Device for performing friction tests on materials

FIELD: engineering of equipment for friction tests.

SUBSTANCE: as sample holder a shaft is used, which is connected by means of connecting rod mechanism to swinging movement drive, made with possible setting of shaft rotation angle and its rotation speed during rotation for given angle. On top of sample a counter-sample is mounted with its own holder. Sample loading unit abuts by rollers on counter-sample holder. Measuring system includes forces indicator, connected to counter-sample holder, sample movement indicator, connected to its holder, indicator of load output, connected to samples loading unit, optical-mechanical indicators, each one of which is made in form of disk with slits pinned onto axis of arrow of appropriate indicator between emitter and photo-detector, and is connected to computer through mouse port.

EFFECT: increased trustworthiness and precision of tribological characteristics of round and spherical bodies during rotation thereof.

6 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of study of physical-mechanical properties of materials, and more particularly to the field of study of tribological properties of rotating bodies, and can be used for the quantitative determination of the components of the forces of dry and viscous friction.

A device for measuring friction forces copyright certificate №1714467, IPC G 01 N 19/02. The device includes a housing, connected through the elastic hinge rigid element with samples and rigidly coupled to the housing of the meter moving rigid member. In the guide can move installed casing and the elastic element, one end associated with the housing, and the other with the rail.

The disadvantage of this device is the limited field of application. This device does not allow testing of polymeric materials, including elements of products and machines, friction, because the absence of the holders makes it impossible to test the individual structural elements.

Also known device for testing materials in friction and wear, RF patent for the invention №2073846, IPC G 01 N 3/56, publ. 20.02.1997,

The device includes a base, placed on the holder contrapasso interacting with the drive rotation of the sample holder, the site of loading and load cell measurement point TREN what I wear.

The disadvantage of the device are as follows: limited scope; the signals received from the load cells require processing, which affects the accuracy of the measurements; it is impossible to get all the tribological characteristics of materials depending on the experimental parameters in real time.

On essential features, the closest one is a device for testing materials in friction, RF patent for the invention №2244290, IPC G 01 N 19/02, publ. 10.01.2005, This unit is adopted for the prototype declared.

The known device comprises a base mounted on the base platform on rollers with on her holders with grooves in which are placed the sample and controversies. The device also includes drive reciprocating movement, the site of sample loading, the sensors register of effort and movement, combined with indicators and United with the holders, the computer as a recording apparatus, which is associated with the sensors. Each sensor is made of optical-mechanical in the form of a disk with slits, attached to the axis of the arrow of the relevant indicator between emitter and photo sensor, and is connected to the computer through the mouse port.

This device has a high accuracy of the research and allows you to quickly investigate tribological ha is acteristic materials.

However, this device does not give more information about the change of the friction forces (not registers automatically) depending on the parameters of the experiment, the change law of motion, and does not allow to assess the accuracy of the measurement of tribological characteristics, moreover, this device cannot provide information on the tribological characteristics of the rotating bodies, and bodies with circular and spherical forms, such as cable sheathing, brake mechanisms, etc.

The objective of the invention is to investigate the tribological characteristics of structural elements round and spherical bodies during their rotation and to enhance research.

The technical result, which is aimed by the invention is to improve the reliability and accuracy of shot tribological characteristics.

The problem is solved as follows. In common with the prototype is that the device comprises a base mounted on the base of the holder with the sample and holder contrabasson, site of sample loading, supported by rollers on the holder contrapasso, the drive movement of the sample holder, indicator efforts, coupled with the holder contrapasso, the indicator move the sample, coupled with its holder, sensor registration efforts and displacement transducer education is CA, each of which is made of optical-mechanical in the form of a disk with slits, attached to the axis of the arrow of the relevant indicator between emitter and photo sensor, and is connected via the mouse port on your computer.

