Composition to construct earth-filled structures and bases for filled sludge dumps in aluminous material production

FIELD: building material production in hydraulic and industrial building, particularly to erect bases for weirs, dams, as well as motor road beds and so on.

SUBSTANCE: composition comprises dewatered sandy deposits obtained during aluminous material production. The deposits include ferric oxide in amount of 30-75% by weight, aluminum oxide in amount of 10-40% by weight, silicon oxide in amount of 0.5 % by weight, titanium oxide, sodium oxide, phosphorus oxide and bound water in amount of 1-20% by weight. The deposits contain not less than 80% of particles having sizes exceeding 0.1 mm.

EFFECT: possibility of waste utilization and reduced costs of structure erection.

1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of building materials in hydraulic engineering and industrial construction and can be used to create ground bulk of buildings and grounds for the construction of sludge in the production of alumina.

Known composition of natural mineral soil in the form of clay, loam, sandy loam, sand, gravel, stone used in embankments, including hydraulic structures (Guide to prospecting, exploration and testing of natural mineral construction materials for hydraulic engineering - M.: Energy, 1978, pp.96-98; recommendations on the use of analogues for the design and construction of artificial dams. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1984, pp.33-35; Kan. Calculated values of physico-mechanical properties of soils. - L.: Publishing house of literature on construction, 1973, p.20-21,33-35).

The disadvantage of analog is the need for device quarries appropriate soils and their frequent absence in the construction area bulk facilities.

Known composition for the construction of bulk soil structures and their foundations (patent RU №2242562) on the basis of a mixture of carbon fluorides and oxides, fluoride and sodium salts which it contains sludge deposits aluminum production following composition wt.%: fluorides and forsale 5-40, oxide Natrii sodium salt 3-30, aluminum oxide 2-40, small components 1-20.

The disadvantages of it are a large number of small fractions of a limited number of quarries dedicated to aluminum plants.

Known composition for the construction of impervious screen of hydraulic structures (A.S. USSR N1209744) based on a mixture of hydroalumination and oxides, in which he contains sludge deposits alumina production the following composition, wt.%: hydroecological sodium and calcium Na6CA(AlSiO4)H2O - 35-50, hydrosilicate of calcium and aluminum type hydrogenate CA3Al2(SiO4)n·(OH)12-4nwhere 0,4≤n≤1,4 - 25-40, iron oxide type hematite Fe2About3- the rest. This invention is adopted for the prototype.

The disadvantage of the prototype is a limited number of quarries soil-sludge alumina production.

Object of the invention is the use of waste, environmental improvement and cheapening of the process of creating structures.

The solution of the technical problem is that in part for the construction of underground bulk of buildings and grounds under the bulk structures of sludge in the production of alumina contains sand slurry deposits alumina production the following composition, wt.%:

, wt.%:

iron oxide30-75
aluminium oxide10-40
the silicon oxide0-5
the oxides of titanium, sodium,
phosphorus bound water1-20

with granulometric composition containing at least 80% of particles with a particle size of more than 0.1 mm

Slurries having a given composition in soil bulk structures, form an array of technogenic soil with mechanical filtration and strengths, allowing to perceive the construction and operational loads on the structure.

Construction characteristics of this composition were determined by studies of sand slurry deposits on the dumps alumina plants, including their composition, physico-mechanical and hydro-physical characteristics, and through experimental dredging sludge and the dumping of these dams.

Example. As the original gravel slurry of alumina production used gravel sludge from an alumina plant, leaving the process in the hopper in the form of wet sand, transported by dump trucks to the factory blade. The sludge in the sludge dump dehydrated, followed by the excavation of sludge, his delivery and laying in bulk structures - retaining dam with layer-by-layer seal to given p the involved parameters.

