Method of burning fuel

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises injecting at least one type of fuel and at least one oxidizer. The primary oxidizer is injected together with the fuel to generate first incomplete burning. The gases emitting from the first burning comprises at least a part of the fuel, whereas the secondary oxidizer is injected downstream of the site of the fuel injection at a distance larger than that between the fuel injection and primary oxidizer closest to the fuel injection so that to be burnt out together with the fuel part. The flow of the first oxidizer is branched into at lest two primary flows.

EFFECT: reduced emission of nitrogen oxides.

40 cl, 8 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method of combustion in a furnace, in which separately Inuktitut at least one fuel and at least one oxidant, and the oxidant stream comprises a stream of primary oxidizer flow of the secondary oxidant flow of primary oxidant Inuktitut near the fuel in such a way as to make the first incomplete combustion gases as a result of this first combustion, also contain at least part of the specified fuel, while the flow of the secondary oxidant Inuktitut at some distance from the stream of fuel greater than the distance between the flow fuel and the stream of primary oxidizer located closer to the fuel flow, thus to expose his burning along with the fuel present in the gases generated in the first combustion. This invention also relates to a device for burning intending to implement this method.

System characteristics for combustion in industrial furnaces differ at least by two factors:

- emissions of air pollutants (NOx, dust and so on), the number of which shall not exceed the limits set by law;

- the temperature of the walls of the furnace and heated therein raw materials must be in the interval d is uma extreme values in accordance with the requirements requirements for method regarding product quality and energy consumption.

Changes in legislation concerning emissions of air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides and dust, has led recently to significant changes in combustion technology.

In connection with the need to minimize the discharge of pollutants, the combustion in industrial furnace must be aligned with the function of the furnace.

For example, a furnace to produce glass shall meet the requirements of its walls and the temperature of the bath thus, in order to prevent quality defects in the resulting products (bubbles etc) and premature aging of the refractory surfaces.

Heating of the workpieces in the furnace for re-heating of steel billets should occur evenly, thus to prevent their deformation prior to submission to the mill.

In furnaces for the melting of ferrous or non-ferrous metal products all the download size of the raw material must be heated evenly in such a way as to avoid increasing the power consumption and premature wear of the refractory equipment.

It is therefore important to control the temperature of the field (i.e., the temperature range in which they can vary in industrial furnaces to ensure high quality product proizvoditelnosti way. Temperature field of refractory furnaces and downloadable materials along the main axis of the furnace depends on the number, location and distribution capacity of the burners arranged perpendicular to the specified axis. This is the case, for example, with a furnace for re-heating billets and to produce glass, in which the burners are located on both sides of the loaded material. The temperature field along the axis parallel to the flame depends on the length, capacity and time of ignition, as well as the geometry of the heated zone.

For example, in accordance with the patent US-A-4 531960 and US-A-4 604123 you can change the length of the oxygen flame, creating a vortex flow of air around the flame axis. This parameter has a strong influence on the length and stability of the flame. Other controlled parameter is the degree of stepwise feed of oxidant or fuel flow supplied separately from the primary burning zone). Speed burner for combustion is described, for example, in patents US-A-4 622007, US-A-4 642047, USA-4 797087, US-A-4 718643 and Re. 33464, in which, in particular, described the use of air and oxygen as oxidants.

The burner, in which the oxidant used oxygen, and especially burners, which use a gaseous fuel, generally do not provide the possibility of permanent changes in the flame length and characteristics of mo is enta for a given power and a given rate of oxygen. Such a burner is described, for example, in patents US-A-5 772427, US-A-5 934893, US-A-5 984667 and US-A-6 068468. However, the length of the flame in such burners can be adjusted by changing the injectors for fuel. It should be noted that the use of injectors smaller diameter leads to the acceleration of time and, therefore, to shorten the flame and the shift of the maximum heat flux below on his turn (and Vice versa). Figure 1, illustrating the length of the visible flame and the axial heat flux burner with a capacity of 1 MW, described in patents US-A-5 772427 and US-A-5 934893, clearly shows this. Conversely, shortening the flame and the total acceleration of point a a priori affect the change in thermal profile of the flame. The combination of both phenomena causes a shift in the maximum heat flux below during its course, because one of the two effects is dominant. The cause of the x-axis in figure 1 is the inner wall of the furnace, coinciding with the inner surface of the burner. Therefore, the displacement of the thread below on his turn means longer in the axial direction.

The patent US-A-5 302112 also describes the flow of gases into the furnace at different speeds, with speed changes (both absolute and relative) allow you to change the length of the flame and the moment of ignition.

The patent US-A-5 346524 also describes a separate injection box fuel and oxidant from the application of the m individual injectors, located alternately close to each other at a distance of about 15 cm

The patent US-A-5 601425 describes the graded system for combustion, in which the liquid fuel Inuktitut in the middle of the peripheral oxygen flow, while the air Inuktitut at a sufficiently great distance from the oxygen.

The objective of the invention is to satisfy two requirements: to optimize thermal profile along the flame axis and the minimization of the release of nitric oxide.

