Scanning laser positioner for x-radiation

FIELD: positioning radiator with respect to object.

SUBSTANCE: additionally introduced in positioner is rotor in the form of hollow cylinder revolving at frequency f ≥ 20 Hz whose axis of revolution is aligned with laser axis; rotor is disposed between first reflector and laser; optical raster in the form of combination of transparent and nontransparent bars of width t and height H is set on rotor butt-end disposed closer to laser; bar width is chosen from condition t = λ/sin(α/2, where λ is laser beam wavelength; α is X-radiator ray angle; bar height is chosen from relation H ≤ d, where d is laser beam diameter; mounted on other end of rotor is mask with central hole and two symmetrically disposed holes spaced apart through distance D; rotor length B on laser axis is found from expression B=kd/tg(α/2), where k = 1 - 2 is process coefficient and diametric line connecting centers of mask holes is perpendicular to direction of raster bars; distance A between raster and center of first reflector along lather axis equals distance from this center to X-ray tube focus on X-ray beam axis. Such positioner enables X-raying of object area as well as determination of center of this area.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities and facilitated determination of distance from radiator to object.

1 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to non-destructive testing using x-ray radiation and can be used for control of materials and products radiation method in various engineering industries.

Known laser centralizer, comprising a housing located therein a laser with two-sided output radiation, the optical axis of the output radiation which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector, the first of which, made of plexiglass, installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser with the axis of the x-ray beam emitter can be rotated around an axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis of the output laser radiation with the axis of the x-ray beam, in the angle range 25-65°and the second set can be rotated around an axis parallel to the axis of rotation of the first reflector, the optical axis of the output radiation outside the projection on her exit window of the x-ray emitter, means for indicating the focal length in the form of a pointer with a scale attached to the body of the centralizer associated with the second reflector, and means interrupting the beam from the second reflector, made in the form of hinged shutters installed before or after the second reflector [1].

This device does not allow to estimate the size of the x-ray beam in the plane of ed is Leah and in addition, it has reduced the accuracy of the measurement of the focal length due to difficulties with the combination of small points of light, poorly distinguishable by large distances to the object.

Also known laser centralizer, comprising a housing located therein a laser with two-sided output radiation, the optical axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector, the first of which was installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser with the axis of the x-ray beam, and the second set on the optical axis of the output laser radiation outside the projection on it of the output window of the x-ray emitter with the possibility of rotation around the axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis of the output laser radiation with the axis of the x-ray beam, and means for indicating the focal length in the form of a pointer with a scale attached to the casing centralizer, further provided with two cylindrical lenses mounted on the axis of the laser radiation, across each of the output beam, the first between one of the end faces of the laser oscillator and the first reflector and the second between the second end of the laser emitter and the second reflector, and their focus is chosen from the relation f=h/tgα where h is the radius of the laser beam, α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray emitter, with cylindrical is INSY mounted for rotation around the axis of the laser beam [2].

The disadvantage of this centralizer is the inability to evaluate the area of the object irradiated by x-rays, as well as the complexity of determining the center of this area and determine the distance from the x-ray emitter to the object in connection with the necessity of rotation of the cylindrical lenses.

