Method for making film evaporator-oscillators

FIELD: thin film physics, in particular, liquid films, surface tension of which is sensitive to their composition and to composition of surrounding environment.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing sensitive cheap thin film evaporator-oscillators with new properties, liquid films are used made of common solutions with soap-like surfactants or chemically pure surfactants, but with special addition - noticeable proportion (1-50)% of component, that mixes well with water - dimethylsulfoxide - is additionally included in composition of soap solution for films.

EFFECT: expanded area of application of film evaporator-oscillators due to their creation on basis of new cheaper substances with high stability in broad range of temperatures.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the physics of thin films, and more specifically to liquid films, surface tension which is sensitive to their composition and to the composition of the surrounding atmosphere.

Famous for a large class of devices with sensitive liquid surfaces, called Spalatorie (a contraction of the words "evaporator+oscillator"). In them the change of properties of the liquid surface, its local tension is manifested in the formation of the rapid streams, caused by the so-called Marangoni effect. The scheme of work and possible applications of spalatro considered, for example, [1-4].

Thin films of spalatro with a heightened sensitivity to ambient atmosphere, are of interest not only as chemical and thermal sensors, but also as a nonlinear fiber optic medium for laser polaritons, as additives to improve lubrication and reduce friction, they can be used for making artistic paintings, for marimonovski drying semiconductor wafers, to create complex optical surfaces and for the treatment of respiratory diseases [1-5].

In literature [1-4] describes several ways of obtaining liquid ispolatov with sensitive surface.

There is a method of modifying the surface tension of solutions in volumetric spalatro using above them f oroperty gas (at pressures from a few Torr and above) [ 1-3]. However, generated in this way surround epilatory have a low velocity of surface flows due to the inhibitory effects of the underlying subsurface liquid layers, and this involves the use of expensive fluorocarbon.

A method of obtaining a film ispolatov from aqueous soap solutions, which consists in the fact that air about these films in open and closed volumes add fluorocarbon gas (at pressures from a few Torr and above), which makes their surface tension is very sensitive to temperature [4] -prototype) and allows to obtain a high flow rate at low ambient conditions change, but it is also associated with the use of the expensive fluorocarbon.

Of interest is the creation of a sensitive film ispolatov with high flow rates at low ambient conditions change, but not connected, as in the prototype, using expensive fluorocarbon.

The objective of the invention is the creation of a sensitive film ispolatov based on the new lower-cost environments, with high stability over a wide temperature range, which allows to extend the scope of their application.

To solve this problem is proposed to use a liquid film of the conventional solutions of surface-active substances (surfactants) type of soap or chemically pure surfactants, but with the particular special additive, and modify their surface tension is not external gases, types of fluorocarbons, and selected internal structure of the film, and for this purpose to include in the soap solution for films are well miscible with water for such new solutions component of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), (CH3)2SO, the volume fraction of which water is 0.01-0.5 parts or (1-50)%.

Described in the literature mild soap films and bubbles can include various components, listed in detail, for example in [6]but DMSO among them is not considered. The essence of the invention consists in the addition to soapy solution of DMSO and is as follows.

DMSO is a well-studied little volatile chemical resistant harmless connection [7], which is widely used in medicine, for example, to increase the penetrating ability of drugs through the skin. It is miscible with water in any ratio and by increasing the concentration gradually reduces the surface tension of the water [8]. Conversely, the addition of water to DMSO as usual smoothly increases the surface tension of the resulting solution. However, in a soap solution additive DMSO behaves differently and very unexpectedly.