The method in accordance with this invention, in particular, provides the opportunity to adjust the characteristics of the flame in accordance with the environment in which it is associated with thermal profile of the furnace and loaded with raw materials, the length of the flame and the emission of nitrogen oxides and dust.

In accordance with this invention created a method of burning in a furnace, in which separately Inuktitut at least one fuel and at least one oxidant, and the oxidant stream comprises a stream of primary oxidizer flow of the secondary oxidant flow of primary oxidant Inuktitut near the fuel in such a way as to make the first incomplete combustion gases as a result of this first combustion, also contain at least part of the specified fuel, while the secondary flow okislitelnyh at some distance from the fuel flow, greater than the distance between the fuel flow and the stream of primary oxidizer closest to the fuel flow, thus to be burning together with part of the fuel, especially dilute gases generated in the first combustion, and is not yet in contact with the oxidant, which according to the invention the stream of primary oxidizer is shared by at least two of the primary stream, namely, at least one rapidly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer injected into the flow of the fuel or in contact with the stream of fuel so quickly be subjected to combustion reaction with the surrounding fuel, and at least one slow mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer injected at a distance of d1from the first stream of primary oxidizer thus, to be mixed with the fuel flow slower than at least one of the rapidly miscible flow of primary oxidant.

To enable, in accordance with this invention, control independently the moment of ignition and the flame length, the system for combustion in accordance with this invention preferably has two regulatory option. In addition, since the preferred furnace in which data is th way is the precise control of thermal profile, the first regulatory option preferably represents the ratio of oxygen flow, provide a secondary oxidant to the total oxygen flow provided by the first and second oxidants. Such a flow of the secondary oxidant may be provided with an injector or tube (spear).

The method in accordance with this invention differs in that the distance d1is equal to or less than 30 cm, preferably 25 cm

In accordance with another variant of this invention, the distance d1is equal to or less than ten times the diameter d3 slowly mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer.

In General, the sum of the flow rates of the primary and secondary oxidant oxidant preferably is approximately stoichiometric relative to the speed of fuel, with a difference ±15%.

In accordance with another variant of this invention, the flow of the secondary oxidizer consists of many streams of secondary oxidizer.

The number of secondary oxidant is preferably from 0 to 90%, more preferably from 10 to 90%, of the total amount of the injected oxidant.

More preferably, the total number of secondary oxidant is from 50 to 90% of the total number of the injected oxidant, while to icesto primary oxidant is from 10 to 50% of the total amount of oxidant.

In General, the total number of secondary oxidant is preferably from 60 to 80% of the total number of the injected oxidant, the number of primary oxidant is from 20 to 40% from the General number.

In accordance with one method of implementation of the present invention, the sum of the areas of cross-sections of the holes for injection box secondary oxidant is equal to or greater than 2.5 cm2.

The distance between rapidly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer flow and the secondary oxidant is preferably d2where

d2≥5D and d2≥d1and, preferably,

10D≤d2≤50D,

where D means the diameter of a circle with the same area as the area of the injector for the secondary oxidant, through which is fed a stream of secondary oxidant. When using injectors for the secondary oxidant, the number of which is equal to i (i can be a value from 1 to 25)located at a distance of d2iand having the same diameter Did2iand Dimust satisfy the aforementioned formulas individually.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention rapidly mixing the first stream and the primary oxidant is (are) from 5 to 40%. of the total amount of oxidant, while slowly with usiwausiwa second thread(and) primary oxidant is (are) 5% to 95%. of the total amount of oxidant, the oxidant balance provide streams of secondary oxidizer.

In accordance with the embodiment of the present invention slowly mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer consists of multiple threads.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention slowly mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer consists of two approximately equal streams located approximately the same distance d1from quickly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer, with three streams of oxidizer are approximately in one plane.

In accordance with one variant of the present invention, at least one slowly mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer is not in the plane formed by rapidly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer flow and the secondary oxidant.

If necessary, a good symmetry of the device for burning around quickly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer uniformly place the lot slowly mixing the second flow of primary oxidant; another alternative includes the symmetric placement of the second set of threads of the primary oxidant in relation to the plane in which first the flow of primary oxidant.

Undoubtedly, it is necessary to control the rate of gas release. For this reason, the rate of fuel injection box is preferably from 20 m/s up to M=2, where M is the Mach number, more preferably from 20 to 300 m/S.

In addition to the various opportunities that are well known per se, when injectioni fuel used according to the method in accordance with this invention, before injectionem fuel may be subjected to preliminary heat. During fuel injection box can also be subjected to pulsations, while the pulse frequency is preferably from 0.1 to 3 Hz, more preferably from 0.1 to 1 Hz. Further details of the method of injection box one or more liquids in the form of pulsations described in the article entitled "Oscillating Combustion Technology Boosts Efficiency Furnace" by Eric Streicher, Ovidiu Marin, Olivier Charon and Harley Borders, published in "Industrial Heating", February 2001, and described in this application by reference.

There is also a lot of options for oxidant injection box. In General, the speed of injection box quickly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer is preferably from 20 m/s up to M=2, where M is the Mach number.

Also preferably, the speed of injection box slowly mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer is between 10 m/s up to M=1, where M is the Mach number.

