between the bubbles. When the reaction is ionic zone, i.e. the area of contact S/water, increases the rate of hydrolysis increases significantly. Water-soluble RH is diffused into the layer of liquid and hydrolyzed. Highly stable S or VP, the rate of hydrolysis which is quite low neutralized by absorbing and shielding layer of foam.

If the composition of the foam additives-oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide or compounds that form when dissolved active oxygen or chlorine degassing the ability of the foam increases.

The results of experimental evaluation of degassing and screening properties of the foams are shown in tables 2 and 3.

In experiments on metal plates, including enameled XB, or samples of rubberized fabric, which absorbed S, put S type VX and mustard gas. Controlling the concentration of S at the test plates to cover the foam and in the course of the exposition. In some experiments determined the level of concentration of S as dangerous or safe) above the layer of foam at the end of exposure.

As the foam composition used 0.5% solution CDGK, in particular obtained by dissolving the drug Veltolen in the water. Foam 60-100, the thickness of the foam layer 10 cm, total time of exposure of the foam - 60 minutes

safe
Table 2
S The concentration of S above the surface of the metal plate
Before treatment foamAfter processing the foam layer
VXDangerousSafe
Mustard gasDangerousSafe
Table 3
The exposure time, minThe substrate materialThe share OPTIONS remaining on the substrate, mass%The severity of the residual S
20enamel XB-518the 3.8dangerous
40enamel XB-5181,1dangerous
60enamel XB-5180,5safe
20rubberized cloth23,5dangerous
40rubberized cloth2,3dangerous
60rubberized cloth0,3

For the decontamination of mustard gas, i.e. its destruction in the foam layer, it took the addition of calcium hypochlorite in the amount of 1.5% of the mass of the degassing composition.

Example 6

Decontamination foam based CDBK

On the metal test plate, painted with enamel XB-518, and rubberized fabric inflicted preparation containing90Sr. The samples were dried, and were controlled by the exposure dose of gamma radiation. Then the samples were applied foam layer of 0.5% aqueous solution CDBK with multiplicity 40-60 thickness 6-10 see Exposure time was 15 minutes, after which the samples were dried and determined the capacity of residual exposure dose of gamma radiation.

It is established that in the case of test plates coated with enamel XB-518 the exposure dose of gamma radiation decreased on average 15 times, and in the case of rubberized fabric 12.

The above examples are not restrictive, but serve to illustrate implementation of the present invention with the achievement of the claimed effects.

1. Foam polyfunctional composition for decontamination, disinfection, disinfection, decontamination and shielding surfaces, volumes and objects from dangerous agents and substances foam, where the liquid phase of the foam is a solution of the clathrate didecyldimethylammoniumchloride is and with urea as the active ingredient in an amount of from 0.1 to 5% by mass.

2. The composition according to claim 1, where the clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea is used clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea and/or clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea.

3. The composition according to claim 1, where the clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea is used clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea.

4. The composition according to claim 1, additionally containing an optional additive chosen from thickeners, colorants, oxidizing agents, additional surfactants (surfactant), compatible with Quaternary ammonium compounds, co-solvents of the clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea.

5. The composition according to claim 4, where the thickening agent is carboxymethylcellulose in an amount up to 0.5%.

6. The composition according to claim 4, where the oxidizing agent is hydrogen peroxide in an amount up to 0.5%.

7. The composition according to claim 4, where additional surface-active agent (surfactant)that is compatible with Quaternary ammonium compounds, is an OP-7 or OP-10 in an amount up to 1% by weight of the composition.

8. The composition according to claim 4, where the co-solvent of the clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea is an alcohol selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, isobutyl alcohol, in amounts which up to 5% by weight of the composition.

9. The composition according to claim 4 where the solvent is water.

10. The composition according to claim 4 where the solvent is an aqueous solution of antifreeze.

11. The composition of claim 10, where the antifreeze agent is glycerol or ethylene glycol in an amount up to 20%.

12. The composition according to claim 1, where the foam has a ratio of from 30 to 1000.

13. The composition according to item 12, where the foam is an air-mechanical foam.

14. The method of decontamination, disinfection, disinfection, decontamination and shielding surfaces, volumes and objects from dangerous agents and substances, providing for the application of the foam composition according to claim 1 to the surface or foaming of the processed volume or object resides or is expected finding contaminant.

