Laser positioner for x-radiator

FIELD: positioning radiator with respect to object.

SUBSTANCE: newly introduced in proposed positioner are optical wedge installed on laser optical axis for rotation relative to this axis at frequency f ≥ 10 Hz and at distance A from intersection point of X-ray beam and laser axes that equals distance from this point to X-radiator focus; drive for rotating optical wedge; first beam splitter installed on laser optical axis between optical wedge and first butt-end of laser at distance C > A from center of first reflector and at angle β < 45° to laser axis perpendicular to plane formed by laser and X-ray beam axes; second beam splitter made of plexiglas and installed on X-ray beam axis past first reflector at distance B from its center perpendicular to plane formed by X-ray beam and laser axes at angle γ to X-ray beam axis. Distances B and C as well as angles β and γ are interrelated by equations γ = 45° - β and β=c·tg(2β); optical wedge parameters (angle at θ vortex, ray deviation angle δ, and wedge material refractive index) are interrelated by equations δ = θ(n - 1) and δ = α/2, where α is X-radiation angle. This positioner enables estimation of X-rayed object area and also determination of center of this area.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities, facilitated determination of distance from radiator to object.

1 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to non-destructive testing using x-ray radiation and can be used for control of materials and products in mechanical engineering, aerospace and defense industries.

Known laser centralizer for x-ray emitter, used for control of materials and products radiation method in various engineering industries. The inventive device includes a housing in which is located the laser on bilateral output radiation, the optical axis of the output radiation which is parallel to the longitudinal axis x-ray, two of the reflector, the first of which is made of Plexiglas and is installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser with the axis of the x-ray beam emitter, the second reflector is installed with the possibility of rotation around the axis parallel to the axis of rotation of the first reflector on the axis of the output radiation outside the projection on it of the output window of the x-ray radiation, means for indicating the focal length and the tool interrupts the beam from the second reflector installed before or after the second reflector, optional centralizer is provided with two cylindrical lenses mounted on the axis of the laser radiation, the first between one of the end faces of the laser reflector and the first reflector and the second between the second end of the laser) is the switch and the second reflector, their focus is chosen from the relation f=h/tgαwhere h is the radius of the laser beam; α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray emitter, while the cylindrical lens mounted for rotation around the axis of the laser beam [1].

The disadvantage of this device is the lack of information about the area of the object irradiated by the x-ray beam, as well as the complexity of operations on overlapping laser strips on the object at different orientations of the cylindrical lenses.

To address these shortcomings in the laser centralizer, comprising a housing located therein a laser with two-sided output radiation, the optical axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector, the first of which is made of Plexiglas and is installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser with the axis of the x-ray beam, and the second set on the optical axis of the output laser radiation outside the projection on it of the output window of the x-ray emitter with the possibility of rotation around the axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis of the output radiation of the laser and the axis of the x-ray beam, means for indicating the focal length in the form of a pointer with a scale mounted on the casing centralizer, and a cylindrical lens mounted on the optical axis of the output laser radiation between the second end of the laser and the second reflector, the Lin, mounted on the optical axis of the laser with the possibility of rotation relative to the axis with a frequency of f≥10 Hz at a distance from the point of intersection of the axes of the x-ray beam and the laser, which is equal to the distance from that point to focus the x-ray tube, actuator for rotation of the optical wedge, the first beam splitter mounted on the optical axis of the laser between the optical wedge and the first end of the laser distance>from A center of the first reflector at an angle β<45° to the axis of the laser perpendicular to the plane formed by the axes of the laser and x-ray beam, the second beam splitter Plexiglas, mounted on the axis of the x-ray beam from the first reflector at a distance from its center perpendicular to the plane formed by the axes of the x-ray beam and laser angle γ to the axis of the x-ray beam, while the distances between B and C and angles β and γ the relationship γ=45°-β=·tg(2β), and the parameters of the optical wedge, the angle at the top θ, deflection angle δ and the refractive index of the material of the wedge h connected by the relation δ=θ(n-1) and δ=α/2 α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray emitter.

The invention is illustrated figure 1, 2, 3, 4, which presents the General scheme of the device (figure 1), calculated scheme to determine distances between accounted for the firs depending on the angular tilt to the respective axes (figure 2), scheme of the optical wedge (figure 3) and a field of view of the device on the stages of the guidance of the centralizer on the object (figure 4, a) and measure the distance from the clamp to the object (figure 4, b).

The device has an x-ray emitter 1, to which is attached a housing 2 that houses the laser 6 with bilateral output radiation, the first reflector 3 of Plexiglas mounted on the axis of the x-ray beam at a distance from the focus of the x-ray emitter at the point of intersection of the axes of the x-ray beam and laser, optical wedge 4, mounted on the axis of the laser between the first reflector and the first end of the laser 6 at a distance from the center of the first reflector, the first beam splitter 5, mounted on the axis of the laser between the optical wedge and the first end of the laser, the second reflector 8, mounted on the axis of the laser rotatably with respect to an axis perpendicular to the plane formed by the axes of the x-ray beam and laser, a cylindrical lens 7 mounted on the axis of the laser between its second end and the second reflector.

On the axis of the x-ray beam from the first reflector stopped the second beam splitter 9 out of Plexiglas.

The device also includes a drive for rotation of the wedge relative to the axis of the laser with a frequency of f≥10 Hz, the scale index for a reference distance from the x-ray emitter to the object 9. These elementiterator not shown in figure 1 effect well-known in the relevant technical solutions. The distance to the object measured by the triangulation method, as in the analogue [1].

The device operates as follows.

