Spiral head for the heat-and-mass exchanging and simultaneous with them reaction processes
FIELD: oil-processing industry; chemical industry; production of the spiral heads for the heat-mass exchanging and simultaneous with them reaction processes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is mainly pertaining to the oil-processing industry and chemical industry. The spiral head made in the form of the sequential rows of the spirals is installed in the packet in parallel to each other and to the flow in compliance of the dense location scheme. The adjacent and sequential spirals may be of the similar or counter rotation type. The sequential spirals are not necessary coaxial. Such location allows to form the oncoming or following movement of flows between the parallel spirals, that increases the turbulization and promotes stabilization of distribution of the dispersion particles according to their section and also to optimize selection of the design of the packet for the particular conditions of the process. The invention provides for manufacture of the layers of the spiral head by the strain of sheets, that makes it possible to organize its mass production in the wide range. Uniqueness of the spiral head ensures the effective interaction of the phases in their three possible relative movements: the direct-flow, the counter flow and the pseudo-liquefied flow.
EFFECT: the invention ensures manufacture of the layers of the spiral head by the strain of sheets, that that makes it possible to organize its mass production in the wide range and the effective interaction of the phases in their relative movements - the direct-flow, the counter flow and the pseudo-liquefied flow.
11 cl, 22 dwg
1. The technical field to which the invention relates.
The invention relates primarily to the refining and chemical industries.
2. The level of technology.
The prototype of the invention is a static mixer (Hansmann I. Static mixer. Translation from the German language article from the journal Gummi+Asbest+Kunststoffe 1978, Vol.31, R-80. The all-Union centre for translation of scientific and technical literature and documentation. Moscow, 1979. Transfer KB-6900). Static mixer consists of a tube and inserted into her mixing bodies - the spiral pattern of spirals with a helix angle of 180° and a length of 1.5 pipe diameter (with module three and a length of half round, assuming the module is the ratio of the length of the spiral's diameter). Spiral alternately left and prevoshodnye. The ends of the helices against each other with a turn angle of 90°. Spirals are fastened together and with the trumpet. Spirals are produced by deformation of a rectangular sheet or cast. Materials are metals, plastics, glass, ceramics. Low drag spirals provides a high efficiency of use of energy flow. The described device performs the functions of a homogenizer, disperser, aerator, and has found application in the mixing, heat and mass transfer, reaction, transport and other devices, where used the energy of the interacting threads.
"Operating" as the operation of lathe production, it is advisable to replace the "rotation" technological function of the spiral in relation to the passing stream.
The static mixer has a major drawback: the presence of centrifugal forces during the rotation of the flow, increasing depending on the radius distance, and the difference of the densities of the continuous and dispersed phases contribute in a limited pipe thread creation uneven motion of dispersed particles, which leads to the development of reverse processes. Also enclosed in the pipe spiral nozzle is limited to use in other high-impact processes.
Known nozzle with a cross-channel structure, and also printed a column and a mixing device with such a nozzle (the description of the patent RU 2181623 C2). Structured packing is a layers of deformed leaves with inclined channels on both sides of the plane of the sheets. Neighboring layers are installed in the package vertically with the slope of the channel toward each other. The leaves can be smooth, notched, perforated or wire mesh. As a material used metals, ceramics, plastics. Columns with such a nozzle used in a counter-current gas-liquid heat-mass transfer processes, and the nozzle is installed in a pipe that is used is as a static mixer. The surface of the nozzle can be covered with a substance having a catalytic action, for conduct related catalytic processes in both directions of use.
The disadvantages of the nozzle are reduced heat and mass transfer in a cross-layer direction, and increased hydraulic resistance and holding capacity in connection with the directness of design layers.
3. Disclosure of the invention.
The invention of the spiral nozzle for heat and combined them with chemical processes aimed at improving efficiency in the traditional ways of using the basic analogue of the static mixer, to expand the scope of application in other processes, increasing efficiency, and to develop a method of manufacturing a layered spiral pattern.
The invention consists in that the spiral nozzle in the form of a successive series of spirals, pinned between them, install the package (the transport unit or constructive space of the process) in parallel to each other and the flow is preferably a dense layout (equilateral triangle), adjacent (parallel flow) and sequential spiral may be the same or opposite rotation, and the latter is therefore a spiral can be axial or non-axial.
The invention uses the positive properties of the base analogue, such as: the creation of the effect of torsion at a constant axial direction passing vortex flow, low drag, sharp turbulization flowing between successive spirals of opposite rotation due to the sharp changes of direction of flow.
Significant differences invention increases the efficiency of traditional native counterpart, and to extend the sphere of its usage are:
1. The exception to limiting the influence of the pipe.
2. Side-by-side helices in packages.
3. Select adjacent and successive spirals on the process conditions with the same or opposite rotation.
4. Use preferably a dense layout of adjacent spirals in packages (equilateral triangle).
5. The requirement of compliance with the alignment of successive spirals.
These differences allow passing flow freely respond to the torquing effect of spirals and create an oncoming or passing forward movement of threads between parallel (adjacent) spirals, which increases the turbulization of the flow and helps to stabilize the distribution of dispersed particles in the cross section. The capacity is ü packaging spirals with optional alignment allows design optimization to create a compact and highly efficient heat and mass transfer device.