15. The method according to 14, further comprising the stage of applying the agent to the foam layer to its destruction at the end of predetermined time of exposure contaminant.

16. The method according to 14, where the foam is applied with a layer thickness of not less than 6 cm

17. The method according to 14, where use foam with a magnification of from 30 to 1000.

18. The method according to 14, where the use of air-mechanical foam.

19. The method of decontamination, disinfection, disinfection, decontamination and shielding surface, volume or object, providing for the application of the foam composition according to claim 1 to the surface where contaminant or assumes its presets the procession.

20. The method according to claim 19, further comprising the stage of:

drawing on the foam layer of another composition, effective for inactivation of contaminant,

and/or application of antifoam on the foam layer to its destruction.

21. The method of decontamination, disinfection, disinfection, decontamination and shielding surfaces in confined spaces, providing for the filling of these volumes foam obtained from the composition according to claim 1.

22. A concentrate for preparing a foam composition according to claim 1, containing as active substance a clathrate of didecyldimethylammoniumchloride with urea, auxiliary components from among the thickeners, colorants, oxidizing agents, additional surfactants that are compatible with Quaternary ammonium bases, co-solvents and compatible excipients, the content of active ingredient in the concentrate is from 10 to 90% by mass.

23. Concentrate on p.22, representing a liquid.

24. Concentrate on p.22, representing a solid.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: nuclear-industry radiochemical enterprises for recovering and immobilizing gaseous radioactive wastes.

SUBSTANCE: sorbent used for entrapping radioactive iodine from gas-aerosol stream running from irradiated nuclear fuel cutting-and-dissolving unit has porous base impregnated with nitric acid silver salt (AgNO3); used as sorbent base is porous silicon carbide of 30 to 60% porosity.

EFFECT: enhanced corrosion and mechanical resistance of material in chemically active media.

1 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: technology of handling of the liquid nuclear wastes of the nuclear fuel and power cycle; methods of reprocessing of the liquid nuclear wastes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the procedure of the liquid nuclear wastes handling of the nuclear fuel and power cycle and may be used during reprocessing of the liquid nuclear wastes (LNW). The method includes the preliminary concentration, ozonization, microfiltration of the vat residue with fractionation of the permeate and the concentrate and the ion-selective purification of the permeate using the ion-selective a sorbent. At that the microfiltration is conducted at least in two stages: the permeate of each previous stage of the microfiltration is directed to the microfiltration as the source solution for the subsequent stage of the microfiltration, and at the final stage of the permeate from the microfiltration is sent to the utilization. The concentrate produced at each next stage of the microfiltration is mixed with the source solution of the previous stage of the microfiltration. The concentrate produced at the first stage of the microfiltration is directed to the conditioning and dumping. The ion-selective sorbent is added in the permeate of the previous stage of the microfiltration before the final stage of the microfiltration. The invention ensures: reduction of the volume of the liquid nuclear wastes due to the deep purification of the LNW with the high saline share from the radionuclides and extraction of the radionuclides in the compact form of the sparingly soluble compounds at the corresponding increase of the factor of purification of the salts extracted at the stage of the vat residue treatment; reduction and optimization of the consumption of the permeate and concentrate interacting with the source solution as well as produced at the further stages.

EFFECT: the invention ensures: reduction of the volume of the liquid nuclear wastes; the deep purification of the LNW with the high saline share from the radionuclides and extraction of the radionuclides in the compact form of the sparingly soluble compounds at the corresponding increase of the factor of purification of the salts extracted at the stage of the vat resudue treatment; reduction and optimization of the consumption of the permeate and concentrate interacting with the source solution ands produced at the further stages.