To eliminate these disadvantages of laser centralizer, comprising a housing located therein a laser with two-sided output radiation, the optical axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector, the first of which was installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser with the axis of the x-ray beam, and the second set on the optical axis of the output laser radiation outside the projection on it of the output window of the x-ray emitter with the possibility of rotation around the axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis of the output laser radiation with the axis of the x-ray beam, and means for indicating the focal length in the form of a pointer with a scale attached to the casing centralizer, cylindrical the lens mounted on the axis of the laser across its output beam, between the second end of the laser emitter and the second reflector, the focus of which is selected from the relation f=h/tgαwhere h is the radius of the laser beam, α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray emitter, with a cylindrical lens is mounted for rotation around the axis of the laser beam, added rotating with frequency f≥20 Hz rotor in the form of a hollow cylinder, the axis of rotation of which coincides with the axis of the laser, the rotor is located between the first reflector and the laser on the end face of the rotor, positioned close to the laser has an optical raster in the form of a set of transparent and opaque lines of width t and height H, the width of the strokes, is selected as t=λ/sin(α/2), where λ - wavelength laser radiation, α - the angle of radiation the x-ray emitter, the height of the strokes should be selected based on the ratio H≤d, where d is the diameter of the laser beam, at the other end of the rotor mask is set with a Central hole and two symmetrically arranged holes with a spacing D, and the length of the rotor along the axis of the laser is determined by the ratiowhere K=1÷2 - technological factor, and the diametrical line connecting the centers of the holes of the mask perpendicular to the vertical direction of lines in the raster, the distance from the raster to the center of the first reflector and from this center to focus x-ray tube along the axis of the x-ray beam are equal.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing (figure 1), which shows a diagram of the device.

Laser centralizer contains the x-ray radiator 1, to which is attached the housing 2 located in it laserem with bilateral output radiation, the optical axis of the output radiation which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector 4 and 5, the first 4 of which are made of plexiglass, installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser 8 with the axis of the x-ray beam emitter (falling on controlled surface 6) can be rotated around an axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis 8 of the output radiation of the laser with the axis 7 of the x-ray beam in the angle range 25-65°and the second 5 is installed with the possibility of rotation around the axis parallel to the axis of rotation of the first reflector on the optical axis 9 of the output radiation outside the projection on her exit window of the x-ray emitter, means for indicating the focal length as a pointer 10 scale 11, fixed to the body 2 of the centralizer associated with the second reflector 5, and a means of interrupting the beam from the second reflector 5 made in the form of hinged shutters installed before or after the second reflector.

The centralizer includes a cylindrical lens 12, which is installed on the optical axis of the laser beam between the end face of the laser and the reflector 5 so that the object 6 is formed a vertical luminescent band.

On the axis of the laser 3 between the first output end and the first reflector 4 is mounted for rotation about the axis of the laser with cha what Thoth f≥ 10 Hz rotor in the form of a hollow cylinder at one end of which, near to the laser perpendicular to the axis of the laser has an optical raster consisting of the set of parallel transparent and opaque strokes (figa) of width t and height H≤d, where d is the diameter of the laser beam, at the other end of the rotor 14 mounted mask 13 with a Central hole and two holes symmetrically positioned about the axis of the laser according to the diameter of the rotor at a distance D from each other (figa).

The length of the rotor is determined from the obvious relation (3)

where K=1,1÷1,5 - technological factor, due to the need for a structural gap between the edges of the holes, the diameter of which equals the diameter d of the laser beam.

The device operates as follows. The laser beam 3 coming from the first output end of the optical raster 15, in accordance with the laws of diffraction is transformed into a set of rays, one of which, corresponding to the zero order of diffraction, extends along the axis of the laser. Rays other diffraction orders propagate in a plane perpendicular to the vertical direction of the raster lines angles ±·α to the axis of the laser, where K=0, 1, 2...n is the order of diffraction. The ratio between the angles of diffractionα , the wavelength of laser λ and width of lines in the raster t has the form [3]: t·sinα=·λ (K=0, 1, 2...m).

In the proposed device uses only the most intense rays of zero and ±1, which simplifies the analysis of the diffraction image on the object. For this purpose, the axis of the laser at a distance B from the raster set opaque mask with three holes of diameter d equal to the diameter of the laser beam. The distance between the holes is selected in accordance with the previously noted so that through the mask were only rays of zero and ±1-th order, the centers of the holes are thus located on the diameter of the mask perpendicular to the lines in the raster.

Raster mask rigidly mounted on the hollow rotor, which is driven by a frequency f≥20 Hz (drive not shown in the diagram in figure 1 effect of recognizing such technical solutions), during the rotation of the raster rays ±1-th order form a hollow conical surface, which allows to form on the surface of the object 6 glowing ring.

