Method of and device for extracting inserts from overspring beam step bearings

FIELD: railway transport; repair of rolling stock.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to repair of load-bearing parts of vehicles, particularly, to repair of overspring beams of car bogies with inserts press-fitted into step bearings. According to proposed method, step bearing of overspring beam is heated, together with insert, to temperature exceeding 250°C. Inner surfaces of insert are cooled by blowing at velocity 1.1 times higher than velocity of heat exchange through surfaces in contact with step bearing to eliminate negative allowance between insert and outer bead of step bearing. To extract insert, it is expanded from inside by applying force. Device for implementing the method has body in form of disk to be arranged in step bearing with slots on side surface in which bellcranks 9 are fitted being driven by pneumatic cylinder, with claws for gripping the insert, central hole through which rod 16 of pneumatic cylinder passes to extract insert 40, with inner space designed for distribution of cooling compressed air among nozzles pointed to surfaces of insert.

EFFECT: increased efficiency when repair overspring beams, reduced energy consumption and labor input in process of repair.

3 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of repair of railway rolling stock, in particular to repair bolsters trucks cars with pressed accents in the thrust bearings. It can also be used in other areas of technology related to removing the Cup-shaped inserts are pressed into the recesses of thick-walled parts.

There is a method of separation of the two parts connected by press fit, which consists in the fact that the covering part is heated, while the covered item is not heated), due to which the diameter of its deepening increases and becomes more boarding diameter covered parts, resulting in tension between them disappears and covered in detail freely removed from the covering. This method is used, for example, in the device for disassembly of wheel pairs on the author's certificate SU 1324814 (Bulletin No. 27, 1987), which for removing the wheel and brake disk mounted on the axis of the wheelset press fit, produce heating of the latter. Upon completion of the heating of these parts, the axis of the wheel is freed from them by means of pneumatic cylinders. However, the above method cannot provide espressivo two parts, connected by a press fit, with plenty of covered parts are considerably less the mass of the covering, especially if the covered item is a thin-walled shell is pressed into a hollow thick-walled parts.

The aim of the invention is the provision of extraction inserts of thrust bearings bolsters without damaging their boarding and working surfaces in conditions of repair parts.

This objective is achieved in that the thrust bearing bolster is heated simultaneously with the insert to a temperature above 250°C, after which the inner surface of the insert is cooled by blowing with compressed air or air / water mixture with a speed of not less than 1.1 times the rate of heat transfer through the surface in contact with the thrust bearing, to the disappearance of the interference fit between the insert and the outer collar at last, when this box hold apart from the stress, not cause additional interference fit and sufficient for the extraction of the insertion of the thrust bearing normally applied load.

Salient features of the invention are:

local heating of the thrust bearing together with an insert to a temperature above 250°C;

- the accelerated cooling of the inner surfaces of the inserts compared to the contact surfaces of the thrust bearing with a speed of not less than 1.1 times the rate of heat transfer through the latter, to the disappearance between which they are clamped;

a thrust insert during its cooling from the stress, not cause additional interference fit and sufficient for the extraction of the insertion of the thrust bearing normally applied load.

The significance of the distinctive features confirmed by the following:

1. Heating of the thrust bearing above a temperature of 250°necessary for thermal expansion of the thrust bearing by an amount greater than the interference fit between the outer collar and the insert and to remove residual internal stresses in the heel.

2. The cooling rate of the inner surfaces of the inserts compared to the contact surfaces of the thrust bearing must be not less than 1.1 times the rate of heat transfer through the latter, which is required for complete disappearance of tension for the period of finding details on the technological position of the repair details.

3. The thrust of the insert during its cooling from the inside should be carried out by force, without causing additional interference to ensure the extraction of the insertion of the thrust bearing normal applied load, not exceeding the weight of the bolster.

An example of the method of extraction of the inserts of thrust bearings bolsters.