In accordance with a preferred variant of this invention, the speed of injection box secondary oxidant is from 20 m/s up to M=2, where M is the Mach number.

With the aim of reducing fuel consumption, at least one of the flows of oxidant before injectionem preferably subjected to preliminary heating, the maximum speed injection box can reach M=2, where M is the Mach number.

In the case of pulsating combustion (the meaning disclosed above) pulsations can also be subjected to at least one of the flows of oxidant, this implies that the fuel itself can then be subjected to or not subjected to pulsations depending on the desired results. In accordance with this variant, at least one of the flows of oxidant Inuktitut in the pulse, and the pulse frequency is from 0.1 to 3 Hz, preferably from 0.1 to 1 Hz.

The composition of the oxidizing agent may vary, depending on the conditions or the desired results, the composition preferably satisfies at least one of the following requirements:

a secondary oxidant may be a mixture of air, preferably heated air, and oxygen. In General, the oxidizing agent, more specifically, the secondary oxidant may also be a mixture the gas, having more or less oxidizing ability, particularly those containing from 5 to 100% oxygen (preferably, from 10 to 100% by vol.), from 0 to 95% CO2(preferably, from 0 to 90% CO2), from 0 to 80% nitrogen (preferably, from 0 to 70%), from 0 to 90% argon, the oxygen content in the mixture is at least 3%. The mixture may also contain other components, especially water vapor and/or Nox and/or Sox;

the air preferably provides from 5 to 85% vol. the entire flow of the oxygen of the secondary oxidant, and the balance provides oxygen-enriched air or essentially pure oxygen; and

the air is preferably from 5 to 40%. from the total oxygen content.

One of the variants of the present invention provides for the injection box one or more fuels of the same type (for example, various gases) and/or of different types (for example, gases and liquid fuels).

This invention also relates to a device for burning, providing, in particular, the implementation of the method in accordance with this invention. Thus, this invention relates to a device for burning with separate injectionem, formed by a block having at least one hole for the fuel injection box and at least one hole for injection box oxidant, is characterized in, the hole for the fuel injection box has at least one longitudinal axis of symmetry in the direction of fuel flow, the first oxidizer injector also having a longitudinal axis of symmetry placed in the hole for the fuel injection box, both the longitudinal symmetry axis approximately parallel, the second hole injection box oxidant is located at a distance of d1from the symmetry axis of the first oxidizer injector, where d1≤30 cm

Such a device preferably includes at least one second block, which has a third hole injection box oxidant, having a diameter D, while the specified port is located at a distance of d2from the symmetry axis of the first oxidizer injector, where:

d2≥5D and d2≥d1and, preferably,

10D≤d2≤50D.

In accordance with one variant of the present invention d1≤10d3while d3means the diameter of the slow mixing of the stream of primary oxidizer (or equal to in the case, if the cross-section of the injector is not round), and D preferably ≥0.5 cm

The unit for combustion preferably has a lot of holes for fuel injection box and, preferably, the set of first injectors oxidant and/or a lot of the WTO who's holes for oxidant injection box.

In accordance with an alternative embodiment of the present invention at least one hole for the fuel injection box posted by the liquid fuel injector, while according to another option, the unit may have separate holes for injection box one or more fuel types.

According to an expedient variant of the device in accordance with this invention preferably includes a first valve for separating a stream, designed to divide a flow of oxidant supplied, on the one hand, in the pipeline for the primary oxidant and, on the other hand, in the pipeline for the secondary oxidant connected with the third hole injection box oxidant, and the pipeline for the primary oxidant is associated with the second valve to the flow separation, which is connected, on the one hand, with the first oxidizer injector, and on the other, with the second hole injection box oxidant.

In accordance with an alternative embodiment of the present invention the third hole injection box oxidant may be an injector having two cross-section (or multiple sections), thus varying the speed and torque of the oxidizer without changing the pressure of the oxidant higher on the CMOS from the injector.

If the primary and secondary oxidant oxidant use the same oxidant, i.e. especially in the implementation of staged combustion, the cross-section of injectors for the secondary oxidant must be such that the total moment of different streams of oxidant supplied to the burner for 50% of the coefficient of gradation, exceed the relevant value for zero coefficient of gradation.

(Total time calculated as the sum of the products of the velocity of each stream of oxidant, multiplied by its weight flow rate, taking into account all flows of oxidant supplied to the burner).

The advantage of the above characteristics is that for a gradation level greater than 50%, the length of the flame and the moment of ignition increases simultaneously with the degree of aliasing in contrast to the method, which includes the replacement of an injecting tube. When used in a burner of only one type of oxidizer ratio gradation is equal to the ratio of the yield strength of the secondary flows of oxidant to its total turnover (primary plus secondary). Using various oxidizing agents such as air and oxidant, in the ratio of yield strength is taken into account only the content of oxygen or oxidizer in each thread. The use of the option of odnovremennoubezhdaet the flame length and the total moment of the burner, provides precise control of the location of maximum heat transfer.