These investigators differences increase the efficiency of the traditional application of the spiral pattern in the mixing, heat mass transfer, reaction, transport, and other devices that use the energy of the interacting threads.
Provided by the invention batching allows to produce large amounts of regular spiral pattern and thereby to expand the scope of countercurrent gas-liquid processes, such as distillation, absorption, irrigation, cooling, separation and distribution of dispersions with improved efficiency.
In countercurrent gas-liquid processes performance indicators spiral nozzles in comparison with similar - nozzle with a cross-channel structure (an analogy is the use of materials, method of manufacture, and directions of use of nozzles) is improved due to more intensive interaction more uniform cross-sectional flow, less resistance and retention of spirals.
Packaging extends the scope of the spiral pattern countercurrent liquid processes, advantageously different from the currently used various rings, saddles and other nozzles creating a substantially lesser transverse non-uniformity of flow, the best hydrodyna the IR to improve the efficiency of processes.
The packaging also extends the scope of the spiral pattern on the processes of boiling (fluid) layer, including the process of classification of solid dispersed particles, and improves the efficiency of processes.
Spiral nozzle ability to spin the flowing stream in the device fluidized bed jet quenching (gushing) plots derived from the distribution grids, and also prevents the formation and development in the thickness of the layer of gas bubbles, thereby substantially reducing the longitudinal mixing and entrainment of the dispersed particles, which leads to a significant increase in the efficiency of the fluidized bed.
According to the analogs of the invention uses a method of manufacturing a spiral pattern by molding or deformation of leaves smooth, notched, perforated and mesh, and the quality of materials - metals, plastics, glass, ceramics.
The invention provides the use for the manufacture of the spiral pattern of composite materials, for example, with graphite filler for expansion of the list of materials used.
Similarly, the nozzle with a cross-channel structure of the spiral nozzle, covered with substances having catalytic properties, can be used in devices for carrying out corresponding catalytic chemical is of such processes, for example, in devices for cleaning gas emissions or emissions with greater efficiency through better hydrodynamic properties.
The invention provides a method of manufacturing layers of the spiral pattern deformation of the sheets so that the resulting elements of layer - two consecutive one-piece coaxial counter-rotating spirals with a bend up to 90°form a series of parallel variables spirals (variable helix); the integrity and rigidity of the layers is provided variants of the shift series, characterized by a shift of the axes variables spirals in consecutive rows and between rows (maybe a combination of options), with boundary layers can take place on various levels, such as means or ends of variables spirals.
Such a method of manufacturing a layered spiral pattern allows you to organize its mass production in a wide range and with high economic efficiency.
The invention provides for the manufacture of layers of spiral nozzle placed in the composition of each of the variables of the coaxial spirals spirals preferably opposite the rotation of the smaller layers placed spirals) with cut ends of the options.
Containment spirals creates an additional interaction of oppositely rotating flows within SPIRA and and increases the number of abrupt changes in flow direction, increasing the efficiency of the spiral.
The invention provides for the manufacture of packages spirals, in which successive rows of parallel helical spirals, bound to each other at points of contact of the side edges.
Bond parallel helical spirals with the formation of layers or other large groups of multiturn coils allows the installation of heat and mass transfer nozzle enlarged blocks.
The invention involves the installation of packages from layer spiral nozzles parallel installation of layers and fixing their relative positions to ensure the preferred host variables spirals using spacer-tightening device, the elements of which can serve as layers.
4. A brief description of the drawings.
The following sketches are presented:
Figure 1 - spiral nozzle prototype in the form of serial and parallel rows relative to the stream.
Figure 2 - side view figure 1.
Figure 3 - section a-a figure 1.
Figure 4 - pack spiral nozzles in the pipe, Packed in a dense scheme (an equilateral triangle).
Figure 5 - layer spiral pattern of the successive series of variables spirals with a shift of the axes of the helices in consecutive rows.
6 is a side view of figure 5.
7 is a top view of figure 5.
Fig - layer spiral NASA is key from a sequential series of variables spirals with coaxially placed spirals opposite rotation of a smaller size.
Fig.9 is a side view Fig.
Figure 10 is a top view of Fig.
11 - containment coaxial helices smaller counter-rotating each of the variables spirals.
Fig - side view 11.
Fig is a top view 11.
Fig - axonometric image variable helix with containment coaxial helices, corresponding to 11.
Fig - range parallel multi-turn spirals, bonded at points of contact of the edges (layer multiturn coils).
Fig - side view Fig.
Fig is a top view of Fig.
Fig - package parallel layers of the spiral pattern.
Fig - side view Fig.
Fig is a top view of Fig.
