Electric-arc method for cutting semiconductor wafers

FIELD: cutting brittle nonmetal materials such as low-conductivity semiconductor wafers.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for cutting semiconductor wafers of (BixSb1 - x)2(TeySe1 - y)3 type involves application of two electric pulses across gap between electrode and wafers in liquid insulating medium. Leading edges of electric pulses are in time coincidence. First-pulse voltage amounts to at least gap breakdown threshold value. Second-pulse voltage is minimum half the breakdown threshold value. Pulse length ratio is 1 : 2 : 4, respectively, and current values are 0.5 - 2 A and 2 - 10 A, respectively. Wafer cutting is effected in rectangular coordinate system by means of wire electrode at high cutting speed and plane-parallel position of wafers.

EFFECT: reduced power requirement and enhanced precision of cutting.

5 cl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to a method for cutting a brittle non-metallic materials, in particular to methods spark cutting semiconductor wafers of the type (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3with low electrical conductivity (of the order of 1000 Ohms·cm-1).

It is known that for cutting brittle materials widely used mechanical method, including the effects of freely supplied abrasive and durable rolling element in the form of wire on the material to be cut (for example, patent RU No. 2138372). The resulting plates are not cut along the same thickness due to the decreasing steps and the number of abrasive on the wire during its passage through the block.

In patent SU # 1535087 disclosed device and method of mechanical cutting of the crystals with the help of the device containing the cutting thread and the sensor of the cutting parameters with electrodes between which passes the cutting thread. About the speed of removal of cutting products indirectly measured by changes in the concentration of the material in the working solution, which leads to a change of the total resistance in the interelectrode space of the sensor. A known method can improve the surface quality of the cutting alkali halide crystals, however, does not satisfy the requirements for cutting crystals of type (BixSb1-x)2(Te ySe1-y)3.

From the patent RU № 1798971 known method of mechanical cutting alkali halide crystals on the plates with the help of the device containing wetted cutting the thread. Crystal set on crystallochemical which adjusts the height of cut plate and angle relative to the plane of the end face of the crystal. The application of the known method is effective in cutting crystals with a diameter more than 200 mm in plate thickness 5-10 mm Local deviations from the plane of the cutting does not exceed 0,5 mm

The analysis of literature data shows that for a long time in the production of dependence and optical technique uses a mechanical method of cutting single crystals and other brittle materials on plate steel blades having cutting blades and reciprocating movement relative to the presses crystals that are installed on your desktop perpendicular or at an angle to the direction of movement of cloths (Mustaev VA, Dyuzhikov V.I. Technology piezo - and acoustoelectronic devices. - M.: Jaguar, p.80-82). Known technology oriented cutting single crystals and other brittle materials steel blades disclosed in the patent RU No. 2167055 involves feeding an abrasive slurry to uniformly stretched in the frame of a steel blade and installation about what their side of the cut single crystal in the direction of movement of the steel canvases bars, axis which is perpendicular to the direction of movement of the blades. Using known mechanical methods of cutting single crystals can improve the flatness of the plates, however, the known method has a low cutting speed of the crystals is of the order of 20-30 mm/h

From the patent RU № 2175597 known technology cutting of electrically conductive materials, providing the application to the workpiece prior tensile forces and the supply of the pulse current in the cutting zone. By submitting oppositely directed current pulses to be hosted in the cutting zone two coils of the indicator create a disruptive force stretching.

The number of known methods and devices designed for high-precision laser cutting of brittle non-metallic materials, in particular anisotropic materials, including sapphire crystal, quartz (EN, 2224648). The method comprises applying a cut on the cutting line, the heating of the cutting line by a laser beam with a relative movement of the material and the beam and the local cooling of the heating zone with the help of the refrigerant. Depending on the cutting direction of the anisotropic material determine the coefficient of linear thermal expansion and set the ratio of the velocity of the relative movement of the laser beam and the material and the laser power depending on changes in the values of the coefficient of the linear term is economic expansion. The known method can be used for cutting a wide class of anisotropic materials any specified thickness, however, it is characterized by a high cost of the products obtained through the use of expensive equipment. Furthermore, the method is time-consuming, since it involves several stages: applying a cut on the plate, the laser beam focusing on the incision, laser heating of the incision, the cooling of the incision.

For a long time used the method of cutting of electrically conductive materials by passing pulses of current between the wire and cut the material (see, for example, the instructions Machine spark 04 YVES 200-2", passport A PS, No. 0899). The method provides highly accurate cutting at high speed 300-400 mm/h and has found wide application in industry for cutting metals. However, the known method is not applicable for cutting crystals of type (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3because of the significant differences between the crystal lattices and the physical properties of this material and metals (see Chodska. Sat. Materials used in semiconductor devices. - Mir, 1968, str).