In accordance with this invention it is preferable application of the second regulatory option, involving separation of the flow of primary oxygen between flow, quickly mixing with the fuel, and the flow, mixing with them relatively slowly. Therefore, this second regulatory option can be selected as the fraction of the primary oxygen input injectionem for rapid mixing.

The invention will become better understood thanks to the following examples describing its implementation and illustrated by the figures, in which:

- figure 1 represents curves showing the heat flux along the axis of the flame 1-MW burners known type in accordance with its location in the furnace. (The x-axis in figure 1 is conducted from the inner wall of the furnace, coinciding with the inner surface of the burner. Therefore, the direction along the flow is in the direction of in the direction of extension of the axial length); and

- figure 2 is an axial temperature profile of the crown as a function of flame length.

Figure 1 represents curves showing the heat flux (kW/m2) flame as a function of longitudinal distance (m) along the furnace. Burner with an oxygen fuel (not shown) located on the rear wall of furnace x=0).

Curve 1 shows the heat flux of the flame with a very low moment of ignition. It corresponds to the flame 4, the visible part of which is relatively long.

Curve 2 shows the heat flux of the flame 5 (ceteris paribus) with a low moment of ignition of the flame 5 is slightly shorter flame 4.

Curve 3 shows the heat flux of the flame 6 (ceteris paribus) with a high moment of ignition, the flame 6 shorter flame 5. It should be noted that the hot spot data types of the flame (And in flames 4, in the flame 5 and in flames 6, respectively) is far from the tip of the burner (rear wall ovens), while the length of the visible flame decreases with the increase of the moment of ignition (comparative curves obtained using 1-MW burner manufactured by the owner under the name of ALGLASS).

Figure 3 presents three curves showing the temperature of the corona of the same furnace as a function of the length of the flame, however, every flame has the same moment of ignition (low torque with an average speed of 30 m/s for all three types of flame). Using 2-MW burner of the same type as before. Temperature maximum D short flame 10 is at a distance of approximately 3 m from the rear wall of the furnace, while the increase in the flame length allows eradicate the point of maximum temperature of the crown towards the front wall oven (S, the maximum temperature curve 11, observed at a distance of less than 4 m from the rear wall of the furnace, while F, the maximum temperature curve 12, observed at a distance of about 4, 40m from the same wall).

Figure 3 shows a partial schematic top view (figure 3A) and the type section (figure 3b) example device for combustion according to the invention for implementing the method in accordance with the present invention.

Device for burning is placed in a refractory block 33, in which, respectively, located two blocks 34 and 35.

Through the preferably cylindrical block 34 is held the third hole 26 for oxidant, which extends into the block at the point 38. Such aperture 26 (hollow cylindrical metal injector can be inserted into the cylindrical drilled hole 26) has a diameter (at the point 38) D (if the injector does not have a cylindrical shape, D is the diameter of a circle having the same area as the cross section of the injector at the point 38). The block 34 is inserted into the cylindrical sleeve 36 in the block 33. Through the hole 26 serves a secondary oxidizer 22.

Unit 35 includes a first hole 28 for injection box quickly mixing the primary oxidant 23, the opening 28 is located concentrically in the hole 29, in which Inuktitut fuel 25. At a distance of d1/sub> it has a second hole 27, in which Inuktitut slowly mixing the primary oxidant. The hole 27 has a cross-section of diameter d3at the point 30, where the specified hole 27 (d3is the above equivalent diameter if the cross section is not round). The block 35 is placed in the drilled hole 37. The overall pipeline of the oxidizer 20 is divided into the pipeline of the primary oxidant 21 and piping secondary oxidant 22, in which the first control valve 42, while the valve divides the flow of the oxidizer between the pipes 21 and 22 (of course, according to the respective diameters of these pipes). The valve 42 can also be installed in the shoulder of Truboprovod 21 if there is no need for regulation, including the case of zero flow secondary oxygen. The pipe 21 is divided into two pipe 23 and 24 with the valve 43 in one in line with the need to block the flow of oxidant in the pipes 23 or 24. (Of course, the valve can be installed in each of these pipelines, in this way the valve can be installed in the pipe 21, in addition to the valve 42 in the pipe 22).

When the oxygen may be divided between different pipelines in accordance with the tvii with the desired results, these pipes have respective diameters, thus providing different or the same speed injection box oxygen in various injectors.

Of course, the opening 27 may be placed in such a way that the end of the 30 were in the points 39, 40 or 41 or in any point of the circle with radius d1. Can also be simultaneously provided with several holes 30 and/or 39 and/or 40 and/or 41, the injectors which are connected together in these different injectors distribute slowly blending oxygen. Thus, can also be created oxidizing burner/injector with supersonic speed through hardware holes 28 tip convergent/divergent shape (so-called Laval nozzle) in the vicinity of the point 32, while the relative proportions of oxygen and fuel can be subjected to or not subjected to change in accordance with the desired result. Thus, the hardware holes 28 supersonic nozzle allows injection box only oxidant through the holes 28 and 32 with supersonic speed or environment such supersonic flow flame resulting from subsonic fuel injection box in the hole 29 and oxidant through the hole 27, with optional additional the additional the possibility of oxidant injection box on hole 26 or obtain subsonic flame, using only the holes 29 and 27 (plus 26 if necessary or desired).