Soap for bubbles and films typically has a surface tension of about 35-30 DISM, i.e. much smaller than the liquid DMSO (43.5 Dyne/cm [9])so, according to generally accepted views, DMSO with their higher tension with the addition of this can only increase the surface tension of the soap solution and thereby degrade its properties. But, as our research shows, when added to any soap-DMSO solution behaves in a completely unexpected way - in a soap solution (e.g. a solution of PVA Triton X-100 in water with a volume ratio of component parts (0.01:1)the tension of this soap solution with increasing concentrations of DMSO does not increase, and decrease. The unusual properties of this solution is observed when the surfactant solution Triton X-100 in DMSO (with a volume ratio of (0.01:1) is this the original soap without water does not allow it to make sustainable films and bubbles), then add the water. The presence of DMSO does something completely unexpected and effects of water on the surface tension of this solution. On figa, b shows the dependence of the surface tension of the solution from the volume fraction of water in X (0-100) in the linear axis X (a) for clarity logarithmic (b) scale. The addition of water with a surface tension of 72 Dyne/cm to the original soap solution without water tension 41-43 Dyne/cm does not increase the tension, not adds the partial values of these is atzeni, as is typically the case for other mixtures, and first at low dilution sharply reduces its almost doubled, to 26 Dyne/cm, and then only after a large dilution, when the volumetric water content increases 6-100 times, the tension of the solution with the addition of water (after the gently sloping section with two spaced minima) starts to increase. It should be noted that the presence of DMSO in the solution is not to cut, but significantly increases the lifetime of the films of this soap. Found that such a solution, with the addition of water in an amount of 1-20 source volume (dilution, the share of DMSO in this solution varies from 50 to 5%), allows you to make sustainable long-lived bubbles and film, and adding water in the amount of 1.8-6 initial amounts of these films are characterized by high stability and will not freeze at temperatures up to 35°C. an Abnormal decrease in the tension of the solution with increasing concentration of water indicates unusual and multiple structural rearrangements of the surface composition of such a solution by increasing the concentration of water, which allows it to make new film epilatory in a wide temperature range without the use of organofluorine compounds.

If you blow bubbles with a diameter of 1-5 cm of this solution with high stability and place it on phases equally the surface of the solution, in an open vessel in the air, he takes a familiar form of rain bubble (in the form of a hemisphere on a puddle), but is long-lived (hours and days), and in the film of the bubble immediately arise turbulent flows with a speed of 1-10 cm/S. Thus, it turns into epilator working through transfer and evaporation from its summit the most volatile component of the components is water. In solution a lot of water, and on the border with the solution at the bottom of the bladder in contact with the solution area dried film is gaining water. With increasing water content the tension decreases (as shown in figure 1 at low water content), it stretches and becomes thinner, lighter, and the Archimedes force pulls it to the surface to the top of the bubble. Up here, where the evaporation of water in air is more intense, because of the loss of water tension increases (as seen in figure 1), the film because it shrinks, becomes thicker and under the action of its weight goes down again to the place of contact of the film with a solution. Film evaporates, mainly water, because at room temperature, its volatility is about 40 times higher than that of DMSO. But the water in the air evaporates a little slower, because the presence in the surface layer film of a large number of molecules of DMSO somewhat slow down isarene the water from the film. Detected anomalous dependence of the surface tension of the solution depends on the concentration of water provides multiple and continuous moving plots podsypaya film, filling them in evaporating water, which significantly increases the time of her life. This oscillatory process flows on film Spalatorie without visible change of speed is outdoors around the bladder for hours and hours, but it can be carried in a closed volume in the presence of a refrigerator with the relevant conditions of condensation and return to the solution evaporated substances. The diameter of the bubble due to the permeability of the film for a pressure inside the air gradually decreases, but this does not affect the film ispaster. In a closed volume without refrigerator in the equilibrium conditions of persistent bladder of such a solution without threads saved the day. However, due to the drainage of the solution film gradually reduces its thickness to values less than 80 nm, when in reflected light it looks black, but bubble with black film persists for hours. Found that bubble out of the solution with DMSO in a closed volume with saturated water vapor lives longer if it is not applied on the soap solution similar composition, but on the surface of almost pure water with a low content of soap and DMSO. Because of the nature of metabolic processes on the pin is ktoi the border with anomalous dependence of the surface tension of the solution from the concentration of water, the drainage of the film is slowed down considerably and at some time (2-5 hours) it is in the liquid film is almost completely terminated, which is convenient for studying the nonlinear optical properties of such stationary transparencies and passing them laser polaritons.

Example 1. In a wide open vessel with a diameter of 10-20 cm are made (or pour) the solution of the surfactant Triton X-100, water and DMSO in volumetric proportions (0.01:2:1), which covers the layer thickness of more than 0.1 mm, the bottom of the vessel, and on the surface of this solution blow a bubble with a diameter of 2-5 see a Bubble in the form of a hemisphere begins to work as isolator with turbulent flows, reaching speeds of 1-10 cm/s up and down its surface, which together with bubble saved without reducing the film thickness for hours and days before significant evaporation of the solution or one of its component. The content of surfactant in solution is not critical for the operation of ispaster and can be increased tenfold. The volume fraction of DMSO in the solution can range from 1 to 50% (but preferably 10-30%).