An example of the method is the extraction of the insertion of the thrust bearings bolsters using the proposed device, shemat is a rule presented in figure 1. Heating of the thrust bearing insert is an induction heater to a temperature of 250-300°, and then starts the supply of compressed air through nozzles in the bottom of the hollow body blows internal and thrust surface of the insert and cools it. Simultaneously with the blowing insert the compressed air is switched on, the supply of compressed air to drive the two shoulders arms with grippers, which, resting podrezanyy steel plates with a notch in the thrust surface of the collar insert, concatenated with it. After the time required for the disappearance of the interference fit between the outer annular collar thrust bearing and inserting the compressed air supply is terminated. Then turn on the compressed air in the rod cavity of the pneumatic cylinder destined for the extraction of the insertion, the rod with the tip rests against the end face of the inner collar of the thrust bearing and the cylinder together with the device and insert held by the gripper, moves upward, removing the last of the thrust bearing.

The device illustrated is also presented in figure 2 a section a-a in figure 1, a section along B-B in figure 2 (figure 3) and a section along b-b In figure 1 (figure 4). The device comprises a hollow disc-shaped body, freely placed in the center bowl of a truck bolster comprising two plates: the top 1 and bottom 2, of the United the between a welding. At the bottom of the sample plate made of metal with the formation of the closed space serving as a distributor 3 compressed air entering through the nozzle 4 for cooling inserts, nozzles 5. On the upper body plate welded six pairs of ears 6, between which the grooves 7 is placed is fixed with fingers two shoulders 8 of the levers 9, in which the lower arms are made in the form of the paw, which is the grips. For better adhesion with the hard surface of the insert grips feature a hardened steel replaceable plates 10 with the notch on the working surface. The purpose of alignment of efforts between the levers during operation of the device between each steel removable plate and the lower arms of levers mounted rubber gaskets 11.

Steel removable plate with a rubber gasket mounted on the lower arms of the levers bolts 12 with a diameter smaller than the diameters of the holes in the plates and gaskets, so the plate can freely move on the degree of deformation of the rubber gaskets in the direction of the effort. On the housing, coaxially with it, secured by six bolts 13 pneumatic cylinder extract the inserts 14 with the piston 15, which is the pneumatic cylinder actuator grips. The stem 16 of the pneumatic cylinder is attached to the piston 15 on the thread, and its end face is made spherical. The tip 17 is mounted on the piece is 16, inside has a spherical surface, the response of the spherical surface of the rod, and attached to it by a rivet 18. Conical and cylindrical surfaces of the tip are used for centering the device in the pivot hole of the thrust bearing of a bolster, and a ledge 19 serves to support the rod by the tip end of the inner collar 20 of the bolster center bowl when removing the insert. The cover 21 of the cylinder extraction inserts attached to his six flange bolts 22.

A supply of compressed air in its piston cavity to move the piston down through the fitting 23, and the removal of spent air from the rod end to the atmosphere through drilling 24 in the cover 21 and the fitting 25.

For the implementation of stroke up a supply of compressed air and venting exhaust to the atmosphere is performed in the direction opposite that described above.

The piston 15 of the pneumatic cylinder extraction inserts, which at the same time the pneumatic cylinder actuator grips, has within itself the rod-piston 26. A supply of compressed air in the piston cavity of the pneumatic cylinder actuator seizures, in which the piston moves up, is made through the fitting 27 and drilling in the piston, the piston 28. Removal of spent air from the rod end to the atmosphere is through drilling 29 in the piston 75, the annular gap 30 between the piston 15 and what newmatilda extract the inserts 14 and then through the fitting 31.

To move the piston 15 supply compressed and the removal of spent air in the atmosphere is produced in the direction opposite that described above. To the piston, the piston 26 of the pneumatic cylinder actuator gripper in the upper part is attached by a nut 32, the cap 33, on the outer surface of which is welded to six symmetrically spaced ears 34. The guide cap in its movements up and down is the outer surface of the cylinder extract the inserts 14. Ears of a cap pivotally connected with the upper shoulders two shoulders arms with fingers 35, earrings 36 and the fingers 37.