The content of components in slurry (wt.%):

iron oxide54
aluminium oxide33
the silicon oxide3
the oxides of titanium, sodium,
phosphorus bound water10

granulometric composition contains 83% of particles greater than 0.1 mm

The composition for the construction of underground bulk of buildings and grounds under the bulk structures of sludge in the production of alumina, characterized in that it contains sand dehydrated sludge deposits alumina production the following composition, wt.%:

Iron oxide30-75
Aluminium oxide10-40
The silicon oxide0-5
The oxides of titanium, sodium, phosphorus,
bound water1-20

with granulometric composition containing at least 80% of particles with a particle size of more than 0.1 mm



 

Same patents:

FIELD: road building, particularly to form motor road and railroad bed, all-purpose areas and garden walks.

SUBSTANCE: ground consolidation composition comprises gypsum, cement, lime and mineral additive, namely smoke black. Blast-furnace slag and basalt fibers are additionally added to the composition. Gypsum is taken in amount of 35-42% by weight, cement - 9-14% by weight, blast-furnace slag - 9-14% by weight, basalt fiber - 0.1-1.0% by weight and smoke black - 17-22% by weight. Method of composition usage for road building is also disclosed.

EFFECT: increased strength and water resistance, frost resistance, possibility to perform all road building and repair operations with the use of above composition, reduced road building and repair costs and improved road paving quality.

3 cl, 4 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: building, particularly collapsible ground wetting for building base consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming pit; creating water-tight screen and filling pit with water. Water-tight screen is formed by driving injectors in ground along building site contour and supplying high-pressure water and then water-cement or sand-cement grout by injectors. To fill pit with water water-supply injectors are driven in ground so that the water-supply injectors are uniformly distributed over zone defined by water-tight screen. High-pressure water is injected through the injectors after grout hardening.

EFFECT: reduced time of ground wetting.

2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly soft ground consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forcing injector in ground; supplying consolidating penetrative mortar in ground under pressure, which provides ground structure disintegration in soft grounds to create compacted area; repeatedly forcing injector in ground to form consolidation zones adjoining previous one to consolidate water-logged ground. The mortar comprises filler having density less than water density. Filter to remove water from area to be compacted is forced in ground before mortar injection.

EFFECT: extended field of method implementation along with increased operational reliability and efficiency.

1 ex

FIELD: improving or preserving soil or rock, particularly to reinforce railroad ground bed base.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming drainage holes and removing accumulated water from railroad bed via the drainage holes; deepening injectors in ground from railroad bed side opposite to drainage holes or between them; forcedly water removing from railroad bed voids via drainage wells by directly injecting hardening mortar towards drainage wells through injectors.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of water removal from railroad bed and consolidation thereof.

1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly pile foundations including floating piles.

SUBSTANCE: method involves injecting hardening mortar via injectors driven in ground in area between the piles and at pile ends for depth exceeding 1-2.5 m, wherein the injectors are spaced 1.5-2.0 meters apart. The hardening mortar pressure gradually increases. The hardening mortar is injected up to creation of hydraulic fracture cavities having 1.5-2.0 m radii around each injector. Then the injection operation is preformed under constant pressure of 2-10 atm to consolidate and reinforce ground, compress the piles to multiply load-bearing capacity thereof by 1.5-2 times.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing pile capacity due to increased side friction and head resistance.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to consolidate frozen ground in thawed zone under building foundation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves driving injector in ground; injecting consolidation penetrative mix under pressure, which provides ground structure in weakened ground zones and ground compaction along compacted zone perimeter; following injector driving to create compacted zones adjacent above zones. The consolidation penetrative mix is cooled salt solution comprising filler of material having lesser heat conductivity in comparison with ground to be compacted.

EFFECT: extended field of method application, increased reliability and efficiency.

5 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to prevent slope ground sliding during industrial territory development.

SUBSTANCE: method involves driving injectors into sliding ground along profiles spaced apart 1.0-2.5 m, wherein the injectors are spaced apart 1.0-2.5 m and directed transversely to sliding ground edge and are submersed for depth 0.5-1.5 m below ground sliding plane; injecting consolidating mixture under increasing pressure to create hydraulic fracturing cavities; injecting consolidating mixture under constant pressure, which 1.1-1.3 times larger than ground pressure to create compacted zones having radii of 1.5-2.5 m around the injectors so that the compacted zones are overlapped or touch each other. During injector driving in ground having coarse cut rock pieces small-diameter pilot well is drilled. The pilot well diameter may be equal to 60 mm. The injector is installed in the well and forced in ground for necessary depth. After injection operation termination injector heads are sheared and plugged.