Example 2. In a wide open vessel with a diameter of 10-20 cm are made (or pour) soap from the liquid soap for washing dishes Bingo with glycerin", water and DMSO in volumetric proportions (0.01:2:1), which covers the layer thickness of more than 0.1 mm, the bottom of the vessel, and on the surface of this solution blow a bubble with a diameter of 2-5 see the Bubble begins to work as isolator with turbulent flows, reaching speeds of 1-10 cm/s VVER and down its surface, together with bubble saved without reducing the film thickness for hours and days before significant evaporation of the solution or one of its component. The content of the soap solution is not critical for the operation of ispaster and can be increased tenfold. The volume fraction of DMSO in the solution can range from 1 to 50% (but preferably 10-30%).

The same film epilatory obtained from any other soap solutions and chemically pure surfactant addition in the proportions DMSO, indicating the important role of DMSO in the operation of such devices.

It should be noted that, despite the wide range available soapy water and non-aqueous solutions for films, to the knowledge of DMSO and on simplicity of the experiments, the existence of stable films or film ispolatov with DMSO are not described in literature, does not follow from known theories for surface tension in the previously discussed liquid mixtures and is not an obvious consequence of the known properties of DMSO and soap films. Thus, a new method of obtaining sensitive to the composition of the components and the environment film ispolatov running on thin soap films from solutions with cheap components without the use of fluorocarbon gases.

Possible applications.

Film epilatory can work as sensors VL is gnosti, as chemical and temperature sensors, can be used as a thin optical surfaces of complex shape, or as partitions to separate volumes with different gas composition, for example, in order to protect those inside from dust. They, like lasers, are self-organizing dynamic systems involving the flow of energy and mass, and the study of their properties allows to estimate the characteristic of such devices is the threshold conditions for the occurrence of regular oscillatory processes in non-equilibrium physical systems.

The desire of such films to focus in areas where they have the greatest rate of evaporation, for example in the most hot places, you can use them as tabloidisation and effective carriers of energy, as well as lubricants to reduce friction in mechanical devices. Film epilatory can be used as research sites for the study of double refraction and phase transitions from thick to thin (black) films, for flotation additives, gas sensors, affecting the surface tension of liquids to transmit optical information uskorennym laser polaritons [10]to study the properties of this self-constricted surface polariton emission [11]and adding to the solution of the dye molecules is her as an active thin-film laser medium for receiving laser generation [ 10, 11].

High frost resistance of the solution can be used as antifreeze and use in the winter as the ice-free ink for printers and for children to play with soap bubbles in the cold. Constantly changing colorful interference pattern on a moving film with the observed in reflected light playing with all the colors of the rainbow flows can be used as an attractive attractors, of the type shown in figure 2, toy and to create abstract dynamic kinsalevar and colorful art paintings.

Literature.

1. Stall YOU Way to reduce the surface tension of liquids. RF patent № 2114414 from 27.06.1998.

2. Stall YOU the Method of producing a liquid optical surfaces. RF patent № 2115144 from 10.07.1998.

3. Stall WU Phys, 170, 41 (2000).

4. Elders AV, stall YOU Film epilatory. Quantum electronics, 32, 463 (2002);

5. Stall YOU Way to improve health. RF patent № 2204998 from 16.02.2001.

6. Gosar IM Device and composition for transmission of soap bubbles. RF patent № 2246335 from 24.06.2003

7. N. Kukushkin. Soros Educational Journal, №9, 54 (1997). (see http://www.issep.rssi.ru/pdi79709 054.pdf).

8. Johans S., P. Suomalainen Kibron Inc. Oy, June 24, 2003 (see http://www.kibron.com/pdf/sensitivity.pdf)

9. htts://www.e-orgamcchemicals.com/thio/msds/literature/DMSO 6.pdf

10. Elders AV, stall YOU, the Method of obtaining p the surface polaritons. RF patent № 2239856 from 5.12.2002.

11. Stall WU Phys, № 12, 1359 (2004).

A method of obtaining a film ispolatov from aqueous solutions with surface-active substances, characterized in that an aqueous solution of surface active substances as constituent components add dimethyl sulfoxide (CH3)2SO in volumetric proportions to water 1-50%.



 

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