The laser beam emerging from its first end, is partially reflected at the second beam splitter 9, after reflection from which is directed to the object 10. Thus the angles of the reflecting surfaces of the beam splitter 5 and the second beam splitter and the distances between them are selected in such a way that the reflected laser beam from the second beam splitter 9 which coincides with the axis of the x-ray beam (figure 2). Passed through a beam splitter 5, the portion of the laser radiation 6 enters the optical wedge 4 and after refraction it is deflected for a corner α/2 equal to half the angle of radiation of the x-ray beam. When rotating optical wedge passed through the laser beam forms in the space of a hollow conical beam, after reflection from the first reflector 3 passes the second beam splitter 9 and is directed to the object 10, forming on its surface glowing ring. Since the distance from the center of the first reflector 3 to the optical wedge is equal to the distance from the center to focus the x-ray emitter, and the first reflector 3 is installed at an angle of 45° to the axis of the laser, after reflection from him hollow conical beam of laser extends coaxially with the x-ray beam. Parametry wedge is - its refractive index h and the refraction angle θ chosen so that after refraction in the wedge 4 laser beams deflected by the angle α/2 equal to half the angle of radiation of the x-ray beam. Due to the rotation of the wedge 4 is formed by a beam of laser beams in the form of a hollow cone with an angle at the top θwhose geometry is fully identical to the geometry of the x-ray beam. Therefore, on the surface of an object, the diameter of the luminous ring formed by rotating the wedge 4, corresponds to the size of the area irradiated by the x-ray beam emitter, and its center coincides with the intersection point of the object axis of the x-ray beam. This point is in the center of the ring is illuminated by a laser beam reflected by the splitters 5 and 9.

Radiation from the second end of the laser 6 passes through the cylindrical lens 7, which converts it into a flat diverging light beam, after reflection from the rolling of the second reflector generates object luminous strip, which moves along the surface parallel to itself during the rotation of the second reflector 8. At the time of coincidence of this strip with the center of the luminous ring, illuminated reflected from beam splitters 5 and 9 by a laser beam, the reading on the scale of the device carries the information about the distance from the object to the x-ray emitter (figure 4,a and b).

Figure 2 presents the calculation scheme for determining the angles of the beam splitters 4 and 9 to the axes of the laser and the x-ray beam, respectively, and the distances between them.

When the inclination of the first beam splitter 5, is installed on the distance from the center of the first reflector 3 to the axis of the laser angle β because of the symmetry of the geometric ratios with specular reflection of light [3] there is equality

∠NKE=∠MKP=β.

The sum of the angles adjacent to the direct OKR is equal to 180°, so ∠ (DKE=180°-ε=ϕ.

But the angle adjacent to the direct NM and EKW=E=180°-2βthat follows from the analysis, here ∠ (DKE=2β=ϕ.

Of a right-angled triangle (DKE) we get B=c·tgϕ=c·tg(2β) and ∠ (DKE=ω=90°-ϕ=90°-2β.

Pursuing similar to the above analysis sootnoshenii between the corners adjacent to the line of RE, and the angles between the rays specularly reflected from the second beam splitter 9 in the point E, get ψ=180°-2γ, and that ψ=90°-2β (angles in a straight RE).

Finally get that γ=45°-β.

Deflection angle δ from the original direction after refraction in the wedge (figure 3) is determined by the known ratio [2]. δ=θ(n-1), where δ is equal.

In operation, the operator moves the object rentg nowski emitter, combining the glowing ring controlled area (figure 4, a). Then, rotate the second reflector 8, combine laser stripe laser spot in the center of the glowing ring and removed from the scale value of the distance from the x-ray emitter to the object (figb).

The rotation frequency of the optical wedge f≥10 Hz is selected taking into account the complex image of a glowing ring on the surface of the object in accordance with the ergonomics of view [2].

Sources of information

1. RF patent 2106619. Laser centralizer.

2. The reference design opto-mechanical devices. VA Panov, etc. - L: mechanical engineering, 1980, 742 S.

Laser centralizer, comprising a housing located therein a laser with two-sided output radiation, the optical axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the x-ray emitter, two reflector, the first of which is made of Plexiglas and is installed at the intersection of the optical axis of the laser with the axis of the x-ray beam, and the second set on the optical axis of the output laser radiation outside the projection on it of the output window of the x-ray emitter with the possibility of rotation around the axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the optical axis of the output radiation of the laser and the axis of the x-ray beam, means for indicating the focal length in the form of a pointer with a scale established the military on the body of the centralizer, and a cylindrical lens mounted on the optical axis of the output laser radiation between the second end of the laser and the second reflector, characterized in that it additionally introduced optical wedge mounted on the optical axis of the laser with the possibility of rotation relative to the axis with a frequency of f≥10 Hz at a distance from the point of intersection of the axes of the x-ray beam and the laser, which is equal to the distance from that point to focus the x-ray tube, actuator for rotation of the optical wedge, the first beam splitter mounted on the optical axis of the laser between the optical wedge and the first end of the laser distance>And from the center of the first reflector at an angle β<45° to the axis of the laser perpendicular to the plane formed by the axes of the laser and the x-ray beam, the second beam splitter Plexiglas, mounted on the axis of the x-ray beam from the first reflector at a distance from its center perpendicular to the plane formed by the axes of the x-ray beam and laser angle γ to the axis of the x-ray beam, while the distances between b and C and angles β and γ the relationship γ=45°-β and β=C·tg(2β), and the parameters of the optical wedge: the angle at the vertex θ, deflection angle δ and the refractive index of the material of the wedge n are related by ratios of δ=θ(n-1) and δ=α/2, the de α - the angle of radiation of the x-ray emitter.



 

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