FIELD: environment control including environment protection in atomic industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for decontaminating radioactive aqueous solutions from radionuclides includes at least one contact of solution with complexing sorbent that has solid-medium immobilized active polymeric layer condensed with chelates. Medium is chosen from following group: activated cellulose; synthetic copolymers with divinyl benzene, activated chloromethyl or hydroxymethyl, or chlorosulfonic groups. Active sorbing layer has ethylenediamine or diethylene tridiamine, or tetraethylene pentaamine, or polyethylene polyamine with copolymers; chelates are chosen from group incorporating carboxyl-containing chelates, phosphonic-group chelates, and hydroxyl-containing chelates. Proposed method enables extraction of radionuclides both in ionic and colloidal condition from solutions doped with highly concentrated impurities; sorbent used for the purpose retains its sorbing properties upon repeated regenerations and is capable of decontaminating solutions both in dynamic and static modes with different pH of solutions being decontaminated.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.

11 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: methods of the sorption decontamination of waters from the radioactive impurities.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of the sorption decontamination of waters from the radioactive impurities. The method of decontamination of the water from radiostrontium includes the treatment of the water with a sorbent based on the burned bauxite ore. At that the ore is burned together with calcium -magnesium lime - CaCO3·MgCO3 and sodium soda salt - Na2CO3 at the temperature of no less than 1200°C and flushed with the water to remove the solvable sodium compounds. It is preferable, that the mixture of the bauxite ore is subjected to burning with calcium-magnesium lime and sodium soda salt in the mass ratio of 1 : 0.55-0.60 : 0.055-0.060. The method ensures an increased effectiveness of removal of the radiostrontium at usage of the initial bauxite ore without lowering of effectiveness of the water decontamination from radiocesium, and also allows to reduce considerably the amount of the spent sorbents, which are subjected to disposal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased effectiveness of removal of radiostrontium from the water at usage of the initial bauxite ore without lowering of effectiveness of the water decontamination from radiocesium, allows to reduce considerably the amount of the spent sorbents, which are subjected to disposal.

2 cl, 10 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of pectin solution as detergent for skin and hair in radioactive and environmentally hazardous regions. Pectin containing in solution due to chelating action bonds to heavy metal ions to form stable compounds (micelles) having very large size and prevents transferring thereof trough transdermal barrier. Formed micells may be easily removed from human body.

EFFECT: new detergent for skin and hair useful in radioactive and environmentally hazardous regions.

2 ex, 5 tbl

FIELD: processing of liquid radioactive wastes.

SUBSTANCE: the proposed method for cleaning of liquid radioactive wastes includes their processing with absorber-sorbent. Ash wastes are used as the absorber-sorbent. The ash wastes are introduced into liquid radioactive wastes in the stage of their neutralization at pH = 0.5-2 at the flow rate, ensuring the ratio of S : L = 1 : (15-50). Then the obtained suspension is separated into the liquid and solid phases.

EFFECT: increased degree of cleaning from radionuclides and enhanced separation rate of produced pulps.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 11 ex

FIELD: reactive sorbents.

SUBSTANCE: liquid is conditioned at pH 4-6 and then is brought into contact with chelating ion-exchange resin composed of grafted polyazocycloalkanes at temperature above or equal to 60°C.

EFFECT: enhanced metal removal efficiency.

35 ex, 9 dwg, 9 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: recovery of liquid radioactive wastes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes treatment of radioactive wastes by heavy-metal ferrocyanide and separation of sediment obtained. In the process liquid radioactive wastes are treated with heavy-metal ferrocyanide formed upon introduction of potassium ferrocyanide and bivalent nickel and/or copper and iron salts taken in amount abundant with respect to stoichiometric quantity. Clarified solution is treated with oxidant upon separation of sediment and filtered through catalytic material containing manganese dioxide. Then filtered-off solution is passed through highly acid cationite in Na-form and highly basic anionite in Cl-form.

EFFECT: enhanced decontamination quality.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: recovery of liquid radioactive wastes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes bringing liquid radioactive wastes in contact with matrix saturated with selective ion-exchange material (solid extracting agent). Glass-crystal material with open porous structure is used as matrix for the purpose. Matrix material is produced from hollow glass-crystal cene spheres formed from mineral particles of volatile ash produced as result of black coal combustion and saturated with selective ion-exchange material.