The conductivity used in thermoelectricity crystals (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3equal 900-1050 1/Ohm·cm, while electrop the water content of the widely used metals is in the range of 6· 105-1·1041/Ohm·see the power Density generated by the flow of electric current, equal to ε=j2ρ (1)where j is the current density, ρ is the resistivity of the material. From the expression (1), it follows that when the spark cutting crystals (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3with the passage of the current pulse in the area of the leakage current density of the heat generated by two orders of magnitude exceeds the density of the heat generated during processing of the metal, which causes a significantly large thermal stress in the treated crystal. In addition, the crystals (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3are fragile material: the maximum relative deformation is fractions of a percent, while the maximum relative deformation of the widely used metals varies from 10-60%. These differences in physical properties comparable materials are being caused by passing current pulse thermal stresses that lead to cracking of the crystal (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3at greater depth (about 1 mm), resulting in not cutting and crushing of the crystal when using the known method spark cutting plates.

In the framework of this proposal solves the problem of the development of the method, ensure the sustained high-precision cutting of semiconductor wafers from crystal type (Bi xSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3in a rectangular coordinate system with a wire electrode while maintaining high cutting speed and ploskoparallyel plates without bevels, etc. There is a need to develop technologies with low energy intensity of production.

The problem is solved spark by way of cutting semiconductor wafers from crystal type (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3by two applications of electric pulses to the gap between the electrode and the wafer in a liquid dielectric medium, with fore fronts of electrical pulses coincide in time, the voltage of the first pulse is not less than the threshold breakdown voltage of the gap, the second voltage is1/2from the threshold breakdown voltage of the gap, the pulse duration are related as 1:2÷4, respectively, and the values of the currents respectively are 0.5÷2 and 2÷10 A.

Preferably the cutting plane set parallel to the crystallographic axis <111>.

As a liquid environment, it is advisable to use distilled deionized water, and as an electrode to use molybdenum wire diameter of 0.15÷0,25 mm

The essence of this method lies in the processing of wafers from crystal type (Bix Sb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3two electric pulses, the first of which provides a breakdown of the gap between the wire electrode and the cut crystal, and a second pulse conducts cutting crystals relatively small amount of current is of the order of 5-10 A.

The authors were experimentally found to be optimal technological regimes of spark technology cutting semiconductor wafers from crystal type (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3using two electric pulses in the absence of known General laws of the choice of such parameters pulse-like voltage, current, duration, and crystallographic orientation of the crystals of this type.

For a better understanding of this invention the following is a specific non-limiting example of the electric-spark method of cutting bars plates of crystals of type (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3the elements in the form of parallelepipeds.

Example.

As a material used for cutting plate crystals (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3in the form of bars n-type conductivity, electrical conductivity 950 1/Ohm·see Bars mounted in the clamps electric-spark machine so that the crystallographic axis of the bars <11> were parallel to the wire tool. The machine is provided with a pulse generator comprising a master oscillator and two generator of electrical impulses: a generator of voltage pulses with adjustable pulse parameters - voltage 70-85, current is 0.5 to 3 a duration of 1-5 μs; and the generator current pulses with adjustable pulse parameters - voltage 40 V, 2-10 And duration 2-15 ISS. Both generator of electrical pulses connected to the wire electrode. In the cutting process uses two electric pulse, the front, the fronts of which coincide in time. As electrodes using molybdenum wire, and as the interelectrode medium - distilled deionized water. The cutting speed is set bars with a total thickness of 70 mm with straight cutting bars crystals on elements with dimensions of 1.4×1,4×1.6 mm is not less than 6 mm/min roughness of the cut surface does not exceed 10 μm, the deviation from parallelism does not exceed 0.01 mm

Before working in the clamp set 500 bars size 41×1,4×1.6 mm 50 bars in a row with the formation of 10 rows. Cutting bars provide a molybdenum wire with a diameter of 0.06 mm in the following mode: pulse carrying out the breakdown of the gap between the wire and the piece of semiconductor material (BixSb 1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3has a voltage of 80 V At a current of 1 a and a duration of 2 μs. The momentum with which they cut, has a voltage of 40 V, a current of 5 amps and a duration of 4 μs. The cutting plane has a crystallographic orientation of <111>. Obtained by cutting the bars of the elements have a surface roughness of about 10 μm.

This electric-spark method for cutting brittle semiconductor wafers allows to obtain the so-called thermoelectric elements in the form of parallelepipeds with dimensions of ribs from 0.5 mm used for the manufacture of thermoelectric modules, and can be used in the electronics industry, where there is a need in the cutting of fragile semiconductor wafers on the exact elements with plane-parallel surfaces. The commercial advantage of this method is to reduce the cost of the plates due to the productivity of the cutting process while maintaining the quality of products with low energy consumption.

1. Electric-spark method for cutting semiconductor wafers from crystal type (BixSb1-x)2(TeySe1-y)3by two applications of electric pulses to the gap between the electrode and the wafer in a liquid dielectric medium, with fore fronts of electrical pulses coincide the time, the voltage of the first pulse is not less than the threshold breakdown voltage of the gap, the second voltage is1/2from the threshold breakdown voltage of the gap, the pulse duration are related as 1:2÷4, respectively, and the values of the currents respectively, are 0.5÷2 and 2÷10 A.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the duration of the first pulse is 1-5 microseconds and the duration of the second 2-15 ISS.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cutting plane is parallel to a crystallographic axis <111>.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a liquid environment using distilled deionized water.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the electrode using molybdenum wire diameter of 0.15 to 0.25 mm



 

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