Fig - installing packages spiral pattern layer boundaries by means of variable helices at an angle of 60° relative to each other.
5. The implementation of the invention.
1, 2, 3 represent the views of the prototype spiral pattern consisting of a consecutive series of spirally curved plates (1-2) opposite rotation, combined with the same spirals (3-4). Each helix is a plate bent at 180°. Spiral (1-2) and (3-4) a coherent series, and (1-3) (2-4) - adjacent (parallel) series relative to the flow 5. Spiral (1-3) right rotation (2-4) - left rotation (using some analogy with thread according to GOST 11708-82). Cross section a-a shows znanosti rectangular form any height cross-section of the spiral, and also gives an idea of the relative sizes of the parties section and areas section and circle enclosing the spiral. A schematic diagram (6) interaction of pulses rotating flows, and the plane (7) abrupt changes of direction of flow between successive spirals.
Spiral nozzle in various combinations of spirals can be installed in the package, for example in the pipe 4 in parallel and preferably in a dense layout (equilateral triangle). Presents the option of installing spirals same rotation. It is seen that the rotating flow from the inner spiral (8) in this arrangement is the most active interaction with rotating flows from six others of similar spirals, and flows peripheral helices interact with three adjoining.
5, 6, 7 represent the kinds of layer variables spirals. Layers are obtained by deformation of the sheet (smooth or notched or perforated and mesh), for example, a method of manufacturing sheet steel expanded metal on THE 36.26.11-5-89. Helix received simultaneous neckline and curved plates on the middle line (9) around the longitudinal axis up to 90°. In this way, deformation of the sheet without cutting plates are obtained consisting of two successive coaxial preshemispheric opposite direction of rotation (10, 11) variables spiral, forming a series of variables spirals (12). Presents a variant with the same rotation of neighboring helices (13) and opposite rotation of successive spirals (14). The integrity and rigidity of the layers is provided variants of the shift series variables spirals (12), characterized by a shift of the axes of the helices in consecutive rows (15) and a gap (not shown) between rows (maybe a combination of options). Of the possible options presented option-shift axes variables spirals (15) in consecutive rows and without a gap between the rows. Specified (7) the plane of sharp changes in the rotation of the flow between a series of variables spirals (12) and between non-detachable coils (10, 11). Presents the layer consists of three rows of variables spirals (12) and selected on the ends of the variable helices (16).
Fig, 9, 10 represent the kinds of layer variables spirals with containment. Obviously, the layer of variable spirals with containment can be produced by deformation of the sheet in two stages: at the first notch and the pivot plates 90° obtaining absorbed spirals (17), the second similar operation with the receiving host variables spirals (18). It is seen (figure 10), which absorbed the spiral are the dimensions of the host. Specified (7) the plane of sharp changes of direction of flow (5).
11, 12, 13, 14 represent the kinds of changes the Noah spiral with containment. Presents a containment device (17) according to the variant preferred rotation, opposite to the accommodating helix (18).
Fig, 16, 17 are views of a consecutive series of parallel helical spirals, bound to each other at points of contact of the side edges. Bond parallel helical spirals with the formation of layers or other large groups of multiturn coils (for example, block spirals placed in the pipe figure 4) allows the installation of heat and mass transfer nozzle enlarged blocks. Presents a layer of multiturn coils (19) the same (right) rotation.
Fig, 19, 20 are types of package layers spiral pattern. The installation package layer spiral nozzle provides a parallel installation of layers (20). Visible (Fig)that sustained conditions preferred dense (triangle) placement of spirals. Fixing the relative position of the layers of spirals in this position is possible using a spacer-tightening device. As the spacer-tightening device can be applied, for example, consisting of parallel rows (top and bottom of package) of the profile strip, the area and other) with the slots in the distance, providing a parallel install them in layers with preferred accommodation spirals. This is the device in which Animo for the set of all procedural package or individual altitudinal zone. There are other spacer-tightening device, including using layers. For example (shown by Fig), for layers allocated to the boundaries between subsequent rows (on the ends of variables spirals), the slot axes of the spirals at the ends of the layers (not shown) can be used to install subsequent layers at an angle of 60°providing the preferred placement of the coils. The slits can be performed in the manufacture of layers.
As you can see (Fig, 16, 17), in the manufacture of packages multiturn coils fewer problems in fixing the relative placement of layers of multiturn coils to meet the conditions of the preferred placement of spirals and sufficient tightening of layers that can also be performed using the spacer-tightening device.
Fig, 22 show a variant of the installation package of layers of spirals (21) with bounds on the variables means helices (22). Layers of the right-hand spirals. At the ends of the layers along the axes of the helices are made slits (not shown). The upper layers are set relative to the bottom at an angle of 60° so that contiguous spirals combined aligned along the slits. This scheme makes it hard to capture the preferred placement of the spirals.
As you can see (Fig-22), sheet the nature of the design layer solves the problem of creating a transportation and procedural packages with the required configuration ordinary trimming.