EFFECT: facilitated procedure of radionuclide extraction.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

The invention relates to the field of processing of liquid radioactive waste

FIELD: toxic compound technology.

SUBSTANCE: destruction of yperite involves preparation of carbon tetrachloride solution of yperite and carbon tetrabromide, which solution is then exposed to UV emission with wavelength 250-400 nm. After a 4 h irradiation, concentration of yperite decreased by 95-104 times: from 0.084 mole/L to 0.0009-0.00081 mole/L (from 13.333 mg/ml to 0.128-0.141 mg/ml). Reaction results in a mixture of low-toxicity halogen-containing hydrocarbons capable of being vaporized from contaminated surface.

EFFECT: enhanced destruction efficiency.

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for degassing and the elimination of the poisonous substances.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of elimination of the poisonous substances, in particular, to the degassing formula for elimination of the poisonous substances and the viscous formulas on their basis, and also to the method of the formula preparation. The formula contains the alkali metal alcoholate, which may be produced in the rectifying column at interaction of the alkali metal hydroxide sampled from Li, K or Na, with the alcohol sampled from the group including the monoatomic primary, secondary and the tertiary alcohols containing from 1 up to 6 atoms of carbon, diatomic or triatomic alcohols, amino alcohols, and also N-methyl pyrrolidone and ε-caprolactam at the certain components ratio. The produced formula is intended for elimination of all the types of the poisonous substances with the heightened power (over 300 mg/ml), has the reduced fire hazard, the small corrosivity and is well flushed away by water.

EFFECT: the invention presents the formula intended for elimination of all the types of the poisonous substances with the heightened power, has the reduced fire hazard, the small corrosivity and is well flushed away by water.

11 cl, 1 tbl, 20 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of elimination of the chemical combat poisonous substances.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of elimination of the chemical combat poisonous substances, the product of their detoxication and pesticides. The method is exercised by mixing the poisonous substance or its product or pesticide detoxication by the aminoalcohol, solution of alkali-earth metal nitrate and oxidation by heating of the produced mixture in the reactor with the fluidized bed of metallic shots at the temperature of 310-420°C. The developed method is simple in technological and instrument sphere, power-saving and perspective for the industrial implementation.

EFFECT: the invention presents the simple in technological and instrument sphere, power-saving and perspective for the industrial implementation method of the chemical combat poisonous substances elimination.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises treating unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine and transformation products thereof with oxidant, particularly potassium permanganate in the form of 0.1 to 5.0 kg/m3 aqueous solution containing also promoting additive: nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide or sodium peroxide in amount 0.1-1.0 kg/m3.

EFFECT: accelerated detoxification process, ensured environmental safety, and reduced consumption of reagents.

2 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: toxic agent disposal methods.

SUBSTANCE: process of destroying a toxic agent comprises preparation of mixture thereof with water and induction of cavitation in the mixture. Cavitation is induced by creating throughout the mixture alternating stretching and compressive stresses at frequency within a range of 1 to 400 Hz. Process can be utilized in water-fuel emulsion production process.

EFFECT: reduced power consumption per destruction and reduced water components involved in process.

1 dwg

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing neutralization of pesticides and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds with the use of oxidizing system generated on passage of direct electric current having density of up to 1 A/cm2 through solution, suspension or emulsion in sulfuric acid; performing said process in diaphragm-free electrode apparatus in sulfuric acid solution concentrated to 10-96% while intensively mixing at temperature of from 25 C to solution boiling temperature for 90-300 min under atmospheric pressure.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in neutralization of nitrophenol pesticides and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for treatment of danger materials, in particular, composition comprising explosive substances and/or chemically toxic materials. Invention relates to a method for treatment of the composition comprising: (a) chemically toxic material and (b) power-consuming material and involves the following steps: (i) preparing the composition aqueous dispersion; (ii) addition of inert absorbing clay to dispersion, and (iii) heating the prepared mixture to decompose material (a) and/or (b) to the less danger form. The product of reaction represents inert matrix consisting of absorbing clay wherein danger materials (a) and/or (b) are dispersed in sufficiently effective bound form in order to prevent significant leaching at the following step of prolonged storage. Invention provides the relatively simple, rapid, safety and effective method for treatment of the broad spectrum of different danger materials or mixtures.