Figure 4 shows an alternative implementation of the injection box quickly mixing the primary oxidant and fuel in the case when the last use of natural gas.

Refractory block 35 has a drilled hole 51 with a diameter of d5(or diameter of a circle of equal area). In this hole 51 is preferably cylindrical insert the injector 52 for natural gas with a diameter of d4installed in such a way as to ensure that the distance h between the upper part of the injector 52 and the surface of the refractory block 35. The injector 55 is not filled so that it could submit an oxidizing agent and preferably has at least one hole in its upper surface and/or at least one hole 54 in its side wall (vertical wall figure 4).

Natural gas 56 Inuktitut in all the space between the vertical walls of the drilled holes 51 and vertical walls 57 of the injector 52, between which Inuktitut oxidant.

(When using liquid fuel quickly mixing the primary oxygen is a liquid for spraying liquid fuel, such oxygen may be submitted together with the air to the operation of the liquid for spraying).

Figure 5 shows an alternative implementation of this invention only in schematic form.

If necessary, a full or partial operation of the system of burning liquid fuel in the upper part of the refractory block 100 has a hole 101 for liquid fuel injection box. Along the horizontal row below the holes 101, there are plenty of holes for injection box slowly mixing the primary oxygen 102, 103, 104 and 105.

In the lower part of the block 100 is a series of three pairs of concentric holes 110/111, 120/121, 130/131 (there may be more or less) for the corresponding injection box fuels such as natural gas, and an oxidant, such as fast mixing of the primary oxygen (for details, refer to figure 3). On both sides of the block, at a distance of d2for example, but not necessarily, there are holes for oxygen injection box 106 and 107.

Figure 6 is a schematic of an alternative system in accordance with this invention, comprising two refractory block 200 and 300, having, in the direction from top to bottom, the holes for the liquid fuel injection box 201 and 301, respectively, two holes for injection box natural gas 202, 203 and 302, 303, respectively, two coaxial holes for injection box for oxygen in the heart and DL the fuel on the periphery, 205, 204 and 305, 304, respectively, and the injection box secondary oxygen injectors 206 and 306, respectively, located at a distance of d2from coaxial holes.

Figure 7 shows the total time of ignition as a function of the relations representing the fraction of the content of secondary oxygen divided by the total number of oxygen. This point is the minimum for content of about 30%, and then increases, reaching higher values than the value of the moment in the absence of injection box secondary oxygen for more than 60%.

1. The method of burning in a furnace, in which separately Inuktitut at least one fuel and at least one oxidant, and the oxidant stream comprises a stream of primary oxidizer flow of the secondary oxidant flow of primary oxidant Inuktitut near the fuel in such a way as to make the first incomplete combustion gases as a result of this first combustion, also contain at least part of the specified fuel, while the flow of the secondary oxidant Inuktitut at some distance from the stream of fuel greater than the distance between the fuel flow and the primary flow oxidant closest to the fuel flow thus to be burning together with part of the fuel, in particular the military diluted gases, released from the first combustion, and is not yet in contact with the oxidizing agent, characterized in that the stream of primary oxidizer is shared by at least two of the primary stream, namely, at least one rapidly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer injected into the fuel flow so quickly be subjected to combustion reaction with the surrounding fuel, and at least one slow mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer injected at a distance of d1from the first stream of primary oxidizer thus, to be mixed with the fuel flow slower than at least one of the rapidly miscible flow of primary oxidant.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the distance d1is equal to or less than 30 cm, preferably 25 cm

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the distance d1is equal to or less than ten times the diameter d3slowly mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer, where d3means the diameter of the slow mixing of the stream of primary oxidizer.

4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the sum of the flows of primary and secondary oxidant oxidant is approximately stoichiometric relative to the flow of the fuel, preferably within ±5% relative to the stoichiometric nutrient flow.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the flow of secondary oxidizer consists of many streams of secondary oxidizer.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the number of secondary oxidant is from 0 to 90%, preferably from 10 to 90% of the total number of the injected oxidant.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the total number of secondary oxidant is from 50 to 90% of the total number of the injected oxidant, the number of primary oxidant is from 10 to 50% of the total amount of oxidant.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the total number of secondary oxidant is from 60 to 80% of the total number of the injected oxidant, the number of primary oxidant is from 20 to 40% from the General number.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the sum of the areas of cross-sections of the holes for injection box secondary oxidant is equal to or greater than 2.5 cm2.

10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the distance between rapidly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer flow and the secondary oxidant is d2where d2≥5D and d2≥d1and preferably 10D≤d2≤50D, where D means the diameter of a circle with the same area as the area of the secondary injector, through which is fed a stream of the WTO the ranks of the oxidizer.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that quickly mixing the first stream and the primary oxidant is (are) from 5 to 40 vol.% of the total amount of oxidant, while slowly mixing the second stream(s) primary oxidant is (are) from 5 to 95 vol.% of the total amount of oxidant, the oxidant balance provide streams of secondary oxidizer.

12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that slowly mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer consists of multiple threads.