The solution of structural issues partition height procedural packages (accounting corrosional, temperature, hydrodynamics) contributes to the lack of requirements for alignment, binding angular spreads and invariance under geometric and material characteristics.
Spiral nozzle on these analogues may be molded or fabricated by the deformation of the leaves are smooth, with notched or perforated and wire meshes. For manufacturing can be used a metal, plastic, glass, ceramic materials.
In the list of materials to use, you can add composite, such as graphite filling, which have high corrosion resistance in a wide acid-alkaline range at elevated temperatures.
Areas of application and effectiveness of the functioning of the presents invention designs the spiral pattern derived from the properties of the spiral, package spirals, their behavior in passing the axial flux:
1. Spiral converts translational motion of a continuous stream in the translational-rotational. Each point of the flow inside the spiral is influenced by three factors: translational, radial and rotational. The resulting vector pulse is taken outside of the spiral.
2. Parallel the Noah accommodation helices (figure 1, 6) in the package creates interaction rendered outside the spirals of pulses, and preferably dense packing of the helices (figure 4, an equilateral triangle) makes this interaction is maximum.
3. The same rotation of neighboring helices (figure 4) generates the highest counter-and-forth interaction, while the opposite is reduced by passing-and-forth interaction of counter-rotating spirals.
4. The pulses of each inner spiral in the service interact with the pulses from the six surrounding helices (figure 4), creating a cross-section close to the uniform eld distribution of concentrations and temperatures and significantly reducing longitudinal mixing.
5. Energy flow during the passage of the spiral is spent mostly on the organization's own rotation and interaction with pulses from neighboring helices in connection with a small frontal resistance of the spiral and at a constant axial direction of the stream.
7. The intensity of the spiral flow is inversely proportional to the size of the spiral module as in rotation, and when a sudden change in the direction of rotation of the stream.
8. The intensity of the sharp changes of direction of flow depends on its availability and value of changes in the direction of the momentum vector of the poet and the mu indifferent to corner the binding ends and the relative position of the axes of successive spirals.
9. In the planes between successive spirals in a sharp change of rotation of the thread on the back (7, 1, 5, 8) is created turbulization of high intensity (abrupt change in the direction of the vector momentum), significantly higher generated during the rotation. For the purpose of dispersing the increase in the number of sudden changes in the rotation more efficient than increasing the number of turns.
10. Opposite rotation of adjacent and equal consecutive spirals more acceptable in the presence of the stream of abrasive particles or heightened requirements for reduced abrasion of the particles.
11. A unique property of the spiral plate is the same on the entire axis of the rectangular cross-section, the area of which is appreciably less than the area of a circle (with respect to the thickness of the plate width to less than 0.1), and the smooth curvature of the surface predetermine low drag, low holding capacity, high efficiency energy flow and, most importantly, smooth permeability of phases in two-way axial direction.
12. A unique property of the spiral provides effective interaction phases in their three possible relative movements: direct-flow, counter-flow and fluidization.
13. In the continuous motion of dispersed particles in a continuous medium is e soar, obeying its evolutions with slip due to the difference of densities. Under these conditions, liquid and gas dispersion accept the geometrical characteristics corresponding to the changing interfacial turbulence (in terms of the oncoming or passing-and-forth motion, as well as abrupt changes of direction of rotation).
14. In countercurrent movement influence the evolution of the continuous medium on the dispersed particles is less than in once-through, sliding in proportion to the motion of a continuous medium, more important is the interaction with the wall spiral: particle in a circular centrifugal movement roll down (up or down) on the surface of one of the spiral to get to the surface of another. Liquid and gas dispersion acquire geometric characteristics of the corresponding hydrodynamic regime rolling of the particles on the surface. On the mode of the rolling bearing on the state of a spiral surface: roughness, nicks, as well as perforated and mesh sheet structure by tightening mode conversion.
15. Mode of fluidization centrifugal and rotational components of motion of a continuous phase quenched jet (gushing) plots fluidized bed originating from a distributive lattices, and also prevent the formation and development in the thickness of the layer of gas bubbles. The dispersed particles in the mode pseudo is igenia (in terms of the achieved stabilization) subject to the evolution of the continuous medium more than in counter-current, but less than in continuous mode, wrap them in clear horizontal component, which is the resultant circular and centrifugal movement of the solid phase with regard to slip. As a result of these phenomena significantly reduced longitudinal mixing of the phases and the entrainment of the dispersed particles. In addition, the horizontal component of wool dispersed particles significantly reduces the phenomenon of capture of non-target fractions in separation processes.
16. A unique property of the spiral provides prominenet and air flow through the spiral pattern in contaminated environments and thereby greatly extend the turnaround pre-owned equipment.
Packaging the spiral pattern in accordance with the properties 1-13, 16 increases the efficiency of the traditional use of the static mixer in the mixing, heat mass transfer, reaction, transport, and other devices that use the energy of the interacting threads.