But unlike the prototype of the proposed device further comprises an indicator supplied to the load connected to the node of sample loading, and the third sensor, connected through port mouse with a computer and executed, as the first two, opto-mechanical in the form of a disk with slits, attached to the axis of the arrow indicator supplied load between the emitter and photosensor. While the sample holder is made in the form of a shaft, and the actuator move - in drive swinging movement with the ability to set the angle of rotation of the shaft and the speed of its rotation when rotating at a given angle. The difference is that the holder contrapasso and based on his plane site loading is made spherical, and rollers located on both sides of the holder contrapasso and made in the form of needle bearings. For this purpose, in the particular case of execution, the node loading is equipped with a hemispherical body, resting on the holder contrapasso, and rollers mounted on the spherical plane of the body. In addition, the shaft is provided with a sleeve with a groove for mounting the sample, site loading performed in videointro Jack connected to the dynamometer and through the worm gear with a reversible motor and gear drive mechanism made in the form of a crank mechanism.

Thus, the distinctive features of the prototype, confirming the novelty of the claimed device are the following characteristics:

it additionally contains the indicator is supplied to the load connected to the node of sample loading, and the third sensor, connected through port mouse with your computer and is made of optical-mechanical in the form of a disk with slits, attached to the axis of the arrow indicator supplied load between the emitter and photosensor;

the sample holder is made in the form of a shaft.

the drive shaft is made in the form of actuator swinging movement with the ability to set the angle of rotation of the shaft and the speed of its rotation when rotating at a given angle;

- holder of contrapasso and based on his plane site loading is made spherical, and rollers located on both sides of the holder contrapasso and made in the form of needle bearings;

site loading is equipped with a hemispherical body, resting on the holder contrapasso, and rollers mounted on the spherical plane of the body;

the shaft is provided with a sleeve with a groove for mounting the sample;

site loading is made in the form of a screw Jack connected to the dynamometer and through the worm gear reversible motor;

- gear drive mechanism made in the form of a crank mechanism.

In the inventive device, the sample holder is made in the form of a shaft, and actuator - actuator swinging movement, and because the site loading relies rollers (needle bearings) on a spherical holder contrapasso, it enables without the influence of the site of loading, i.e. excluding the effect of the resistance movement, to estimate forces arising between the samples in the pair during their rotation. The leads of the LEDs are connected directly with the specimen holder, which affects the accuracy of the measurements.

Due to the presence of the distinctive characteristics of the inventive device it is possible to obtain two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphics, to set the different laws of motion of the sample and depending on these laws and under different load values to get a more complete picture of tribological characteristics, thereby to expand the scope of research to enhance research, the validity of the results, and therefore, to more accurately investigate the tribological characteristics of materials. The proposed device allows you to define the laws of motion of the sample and contrapasso and with appropriate mathematical software to compare these laws of motion and to evaluate the accuracy of the research is to work.

The device is very compact and convenient for research. The prior art is not identified technical solutions, simple design could provide such a broad field of study of tribological characteristics of rotating bodies, as the claimed device. It is not obvious from the prior art. It gives the basis to consider the proposed device meets the criterion of "inventive step".

The inventive device is illustrated in the drawings. 1 shows a General view of the device, figure 2 - sensor (side view), figure 3 - sensor (front).

The device consists of drive mechanisms swinging movement of samples, site loading, the specimen holder and the measuring system.

Based on 1 installed drive swinging movement, consisting of the engine 2 and the crank mechanism 3, which connects the shaft 4. The shaft 4 is a sample holder 5. The shaft 4 is equipped with top of sleeve (not shown) with groove for installation of sample 5. On top of the sample 5 has controverses 6 with its holder 7. Holders and sleeve are removable to extend the range of the tested structural elements and materials. The site loading consists of a Jack-screw 9, which is rigidly connected with a hemispherical body 8. The Jack is placed on the stand is e 10. The Jack 9 is connected to the dynamometer 11 and reversible motor 12 through a worm gear (not shown).

The measuring system consists of the displacement sensor 13, combined with travel indicator. The probe 14 of the measuring light sensor 13 is rigidly connected to the holder 4 sample 5. The measuring system consists of sensor registration efforts 15, is aligned with the indicator, the probe 16 which is rigidly connected to the holder 7 contrapasso 6.