13. The method according to item 12, wherein the slow mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer consists of two approximately equal streams located approximately the same distance d1from quickly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer, with three streams of oxidizer are approximately in one plane.

14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one slowly mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer is not in the plane formed by rapidly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer flow and the secondary oxidant.

15. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the set slowly mixing the second flow of primary oxidant have evenly around quickly smachivaemogo the first stream of primary oxidizer.

16. The method according to item 15, wherein the set slowly mixing the second flow of primary oxidant fitted symmetrically to the plane, which is rapidly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer.

17. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the rate of fuel injection box preferably exceeds 20 m/s, preferably M≤2, where M is the Mach number.

18. The method according to 17, characterized in that the rate of fuel injection box is from 20 to 300 m/S.

19. The method according to 17, characterized in that before injectionem fuel may be subjected to preliminary heat.

20. The method according to 17, characterized in that during the fuel injection box is subjected to pulsations, while the pulse frequency is preferably from 0.1 to 3 Hz, more preferably from 0.1 to 1 Hz.

21. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the speed of injection box quickly mixing the first stream of primary oxidizer is between 20 m/s up to M=2, where M is the Mach number.

22. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the speed of injection box slowly mixing the second stream of primary oxidizer is between 10 m/s up to M=1, where M is the Mach number.

23. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the speed of injection box secondary oxidant is from 20 m/s up to M=2, where M is the Mach number.

24. The way p is 1, characterized in that at least one of the flows of oxidant before injectionem subjected to preliminary heating, the speed of injection box may reach up to M=2, where M is the Mach number.

25. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one of the flows of oxidant Inuktitut in the pulse, and the pulse frequency is from 0.1 to 3 Hz, preferably from 0.1 to 1 Hz.

26. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the secondary oxidizer consists of a mixture of air, preferably preheated air, and oxygen.

27. The method according to p, characterized in that the air provides from 5 to 80 vol.% from the total oxygen content in the secondary oxidant, and the balance provides oxygen-enriched air or essentially pure oxygen.

28. The method according to item 27, wherein the air is from 15 to 40 vol.% from the total oxygen content.

29. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that Inuktitut one or more different fuel types.

30. Device for burning with separate injectionem, formed by a block having at least one hole for the fuel injection box and at least one hole for injection box oxidant, characterized in that the hole for the fuel injection box has at least one longitudinal the camping symmetry in the direction of fuel flow, the first oxidizer injector also having a longitudinal axis of symmetry placed in the hole for the fuel injection box, both the longitudinal symmetry axis approximately parallel, the second hole injection box oxidant is located at a distance of d1from the symmetry axis of the first oxidizer injector, where d1≤30 cm

31. The device according to item 30, characterized in that it includes at least one second block, which has a third hole injection box oxidant, having a diameter D, while the specified port is located at a distance dz from the axis of symmetry of the first oxidizer injector, where d2≥5D and d2≥d1and preferably 10D≤d2≤50D.

32. Device according to any one of p and 31, characterized in that the d1≤10d3where d3means the diameter of the slow mixing of the stream of primary oxidizer.

33. The device according to item 30 or 31, characterized in that D≥0.5 cm

34. The device according to item 30, wherein the block has a lot of holes for fuel injection box.

35. The device according to item 30, wherein the block has a set of first injectors oxidant.

36. The device according to item 30, wherein the block has a lot of second holes for oxidant injection box.

37. The device according to item 30, characterized in that the hole for the fuel injection box posted injector heavy liquid fuel.

38. The device according to item 30, characterized in that it has separate holes for injection box one or more fuel types.

39. The device according to item 30, characterized in that it includes the first valve to the flow separation, designed to divide the total flow of the oxidant supplied, on the one hand, in the pipeline for the primary oxidant and, on the other hand, in the pipeline for the secondary oxidant connected with the third hole injection box oxidant, and the pipeline for the primary oxidant is associated with the second valve to the flow separation, which is connected on the one hand with the first injector for oxidant, and on the other, with the second hole injection box oxidant.

40. The device according to item 30, wherein the third hole injection box oxidant is an injector having two cross-sections, thus providing the possibility of varying the speed and torque of the oxidizer without changing the pressure of the oxidizer upstream from the injector.



 

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The invention relates to heat engineering, in particular to equipment for the combustion of gaseous fuels

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises injecting at least one type of fuel and at least one oxidizer. The primary oxidizer is injected together with the fuel to generate first incomplete burning. The gases emitting from the first burning comprises at least a part of the fuel, whereas the secondary oxidizer is injected downstream of the site of the fuel injection at a distance larger than that between the fuel injection and primary oxidizer closest to the fuel injection so that to be burnt out together with the fuel part. The flow of the first oxidizer is branched into at lest two primary flows.

EFFECT: reduced emission of nitrogen oxides.