Packaging the spiral pattern in accordance with the properties 1-9, 11, 12, 14, 16 extends its scope countercurrent gas-liquid processes, such as distillation, absorption, irrigation, cooling, separation and distribution of dispersions with improved efficiency.
Packaging the spiral pattern in accordance with your is Tami 1-9, 11, 12, 14, 16 extends its scope countercurrent liquid processes, advantageously different from the currently used various rings, saddles and other nozzles creating a substantially lesser transverse uneven threads and the best hydrodynamics to improve the efficiency of processes.
Known processes carried out in boiling (fluid) layer a solid dispersion of the material [1, 2]. Despite the prevalence of the advantages of this method, such a drawback, as the impossibility of achieving countercurrent phases within the fluidized bed due to their intensive mixing [1, p.29], leads to a decrease in the efficiency of processes. This is due to stroinosti at the entrance of the gas in the layer, as well as education within the fluidized bed of the gas bubbles and their further development [2, Chapter 1, 2]. Packaging the spiral pattern in accordance with the properties 1-8, 10-12, 15 expands the scope of its application to the processes fluidized bed, including the separation of solid dispersed particles with a significant increase in their efficiency.
Similarly, the nozzle with a cross-channel structure of the spiral nozzle, covered with substances having catalytic properties, can be used in devices for carrying out corresponding catalytic chemical processes, such as the devices for purification of gas emissions or emissions, and in accordance with the properties 1-9, 11-13, 16 with greater efficiency through better hydrodynamic properties.
1. Fluidization. Gelperin NI, Einstein VG Chemistry, 1968
2. Fluidization. Under the editorship of Einstein VG, A.P. Baskakov Chemistry, 1991
1. Spiral nozzle for heat and combined them with reaction processes, consisting of the successive series of spirals, pinned between them, produced by deformation of a rectangular sheet or molded from metal, plastic, glass, ceramic materials, characterized in that the spiral nozzle in the form of a successive series of spirals install the package parallel to each other and the flow is preferably a dense layout (equilateral triangle), while the adjacent and successive spirals may be the same or opposite rotation, and the successive spirals can be axial or non-axial.
2. Spiral nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that it is intended for carrying out countercurrent gas-liquid processes, such as distillation, absorption, irrigation, cooling, separation and distribution of the dispersions.
3. Spiral nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that it is intended for carrying out countercurrent liquid processes.p> 4. Spiral nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that it is intended for carrying out processes of boiling (fluid) layer, including processes classification of solid dispersed particles.
5. Spiral nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that it is made from composite materials, for example, with graphite filler.
6. Spiral nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that it is made of a sheet of smooth, notched, perforated or wire mesh.
7. Spiral nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that the coated substances having catalytic properties, and is designed for conducting catalytic chemical processes, such as cleaning gas emissions or emissions.
8. Spiral nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that a sequential series of variables spirals posted by variants of shift, characterized by a shift of the axes of the helices in consecutive rows and between rows (maybe a combination of options), forming the layers of the spiral pattern, with the boundaries of the layers can take place on various levels, such as means or ends of variables spirals.
9. Spiral nozzle of claim 8, characterized in that each of the variables spirals placed coaxially spiral preferably opposite rotation and a smaller size.
10. Spiral us the dka according to claim 1, characterized in that a sequential series of parallel helical coils are connected together at points of contact of the edges.
11. Spiral nozzle of claim 8 or 10, characterized in that the parallel mounted in the package layers are fixed by means of spacer-tightening device, the elements of which can serve as layers.
FIELD: petrochemical industry; equipment for separation and the mass-exchange apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the regular nozzle for the separation and mass-exchange apparatuses. The regular nozzle for separation and the mass-exchange apparatus is pertaining to the designs of the regular nozzles intended for realization the heat-mass-exchanging and separation processes in the system gas (steam)-liquid. The nozzle contains the turned relatively to each other packets of the sheets with the slant corrugations or the porous prominences crossing in the adjacent sheets. At that and the porosity of the prominences and/or the sheets in the packets is diminishing in the nozzle towards the gas outlet. Besides the prominences and/or the sheets of the packets are made on the gas inlet into the nozzle out of the hydrophilic material, and on the outlet of the nozzle - out of the liophilic material, and the ratio of the pores sizes of the prominences and/or of the sheets of the packets on the inlet and the outlet of the gas are proportional to ratios of the surface tension of the separable liquids in the power of 0.5. The invention allows to up-grade efficiency of the processes of the heat-and-mass exchange and separation by reduction of carryover of the liquid with the increased gas productivity.