The distance between the lines in the raster chosen so that the diffraction angle of the 1st order corresponds to the angle of radiation of the x-ray emitter αand the distance from the vertex of the cone of rays to the center of the first reflector is chosen equal to the distance from the center to focus x-ray tube. When the atom after reflection on the first reflector hollow conical beam of laser rays is distributed in space, completely repeating geometry coaxially with the beam of x-ray emitters.

On the object, thus, the observer sees a bright ring, the diameter of which is equal to the diameter of the zone of the object irradiated by the x-ray beam, as well as a bright dot in the center of this ring, the position of which coincides with the point of intersection of the object with the axis of the x-ray beam.

When the rotor speed f'≥20 Hz due to the inertia of view of the image ring is perceived almost as a sentence.

In operation, the operator moves the centralizer on the desired area of the object, combining its center with laser ring, and then rotating the second reflector combines a bright dot in the center of the ring laser with laser stripe formed by a cylindrical lens in front of the second output end of the laser (figure 4), and removes from the scale device count equal to the distance from the object to the x-ray emitter, similar to the patent-similar [2].

To increase the image contrast of the laser beams on the object, especially in conditions of intensive sun exposure, it is recommended to observe the object through a narrow-band filter with a wavelength bandwidth that is coincident with the wavelength of the laser.

Raster is performed photolithographic method, a well-developed electronic and optical industry. The width of the strokes to get angles on the fraction of 1-th order in the range of 6° ÷10°that corresponds to the angles of radiation of a real x-ray emitters α=12°÷20°is 2÷5 μm, which is implemented in practice, even ordinary photographic materials of the type "Migrat", etc. the Size of the raster is assumed equal to the diameter of the radiation serial lasers, i.e. H≈1÷2 mm, emitting at a wavelength of λ=0.63 µm (the most common range study gas semiconductor lasers).

Applying the rotors of different widths, it is possible to easily change the angular size of the tapered laser beam.

Sources of information

1. Patent RU 1798935. Laser centralizer.

2. Patent RU 2106619. Laser centralizer for x-ray emitter.

3. The reference design opto-mechanical devices, Ed. Vaganova. M: mechanical engineering, 1980, 742 S.

Laser centralizer, comprising a housing located therein a laser with two-sided output radiation, the optical axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector, the first of which was installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser with the axis of the x-ray beam, and the second set on the optical axis of the output laser radiation outside the projection on it of the output window of the x-ray emitter with the possibility of rotation around the axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis of the radiated output the I laser and the axis of the x-ray beam, and means for indicating the focal length in the form of a pointer with a scale attached to the casing centralizer, a cylindrical lens mounted on the axis of radiation of the laser across its output beam between the second end of the laser emitter and the second reflector, the focus of which is selected from the relation f=h/tgαwhere h is the radius of the laser beam, α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray emitter, with a cylindrical lens mounted for rotation around the axis of the laser beam, characterized in that it additionally introduced rotating with frequency f≥20 Hz a rotor in the form of a hollow cylinder, the axis of rotation of which coincides with the axis of the laser, the rotor is located between the first reflector and the laser on the end face of the rotor, located closer to the laser has an optical raster in the form of a set of transparent and opaque lines of width t and height H, the width of the strokes is selected as t=λ/sin(α/2), where λ - wavelength laser radiation, α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray emitter, the height of the strokes should be selected based on the ratio H≤d, where d is the diameter of the laser beam, at the other end of the rotor mask is set with a Central hole and two symmetrically arranged holes with a spacing D, and the length of the rotor on the axis of the laser is determined by the ratio

where K=1÷2 - technological factor,

and diametrical line connecting the centers of the holes of the mask perpendicular to the vertical direction of lines in the raster, the distance from the raster to the center of the first reflector along the axis of the laser as well As the distance from the center to focus x-ray tube along the axis of the x-ray beam.



 

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