40 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the technology of using a cumulative jet.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of formation of at least one cumulative jet includes feeding of at least one gas jet out of at least one nozzle with a converging/diverging configuration located in an injector having a face surface of the injector. At that the face surface of the injector has openings located along the circumference around at least one nozzle, moreover the indicated at least one gas jet has a supersonic speed when it is formed at the output from the face surface of the injector and remains supersonic on a distance coming to at least 20d, where d- the diameter of the output opening of the indicated at least one nozzle. Feeding of fuel from the first group of openings located along the circumference and feeding of an oxidizing agent from the second group of openings located along the circumference. Incineration of fuel and the oxidizing agent fed from the first and the second groups of openings located along the mentioned circumference for formation of a flame shell around at least one gas jet. A great number of gas jets are fed from the injector. The fuel and the oxidizing agents are fed from the first group of openings and from the second group of openings correspondingly alternate with each other on the circumference along which they are located. At least one gas jet, the fuel and the oxidizing agent are fed from the injector directly into the space for injection without passing the zone of recycling formed with the extender of the injector. At least one gas jet passes at a prescribed distance coming at least to 20d, where d- is the diameter of the output opening of the nozzle from which exits a gas jet keeping the diameter of the mentioned gas jet in essence constant.

EFFECT: the invention allows make an arrangement with the aid of which it is possible to form effective cumulative gas jets without need in an extender in the injector or in any other element for forming recycling zone for gases fed from the injector.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method of fuel combustion when at least one fuel and at least two oxidants are injected: the first oxidant is injected at I1 distance equal to 20 cm at maximum and preferably 15 cm at maximum from point of fuel injection. The second oxidant is injected at I2 distance from point of fuel injection while I2 is greater than I1. Oxidants are injected in such amounts that sum of their amounts is equal to at least stoichiometric amount of oxidant required to provide combustion of injected fuel. The first oxidant is oxygen-enriched air at maximum temperature of 200 C, and the second oxidant is air preheated to temperature of at least 300 C. Air is enriched with oxygen so that oxygen concentration in enriched air is at least 30%. Oxygen-enriched air is obtained by mixing ambient air with oxygen from cryogenic source. Preheated air is heated by means of heat exchange using part of hot combustion products. At least two oxidants are injected at I1 distance equal to 20 cm at maximum and preferably 15 cm at maximum while one oxidant called primary is injected mixed with fuel or near fuel and another oxidant called secondary is injected at distance from fuel. Amount of oxidant injected by means of primary oxidant jet ranges from 2 to 50% of oxygen stoichiometric amount required to provide combustion of injected fuel. The secondary oxidant is separated into multiple jets of secondary oxidant. The second oxidant injected at distance I2 is separated into multiple jets of oxidant.

EFFECT: fuel combustion using oxygen as oxidant suitable for retrieving energy from furnace gases.

8 cl

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. The proposed method of fuel firing with oxygen-containing gas wherein fuel jet is injected and, at least, two jets of oxygen containing gas that features high oxygen content. Note here that the 1st jet of aforesaid gas, called a primary jet, is injected to allow its contact with the fuel jet and to form the 1st incomplete firing. Note here that outlet gases, thereafter, contains, nevertheless, at least, one fraction of fuel. Note also that the 2nd aforesaid jet is injected at the distance from the fuel jet to allow firing together with the said 1st fuel fraction existing in outlet gases after 1st firing. The oxidiser primary jet is divided into two primary jets, that is, 1st primary jet, called the central primary oxidiser jet injected into fuel jet centre and 2nd primary jet called the embracing primary jet injected coaxially and around the fuel jet. The rate of the oxidiser central primary jet injection exceeds that of fuel jet injection. The fuel jet injection rate exceeds that of the 1st embracing oxidizer injection. The oxidiser 2nd jet injection rate exceeds that of the oxidiser embracing primary jet. The distance between the oxidiser central primary jet injection and its 2nd jet injection vs the rate of injection of the oxidiser 2nd jet varies between 10-3 and 10-2. The oxidiser 3rd jet is injected at the point located between the point of injecting the oxidiser central primary jet and that of injecting 2nd oxidising jet. The rate of injecting oxidiser 2nd jet exceeds that injecting oxidiser 3rd jet. The distance between the point of injecting oxidiser 2nd jet and that of injecting oxidiser central primary jet vs the distance between the point of injecting oxidiser 3rd jet and that of injecting oxidiser primary jet varies from 2 to 10. Two primary oxidiser jets feature identical oxygen concentration. The oxidizer central primary jet oxygen concentration exceeds that of oxidiser embracing primary jet.

EFFECT: higher furnace reliability.

10 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder engineering. The method of fuel firing with oxygen-containing gas wherein fuel jet is injected and, at least, two jets of oxygen containing gas that features high oxygen content. Note here that the 1st jet of aforesaid gas, called a primary jet, is injected to allow its contact with the fuel jet and to form the 1st incomplete firing. Note here that outlet gases, thereafter, contains, nevertheless, at least, one fraction of fuel. Note also that the 2nd aforesaid jet is injected at the distance of l1 from the fuel jet to allow firing together with the said 1sr fuel fraction existing in outlet gases after 1st firing. Oxygen containing gas with low oxygen content is injected at the distance l2 from the fuel jet providing the firing together with the said outlet gases after 1st firing, where l2>l1.

EFFECT: firing gas with low oxygen content.