Register set load can be on the dynamometer, and through the light-sensor 17, the probe 18 which responds to the change of the supplied load. Combined sensor-indicators placed on the rack 19, which is mounted on a base 1. The measuring system also includes a recording apparatus 20, a role which is performed by the computer. The sensors 13, 15, 17 connected to the computer 20 via the mouse port (not shown). Gauges-indicators made of optical-mechanical (figure 2, 3): on the axis of the arrow 21 indicator wearing a light disk 22 with the slots 23. The disk 22 is installed between the emitter of infrared radiation 24 which performs infrared emitting diode and a photosensor 25 (phototransistor). The photosensor 25 and the emitter 24 is connected to the computer through the mouse port.

The device operates after the relevant way. From the engine 2, the motion is transmitted through a crank mechanism to the shaft with a holder 4, which in turn results in movement of the sample 5. Vertical load on the samples generated screw Jack 9, driven by the reversible motor 12 through a worm gear. The load is transmitted through the dynamometer 11, which shows a fixed load. As hemispherical body 8, which transmits the load on the holder contrapasso 7, has rollers in the form of needle bearings, the holder 7 is able to move due to friction forces between samples.

In the result of the interaction of the frictional forces between samples 5, 6 will move the probe 16 indicator registration efforts. The measured displacement is converted into electrical impulses in the sensors 13, 15. The reciprocating rotational movement of the holders 4, 7 samples 5, 6 is converted into rotational movement of the axes of the arrows 21 indicators, therefore, and disk 22 with slots 23 (breaker), through which passes (or fails) the flux of infrared radiation from the emitter 24 (figure 2). Thus, when the rotation of the disk 22, the radiation flux is interrupted, that is registered by the corresponding photosensor 25.

Information from the sensors 13, 15, 17 is entered into the computer 20 (figure 1) through the mouse port. Each pulse of the past radiation is considered the spacecraft is moving one step on one of the coordinates (the coordinate movement or effort). Power IR emitter and photosensor is supplied from the computer via the mouse port.

Direct connection of the sensors 13, 15, 17 through the mouse port with the computer 22 makes it possible, using an appropriate program on the monitor to get graphics: friction force - displacement - load; force - load and displacement - time, and processing them using mathematical programs, " tribological characteristics: the coefficients of dry and viscous friction, the damping ratio of the system; logarithmic decrement; the frequency of free and damped vibrations, etc.

The law of motion is specified by the speed of rotation of the actuator, the size of the crank shaft of the actuator and the position of the end of the connecting rod on the spherical sample holder.

The proposed device allows you to make a judgment about the effect of the motion parameters - the angle of rotation of the sample holder, angular and linear velocity of its motion depending on the time at different levels of loading of the friction surface. Based on the observations of the input and output signals and their processing using mathematical programs receive tribological characteristics of materials.

To control the accuracy of recording waveforms in the coordinates of the friction force - displacement and the estimation of measurement accuracy of the device using the computer at which ichii special mathematical programs.

1. Device for testing friction materials containing established on the basis of the holder with the sample and holder contrabasson, site of sample loading, supported by rollers on the holder contrapasso, the drive movement of the sample holder, indicator efforts, coupled with the holder contrapasso, the indicator move the sample, coupled with its holder, sensor registration efforts and the sensor move the sample, each of which is made of optical-mechanical in the form of a disk with slits, attached to the axis of the arrow of the relevant indicator between emitter and photo sensor, and is connected via port mouse with a computer, characterized in that it further comprises an indicator filed load connected to the node of sample loading, and the third sensor, connected through port mouse with a computer and executed, as the first two, opto-mechanical in the form of a disk with slits, attached to the axis of the arrow indicator supplied load between emitter and photo sensor, and the sample holder is made in the form of a shaft, and the actuator move - in drive swinging movement, the latter being made with the possibility of job rotation angle of the shaft and the speed of its rotation when rotated by the specified angle.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the holder contrapasso and underlying is connected on his plane site loading are spherical and rollers are located on both sides of the holder contrapasso and made in the form of needle bearings.

3. The device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the node loading is equipped with a hemispherical body, resting on the holder contrapasso, with rollers mounted on the spherical plane of the body.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the shaft is provided with a sleeve with a groove for mounting the sample.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the node loading is made in the form of a screw Jack connected to the dynamometer and through the worm gear reversible engine.

6. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the gear drive mechanism made in the form of a crank mechanism.



 

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