EFFECT: improved treatment method.

49 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: environment protection, particularly prevention of environment pollution with toxic compositions and reaction products thereof.

SUBSTANCE: method involves decomposing tributylphosphate in sulfuric acid medium along with generating oxidizer by passing electric current with current density of 0.1-1 A/cm2 through sulfuric-acid tributylphosphate solution emulsion with sulfuric acid concentration of 30-70% by weight. Above process is carried out in diaphragmless electrolyzer under atmospheric pressure and at temperature of 10-70°C.

EFFECT: provision of complete oxidizing of tributylphosphate, solutions thereof and break-down products.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: methods of treatment of fluocarbon raw.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of treatment of fluocarbon raw. The method of treatment of fluocarbon raw provides for heating by means of high frequency induction of a heating zone of a reaction chamber up to the temperature of no more than 950°C, heating in the heating zone of fluocarbon raw, which contains at least one fluocarbon compound, so, that the fluocarbon compound dissociates with production of at least one predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds; and refrigerating of the predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds, in the result of which from the predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds forms at least one more desirable fluocarbon compound. The technical result is conversion of the fluocarbon raw into the useful products by the low-cost reliable non-polluting environment universal and easily controlled method.

EFFECT: the invention ensures conversion of the fluocarbon raw into the useful products by the low-cost reliable non-polluting environment universal and easily controlled method.

12 cl, 10 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: methods of treatment of halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products of a fume gas clearing process.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to a method of treatment of halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products of a process of clearing of a fume gas. The solid or semisolid wastes are comminuted. Then they are exposed to the first stage of extraction by preparation of a water suspension having pH at least equal to 10. The solid and liquid materials separate from each other. The process is conducted one or more times. The produced halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products dry. The solution produced at the stage of separation regenerate and treat with acid composition to obtain pH between 7 and 10, preferably between 9.25 and 9.75. The method allows to transform the halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products into one or more useful products, for example, a road salt free of heavy metals. The method is simple and cost-saving.

EFFECT: the method allows to transform the halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products into useful products and the process is simple and cost-saving.

26 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 7 tbl

FIELD: disinfection and sterilization of medicinal objects such as surgical and dental instruments, and also articles used in cosmetic rooms and hairdresser's shops.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus, according to first version, has chamber for receiving of objects, electromagnetic radiation source and device for feeding of atomized reactant into said chamber, reflector made in the form of paraboloid of rotation equipped with axial inlet aperture and mirror member having spherical reflecting surface. One wall of chamber is made from optically transparent material. Reflector is joined with chamber at its side adjoining transparent wall. Mirror member is mounted within region of focusing of reflector. Electromagnetic radiation source has successively arranged pulsed quantum generator and collimator which are optically joined through reflector inlet window, spherical surface of mirror member and reflecting surface of reflector with chamber wall distal from reflector inlet window. Apparatus, according to second version, has chamber for receiving of objects, at least one wall of chamber being made flat, electromagnetic radiation source made in the form of elongated pulse lamp, device for feeding atomized reactant into chamber, and mirror plate with one-sided optical transparence for electromagnetic radiation wave band of pulse lamp. Other side wall of chamber opposed to flat wall is made trough-shaped, with internal reflecting surface and parabolic cross section. Pulse lamp is located along focal axis of trough parabola. Mirror plate is mounted between flat side wall of chamber and pulse lamp and directed with its optically transparent side toward pulse lamp. Pulse lamp is optically joined through reflecting surface of side wall of trough-shaped chamber, mirror plate with one-sided optical transparency and internal surface of flat side wall of chamber with mirror side of mirror plate.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation and convenient usage of apparatus for disinfecting and sterilizing of objects.

11 cl, 3 dwg

Up!