EFFECT: the invention allows to up-grade efficiency of the processes of the heat-and-mass exchange and separation by reduction of carryover of the liquid with the increased gas productivity.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: regular nozzle comprises stack of sheets provided with sloping corrugations or projections. The perforated members are interposed between the sheets. The sheets and/or the perforated members interposed between them are provided with flow swirlers that define perforation. The axes of the swirlers are vertical. The swirlers can be defined by woven grid. The members may be provided with corrugations that intersect with the corrugations or projections on the sheets. The corrugations of the members are smaller than corrugations or projections on sheets. The swirlers are made of slots, and members are interposed between the sheets in pair.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
4 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises uniform distribution and supply of gas-liquid mixture to the structurized members with macroscopic and microscopic structures, impregnating the surface of the members with the liquid to be separated, collecting liquid on the surfaces of the structures, and discharging liquid and gas separately. The liquid in gas phase is converted into the liquid phase by reaching the phase thermodynamic equilibrium of the mixture.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry; oil-refining industry; chemical and other industries; devices for realization mass-exchange processes in the column apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for realization of mass-exchange processes in the column apparatuses used both in the systems of a liquid-liquid type and in the systems of a vapor-liquid type and may be used in petrochemical, oil-refining, chemical and other industries. The mass-exchange head includes a row of rectangular platesinclined to each other at an angle with a flanging towards to each other in the upper part of the plates. The rectangular plates of no more than 1 mm thick are made with a perforation in the form of a louver gauze, in which the slit louver holes have a width S equal to 0.3-0.5 mm and with a step equal to no more than the thickness of the plates, with an inclination at an angle α equal to 30-45°, the ratio of the plate length 1 to its width S - from 13 up to 25, a direction of the louver channels to the horizontal axis of coordinates at an angle β equal to 30-45° and with the spacing interval between the louver channels of 1-2 mm. The flangings are facing each other are connected among themselves without a clearance and form a blind bin with the overflow slats in height of no less than the values of a water seal. The inclined rectangular plates with the perforation in the form of a louver gauze in vertexes of the lower angles are connected by the blind plates, which form among themselves a drain branch pipe dipped into the blind bin with the overflow plates of the below lying row of the inclined plates. The advantage of the offered design of the mass-exchange head is expansion of the range of its stable operation at a high efficiency of the mass exchange both in the systems of the liquid -liquid type and in the systems of vapor-liquid type.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the range of the mass-exchange head stable operation at a high efficiency of the mass exchange both in the systems of the liquid -liquid type and in the systems of vapor-liquid type.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; heat-and-power engineering and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to distributing-contacting devices for the mass-exchange devices and may be used in chemical industry, petrochemical industry, heat-and-power engineering and other branches of industry. The distributing-contacting device contains a distribution plate supplied with a screen with holes, overflow branch-pipes, overflow devices, deflecting shields, perforated truncated cones. The perforated truncated cones are made out of a sheet of no more than 1 mm thick with shutter-type splits of a width -"S" equal to 0.3-0.5 mm, and with a step not exceeding the thickness of the sheet and with an inclination in direction of the liquid motion at an angle α equal to 30-45°, the ratio of the length "1" to its width "S" is from 13 up to 25, a direction of the shutter channels to the horizontal axis of coordinates is at an angle β is equal to 30-45° and the overflow branch-pipes. At that for the packed columns on the ends of the drain branch-pipes at the calculated space intervals there are spray washers, and for plate-type columns the liquid from the drain branch pipes is fed onto an underlying sheet of a plate through a hydraulic lock. The presented distributing-contacting device ensures a high efficiency of the mass-exchange parameters in a wide range of a stable operation of packed columns and in the plate column apparatuses.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a high efficiency of the mass-exchange parameters in a wide range of a stable operation of the packed columns and the plate column apparatuses.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; fine gas separation from a liquid at reconstruction of separators and filter-separators of the absorbing and rectifying columns.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of chemical industry and intended for fine separation of gas from a liquid at reconstruction of separators and filter-separators of the absorptive and rectifying columns. The multi-cartridge ring-type separating nozzle contains: a cover, a filtering unit, a device of water separation, an inlet connection pipe connected with the filtering unit by a pin, gas-distributing discs fixed to the pin. The filtering unit is made in the form of mesh cartridges mounted one on another. At that the internal surfaces of the mesh cartridges form a gas-distributing collector. The device of water separation is made in the form of the overflowing pipes located in the cartridges and mounted under them the drain pans with the axial apertures. Each mesh cartridge is supplied with a baffle made in the form of a plain disk with an axial aperture and a ring-type bead along the disc perimeter. Each mesh is formed by simultaneous winding of two parallel bands of the mesh, one of which is made out of a flat mesh, and the other - out of a corrugated mesh. On the side of its cylindrical internal surface a mesh cartridge is supplied with a cylindrical perforated shell. At that the first layers of the mesh band are fixed to the perforated shell by metal staples or welded to the perforated shell. At least two external layers of each mesh band are fixed by metal staples. The number of the mesh cartridges makes 6. The overflowing pipes are installed uniformly around the nozzle on a circumference, diameter of which makes from 0.85 up to 0.92 of the external diameter of the mesh cartridge and the diameter of a flow area of each overflowing pipe makes from 0.038 up to 0.05 of the external diameter of a mesh cartridge, and the total area of apertures of the shell perforation makes from 50 up to 60 % of the area of the internal cylindrical surface of the shell. In result the invention allows to increase efficiency of separation at the expense of prevention of the separated liquid accumulation in the cartridges of the nozzle.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increase efficiency of separation and prevention of the separated liquid accumulation in the cartridges of the nozzle.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engineering of foam transformation devices, possible usage for producing foam jackets of various types.