Device for the removal of inserts from the thrust bearings bolsters works as follows. Transport means capture the eye bolts 38 and lower in the heel bolster 39, preheated together with the insert 40 to a temperature of 250-300°so that the tip 17 of the cone entered the pivot hole of the thrust bearing, and his ledge 19 relied on the inner end of the collar 20. The piston 15 of the pneumatic cylinder extract the inserts must be in the extreme upper position, as shown in figure 2.

With the remote control (not shown) include the supply of compressed air to the cooling insert. Compressed air network pressure (6-8 kg/cm2) passes through the fitting 4, fills the space of the distributor air is directed through the nozzle 5 into the atmosphere, direct the jet and thrust surface of the insert cools the latter, simultaneously with the supply of compressed air for cooling the insert includes a supply of compressed air in the pneumatic cylinder actuator grips. After passing through the fitting 27, he will fill the piston cavity of the pneumatic cylinder actuator grips 15, moving the piston, the piston 26 upwards together with the cap 33. Ears 34 of the cap, acting on earrings 36, two shoulders rotated the levers 9 to stop their seizures replaceable steel plates with a notch 10 in the thrust surface of the insert 40. When this box is Senegalese, and the device is fixed in the thrust bearing from the possible displacements associated with the expiration of compressed air from the nozzles. Rubber strip 11 will be compressed, aligning efforts, arching an insert between the individual levers. After a short time, when the temperature of the insert will be reduced so that the interference fit between the cylindrical surfaces of the insert and bolster center bowl will disappear or become insignificant, serves the compressed air in the pneumatic cylinder extract the inserts 14, which enters through the fitting 23 in the piston cavity of the specified cylinder.

As the piston rod 16 of the piston 15 with tip 17 abuts against the end face of the internal collar thrust bearing and remains motionless, then move up will begin pneumatic cylinder 14 together with the body and arise is some 40, held in benevolent condition captures two shoulders of the levers 9. Movement of the housing with the insertion of a stop when the cover 21 of the cylinder 14 will rest against the piston 15 of the pneumatic cylinder extract the inserts. The device together with an insert held by the grippers, conveyor means rises up and aside. The inlet of compressed air into the rod cavity of the pneumatic cylinder grippers are the last in the original position, releasing the insert, which is placed in the allotted space.

The final step to bring the device to its original position is the movement of the piston rod and the tip is in the extreme upper position, as shown in figure 2. To do this, let the compressed air in the rod cavity of the pneumatic cylinder extract the inserts and, when the piston occupies its extreme upper position, compressed air is shut off. The device is ready for use in removing the insert from the heel following a bolster.

The use of the claimed method and device provides increased productivity and reduced labor costs in the repair parts.

1. The method of extraction of the inserts of the thrust bearings bolsters, including local heating of the thrust bearing together with insert and accelerated cooling of the last before removing, characterized in that the heating arise is key and thrust bearing carried out to temperatures above 250° S, after which the inner surface of the insert is cooled by blowing with compressed air or air / water mixture with a speed of not less than 1.1 times the rate of heat transfer through the surface in contact with the thrust bearing, to the disappearance of the interference fit between the insert and the outer collar at last, when this box hold apart from the stress, not cause additional interference fit and sufficient for the extraction of the insertion of the thrust bearing normally applied load.

2. Device for the removal of inserts from the thrust bearings bolsters, comprising a housing, clamps, pneumatic cylinders to drive the grippers and to remove the insert, characterized in that the casing is made in the form of a hollow disk with grooves, evenly spaced on the lateral surface, which are hinged two shoulders levers actuated from the pneumatic cylinder, mounted on top of coaxially with him, with the lower shoulders in the form of the feet designed to grip inserts for internal thrust surface vraspor clamp with replaceable steel plates with a notch on the working surfaces, bolted through the rubber grommets with a Central hole through which passes the piston rod of the pneumatic cylinder to remove the insert, equipped with a tip with a cone centered for the I pivot hole and a ledge to rest on the inner end of the collar, with the internal space intended for the distribution of cooling the compressed air nozzles directed to the side and thrust surfaces of the insert.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: railway transport.

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1 ex, 1 tbl

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2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

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EFFECT: simplified process of making envelopes with enhanced mass characteristics.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

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