25 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to gas burners with separate air and gaseous fuel supply. The effect is achieved in gas burner (1) containing main metal housing (6), an inner tube for fuel gas, at least two outer tubes (10) for fuel gas, single tube (8) for supplying pre-heated air, fuel gas supply control system, refractory block (30) and a group of nozzles (20) which are located in a circumferential direction coaxially in relation to inner tube and meant for spraying pre-heated air into combustion chamber.

EFFECT: limit reduction of NOx concentration in exit combustion products.

29 cl,13 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention related to energy, particularly to burner devices and can be used in gas turbine equipment. Burner device consists of a case (1), a fuel nozzle (2), a front device (3), a fire tube (4). The burner device belongs to gas-turbine engine combustion chamber. The front device executed with holes for fuel nozzles installation (2). The fire tube (4) with the front device (3) located inside of the combustion chamber cage (5). Fuel nozzles (2) connected to a gas ring collector (6). In combustion chamber fire tube and cage (5) between wall area air nozzles (7) located radically. Air nozzles (7) connected to the common ring air collector (9). The air collector (9) located in the case (1).

EFFECT: invention allows to regulate primary air supply to the combustion chamber section during equipment operation, burning device design simplification, it operation safety stays constant, possibility of device change on the running gas turbine equipment.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel combustion process. Fuel combustion method is implemented by means of oxygen-containing gas with high oxygen content, in accordance with which to combustion chamber there sprayed is fuel jet and at least two jets of oxygen-containing gas; at that, the first or primary jet of oxygen-containing gas is supplied through the hole having diametre D and sprayed around the above fuel jet in such quantity which allows providing the first incomplete fuel combustion; at that, gases formed as a result of the above first combustion contain at least some part of unburnt fuel, and the second jet of oxygen-containing gas introduced through the hole having diametre d and located at some distance 1 from the hole of introduction of the first or primary jet of oxygen-containing gas so it can be possible to enter into combustion reaction with the fuel portion which is contained in gases formed as a result of the above first incomplete combustion; at that, fuel jet opens inside the jet of primary oxygen-containing gas at some point located at some distance in backward direction from combustion chamber wall; at that, the above point is located at distance r from that wall, and oxygen-containing gas with high oxygen content is pre-heated at least to 300C. Ratio r/D has the value either lying within the range of 5 to 20, or lying within the range of 0.75 to 3, and ratio 1/d has the value equal at least to 2. Oxygen-containing gas with high oxygen content represents oxygen concentration which is at least 70% by volume. Fuel is subject to pre-heating up to temperature comprising at least 300C.

EFFECT: increasing fuel combustion efficiency.

15 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: burner for fuel combustion comprises fuel supply line. The fuel supply line consists of several fuel sections. Also each fuel section is connected to another section and is designed for supply of fuel flow. Further, the burner includes a fuel inlet section. This section has the first fuel inlet and the first fuel outlet located at a distance from the first fuel inlet. The fuel inlet section has the first through cross section area and is designed to supply fuel flowing into the first fuel inlet and coming out the first fuel outlet. The burner has an intermediate section of fuel with fuel inlet and outlet device, notably the fuel outlet device is located at a distance from the fuel inlet device. The intermediate fuel section is designed for supply of at least part of flow coming into the inlet fuel device and going out of the outlet fuel device and has the second through cross section area. The second through cross section area changes from the initial through cross section area in the fuel inlet device to different through cross section area in the fuel outlet device. The burner has the fuel outlet section. The fuel outlet section has the second inlet of fuel and the second outlet of fuel located at a distance form the second inlet of fuel. The fuel outlet section is designed for supply of at least part of fuel flow coming onto the second fuel inlet and going out the second fuel outlet and it has the third through cross section area. This third through cross section area in essence is uniform along the whole outlet section of fuel. The burner comprises the first line of oxidant with several oxidant sections. Each oxidant section is connected to another oxidant section. It is designed to supply flow of oxidant. It includes an oxidant pressure chamber letting though oxidant flow and having the fourth through cross section area. At least part of oxidant pressure chamber is located in essence at least next to a part of at least one inlet section of fuel, intermediate section of fuel and outlet section of fuel. The oxidant outlet section lets through at least part of oxidant flow and has the fifth through cross section area. Also the fifth through cross section area is less or equal to the fourth through cross section area and in essence is uniform along the whole outlet section of oxidant. At least part of oxidant outlet section in essence is positioned next to the fuel outlet section.

EFFECT: facilitating upgraded quality of fuel combustion and reduced level of nitrogen oxide exhaust into atmosphere.

28 cl, 19 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing acetylene and synthetic gas via thermal partial oxidation of hydrocarbons which are gaseous at temperatures used for preheating, in a reactor which is fitted with a burner with through holes, characterised by that the starting substances to be converted are quickly and completely mixed only directly in front of the flame reaction zone in through holes of the burner, where in the mixing zone within the through holes the average flow rate is higher than the propagation speed of the flame under the existing reaction conditions. The invention also relates to a device for realising the said method.

EFFECT: possibility of avoiding preliminary and reverse inflammations.

9 cl, 3 ex, 1 dwg

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