SUBSTANCE: foam generator contains foam generation device and outlet device, made in form of unified extension porous nozzle, connected to device for mixing foam-forming receipt and gas. Method includes mixing foam-forming receipt and gas until emulsion is produced, feeding emulsion to porous nozzle, forcing emulsion through pores of nozzle, forming of emulsion film on the surface of nozzle and affecting of film by gas with forming of foam layer, which is applied to the surface.
EFFECT: increased lifetime of foam jacket, provision of local application of cover.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: water disinfection; devices for water disinfection.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of water disinfection and may be applied for batching of the gaseous chlorine into the treated water. The chlorinator contains: the filter; the regulating and locking valves; the rotameter; the ejector, the line used for feeding of the non-chlorinated water and withdrawal of the chlorinated water, the upper and the lower chlorine duct and the chlorine outlet tube connected with the ejector. The chlorinator is supplied with the retarder, which is mounted between the upper chlorine duct and the outlet tube and made out of the strong non-brittle material. In the lower part of the retarder there is the butt cork with the lateral holes. The invention increases reliability and service life of the chlorinator.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased reliability and service life of the chlorinator.
FIELD: water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to liquids aeration technology and can find use in waste water oxygen saturation processes at biological treatment plants or for oxygen saturation of oxygen-depleted waters. Tubular aeration element according to invention contains framework and dispersing layer. All of the element is formed by thermoplastic polymer fibers melted with each other in contact sites owing to heat accumulated in the fibers. Framework is an inner layer 4 mm thick made from fiber 400-500 μm in diameter laid at density 0.38-0.42 g/cm3. Outer dispersing layer is made from fibers having diameter not larger than 50 μm and laid at density 0.54-0.57 g/cm3. Thickness of aeration element can be constant, maximal along its length, and can be diminished owing to outer dispersing layer by 0.5 mm on 1 m length but no more than by 40% of maximum thickness of this layer. In all cases, thickness of dispersing layer cannot be less than 4 mm.
EFFECT: enabled creation of structurally simple aeration elements to achieve uniform exit of air bubbles throughout length of the string of aeration elements and simplified aeration element manufacture process.
FIELD: purification of ground water from iron, manganese, copper and other metals and simultaneously removal of hydrogen sulfide and other hazardous gases, in particular, supplying of cities, populated localities, individual objects and agricultural complexes with water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves vacuumizing and mixing water stream to be purified with air by dispersing water with air; feeding water-and-air mixture into casing containing non-immersed filtering charge; providing separate discharge of purified liquid stream and air; performing vacuumizing process by feeding liquid stream under pressure into converging tube equipped with Venturi nozzles; separating stream in converging tube and directing through Venturi nozzles; continuously ejecting air from environment and performing filtering of purified water during free flowing thereof. Mixer with air sucking apertures is positioned concentrically at the outer side of converging tube. Outer part of converging tube surface is defined by uniting side surfaces of a number of truncated cones whose bases are extending in two parallel planes, and centers of these bases are apexes of regular polygons.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in removal from water under purification process of inorganic difficult-to-oxidize substances and organic substances, and reduced number of purification steps.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: liquid distributors for mass-exchange columns.
SUBSTANCE: proposed liquid distributor is used for distribution of liquid in lower mass-exchange layer consisting of several disordered, grid-type or structurized elements of packing. Liquid distributor is provided with many extended chutes separated from one another and laid across the column. Side walls of chutes have many liquid drain holes located in one or several planes at definite distance from chute bottom. Reflecting shields are located on the outside of chute side walls; they receive liquid through upper parts. Lower parts of reflecting shields form narrowed outlet hole located in plane below chute and used for draining liquid from reflecting shields to lower mass-exchange layer. Liquid drain holes in one of side walls of chute are displaced relative to the like holes in other side wall of chute for smooth distribution of liquid in outlet hole. Position of reflecting shields may be regulated vertically; they shall be supported by upper surface of mass-exchange layer so that liquid should be fed directly to mass-exchange layer, thus decreasing probability of entrapping falling liquid by vapor flow ascending through mass-exchange layer. Liquid escaping from outlet hole forms flow in form of curtain excluding penetration of vapor into outlet hole. Vapor admitted to outlet zone may be discharged upward through opening between shields and respective chutes at reduced velocity, thus excluding entrapping of liquid. Said opening is used for entrapping any liquid escaping from chutes by draining it downward over inner surface of reflecting shields.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
33 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: devices for industrial waste waters purification.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to waste waters purification and may be used for the water aeration dropped by industrial enterprises into the surrounding medium, for example, in the natural ponds. The device for aerification of the liquid contains the nozzle supplied with the locking head with the holes and the flexible brushes, the arbor and the impeller, and on the circumference of the nozzle there are holes. The technical result is the activation of the aerification process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures activation of the aerification process.
FIELD: devices and technological processes for production of gas-and-liquid mixtures of required composition; soda water apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: device for production of liquid saturated with oxygen includes reservoir, compressed air bottle connected with this reservoir through reducer by means of pneumatic line, high-pressure pump whose inlet is connected with lower part of reservoir by means of first hydraulic line and its outlet is connected with upper part of reservoir by means of second hydraulic line, and line supplying liquid saturated with oxygen from reservoir to user's container; bypass valve fitted in upper part of reservoir is used for protection of reservoir against excessive pressure. Reservoir is divided into upper and lower parts by means of partition. Device proposed for realization of this method includes coil embracing the reservoir on the outside over perimeter; coil is engageable with compressor for feeding the cooling agent and pump for delivery of liquid to reservoir which is connected with lower part of reservoir by means of third hydraulic line; mounted in upper part of reservoir are level sensor electrically connected with high-pressure pump and temperature sensor electrically connected with compressor. Second hydraulic line connecting the pump outlet with upper part of reservoir is provided with sprayer at its end engageable with upper part of reservoir; inlet of line supplying the oxygen-saturated liquid is located above level of coil position and below sensitive element of level sensor. This device is used for realization of proposed method.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of process; possibility of obtaining required concentration of oxygen in liquid.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: compressed and cooled gas is fed to reaction reservoir filled with water and kept at static pressure at temperature below equilibrium temperature of forming hydrate at this static pressure. Gas pressure slightly exceeds pressure in reaction reservoir and temperature of gas is equal to temperature of water contained in reservoir. Gas is mixed with water and pressure shock waves are generated in gas-and-liquid medium at amplitudes of hundreds of atmospheres. Shock waves may be generated by electromagnetic pulse radiators, air hammers or other devices. When shock waves propagate in gas-and-liquid medium, pressure increases due to its weak dissipation and gas phase is crushed in entire reaction reservoir, thus increasing degree of meta-stability of medium and number of nucleating centers of gas hydrate and reducing sizes of gas inclusions, increasing interface and rate of gas inclusions in liquid and turbulization of liquid motion.
EFFECT: acceleration of mass-exchange process at interface and intensification of hydrating process.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: devices and methods of for saturation of liquids with a carbon dioxide up to the desirable level.
SUBSTANCE: the group of inventions is pertaining to the devices and methods for saturation of liquids, in particular beverages with a carbon dioxide up to the desirable level. The saturation chamber with the mounted in it device for the water stirring partially fill with water, and the remained empty volume of this chamber fill with a carbon dioxide, then switch on the stirring device, duration of operation of which defines the level of the water carbonation. After release from the saturation chamber of the excessive pressure of the gas through the presented device to decrease the noise of the releasing gas conduct a batched filling of the carbonated water to the consumer. The water valves for the partial filling of the saturation chamber with the water and for the batched filling are made integrated with the common closing valve spring. The technical result consists in a possibility to obtain the different levels of the liquid saturation with a gas and to conduct saturation without increasing pressure.
EFFECT: the group of inventions ensures possibility to obtain the different levels of the liquid saturation with a gas and to conduct saturation without increasing pressure.
22 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: polymer production.
SUBSTANCE: process comprises feeding halogenating agent into continuous stream of elastomer solution, mixing the two components, which, after interaction, produce halogenated elastomer. The latter is neutralized by means of a neutralization medium and at least once washed with a washing medium. Neutralization and washing are carried out in reactor provided with static and dynamic means creating turbulent motion including inversion effect and consecutive withdrawal of excess of halogenating agent and settling separation of washing and neutralization media from halogenated elastomer. Process is carried out in installation comprising halogenation, washing, and neutralization reactors.
EFFECT: intensified all process stages, reduced equipment dimensions, and enabled continuous process resulting in production of homogeneous high-quality product.
19 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: filters for entrapping solid particles containing ferromagnetic admixtures; cleaning liquids in closed pipe lines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed filter has vertical cylindrical housing with upper and lower covers and two coaxial sections of pipes provided with members for securing them to pipe line. Volume of cylindrical housing exceeds total volume of pipe sections by four and more times. Upper cover is provided with vertical plate located over diameter of cylindrical housing at angle of 45-90° relative to axis of pipe sections at height equal to half height of cylindrical housing and more. Filter element is made in form of screen disk with stiffening members which is secured on lower end face of vertical plate; its diameter is equal to diameter of vertical cylindrical housing. Flat members of magnetic system are located on nonmagnetic rod along axis of vertical cylindrical housing; they may be secured on lower cover and on lower end face of vertical plate.
EFFECT: reduced hydrodynamic drag at increased degree of cleaning; improved service characteristics.
3 cl, 3 dwg