EFFECT: increased ground physical and mechanical properties for all sliding ground thickness and increased ground stability.

4 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

Injector // 2273696

FIELD: mining and building, particularly for rock strengthening and building structure reinforcement, namely for hardening liquid introduction.

SUBSTANCE: injector comprises supply pipeline provided with outer threads at inlet and outlet ends. The pipeline also has expandable hose and integrated check valve with longitudinal channels. The valve is closable in direction towards inlet pipeline end. The hose encloses the pipeline in air-tight manner by end parts thereof so that elongated annular space is created in-between. Transversal channels are created from one side of annular space in pipeline wall. Channel heads are closed in annular space with elastic sealing rings retained by neighboring fixing rings from both sides. Breakable disc and threaded bush with inner radial bridge are installed from end side of outlet supply pipeline end. The breakable disc is secured by means of pressure ring with cutting inner edge. The check valve comprises ball pressed against longitudinal channel head in supply pipeline, pressure spring and support ring. End of ring brought into contact with breakable disc is provided with transversal slot. Inner diameter of pressure ring is greater than inner diameter of support ring but is less than inner diameter of radial bridge in threaded bush.

EFFECT: improved injector adaptability to in-situ conditions.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to form base member in ground.

SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing excavation device in ground zone to loose the ground; mixing the loosened ground with liquid to obtain suspension, which hardens in the ground zone; before suspension hardening the suspension is drawn-off from the first ground zone area located above the second ground zone area; supplying at least part of suspension drawn-off from the first area back into the second ground zone area. Device for base member production comprises excavation rig adapted to loosen ground in ground area; supplying means to supply liquid to loosened ground and mixing means to mix loosened ground with liquid to obtain hardening suspension. The device is provided with outlet device to draw-off the suspension from the first ground zone area and supply device to repeatedly supply at least part of suspension drawn-off from the first area to the second ground zone area.

EFFECT: increased quality of base and foundation member production.

9 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to reconstruct underground structures and reinforce foundations and engineering services in confined space.

SUBSTANCE: method involves reinforcing foundation in vicinity of existent structures; building vertical tube with the use of well rings; excavating ground with the use of grab; breaking tunnel liner and driving tunnel. Method of foundation reinforcement near existent structures involves injecting quick-setting cement mix through perforated pipes installed in wells drilled through support foundation part and ground; drilling guiding wells beyond vertical tube below upper tunnel level and ground water level; providing guiding wells with casing pipes; injecting grouting mortar in ground through casing pipes up to grouting mortar appearance at well head; installing well rings having perforation orifices along ring perimeters and installing injectors in above orifices; additionally reinforcing contour part of vertical tube by supplying grouting mortar through orifices in well rings; breaking tunnel link section after well ring laying onto upper liner plate of deep tunnel by cutting orifices having necessary dimensions; removing tunnel link section and seating well ring on rock base; concreting well ring; forming two orifices in well ring before tunnel driving arranged in direction of tunnel reconstruction; driving the tunnel and installing support members.

EFFECT: extended field of usage, reliability and safety of operations.

4 dwg

FIELD: road construction.

SUBSTANCE: device has towed device with platform, connected to moving gear, tank for reinforcing liquid, force pipes with bars with apertures in lower portion. Bars are made of conical shape with screw blades, mounted on a platform made in form of slides, and radiuses of bars effect overlap. In back portion of platform a screw is mounted. Tank for reinforcing liquid is placed in front portion of platform and by gear pump is connected to distributing comb, each force pipe, which through locking armature is connected to appropriate bar. Bars in amount no less than three are kinematically connected to each other, and to shaft for drawing power from moving gear, to screw and to gear pump for feeding reinforcing liquid.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg

Heated pile // 2250302

FIELD: heat engineering constructions.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as supports of different construction on permafrost. Proposed heated pile has reinforced concrete or metal shaft with inner or outer heated pipe in form of ribbed evaporator and condensers provided with metal strip ribbing arranged over ground surface with inclination to vertical part of shaft. Novelty is that heated pile is made T-shaped, and heated pipe in form of ribbed evaporator is made symmetrically double relative to axis of shaft with connection of some ends or its evaporators, other ends being connected with condensers. Evaporator ribbing is made in form of upward convex ring surfaces with central passes secured on inner surfaces of walls of heated pipe evaporators and uniformly distributed in height, and metal strip ribbing of condensers is element of horizontal part of T-shaped heated pile.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of heated pile, facilitated replacement of pile in case of failure.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: protection of ground and underground water pollution with toxic chemical substances, particularly forming antifiltering screens around waste disposal areas, dumps, for producing water reservoirs, building vessel coatings, mud reservoirs and store facilities for oil products and building materials.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming water-proofing mixture including polyethylene waste; laying thereof on store facility base and heat treating the mixture under temperature of mixture or upper store facility layer melting. The mixture includes waste polyethylene in amount of 70-99% and polypropylene in amount of 1-30%.

EFFECT: improved ecological safety and manufacturability, reduced cost for antifiltering screen forming, increased strength, reliability and extended trouble-free service life.

FIELD: building, particularly for reinforcing foundations and cast-in-place piles forming.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises percussion assembly including pneumatic drift and case surrounding thereof, as well as pipeline with pump. Case is rigidly secured to percussion assembly. Case comprises orifice made in front part thereof and adapted for receiving plug. Defined between the plug and the front part is cavity having cross-sectional area equal or more than that of pipeline located between percussion assembly and the case. Case has members for forming holes in ground located along longitudinal case axis and extending in radial direction thereof. The members have low rigidity and may be bent in radial direction. The members are provided with grooves formed in bending line thereof and rest brought into contact with case in extreme position.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

7 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for reinforcing soft and sagging ground at deep locations during building foundation construction and reconstruction, for protection of sliding natural slopes, as well as artificial dam, pit and trench slopes.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming cylindrical cavity from ground surface; reinforcing cylindrical cavity walls by means of soil pipe and injecting hardening mix by pumping thereof into ground through injector. In the case of consolidating ground having high thickness cylindrical cavity is formed and reinforced with the use of soil pipe by vibratory driving thereof in ground. Soil pipe has auxiliary tube arranged coaxial to soil pipe and having outer diameter determined from a given relation. When soil pipe reaches upper boundary of soft ground layer to be consolidated the auxiliary tube is removed from soil pipe. Injector is deepened for the full soft ground layer thickness through the soil pipe and hardening mix is intermittently fed through the injector. After each hardening mix feeding operation injector is lifted for height corresponding to next gap to be filled with the mix. All injection operations in one consolidation point are performed during relaxation of ground compacted by soil pipe and injector driven in ground.

EFFECT: increased capacity, reduced time and labor inputs, improved technological effectiveness.

3 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: building, particularly to consolidate building or building structure foundation base.

SUBSTANCE: method involves driving injectors in ground; supplying high-pressure grout through ejectors; recording and measuring mortar pressure and forming grout body. Grout is injected simultaneously through at least three injectors installed along straight line and spaced equal distances one from another. The distances are equal to 5-10 injector diameters. Vertical grout body orientation is provided by driving injectors up to given mark reaching with following partial lifting thereof for height equal to 10-20 injector diameters and with their fixation at predetermined level before start of grout ejection process.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of ground base consolidation for ground of all types due to performing ground compaction along with forming vertical grout body of predetermined shape.

4 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: building, particularly to consolidate building or building structure foundation base.

SUBSTANCE: method involves driving injectors in ground; supplying high-pressure grout through ejectors; recording and measuring mortar pressure and forming grout body. Grout is injected simultaneously through three injectors installed in apexes of imaginary equilateral triangle with side dimensions equal to 5-10 injector diameters. Grout body forming is performed by driving and following lifting injectors for height equal to 1-3 injector diameters before start of grout supply to ejectors.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and increased efficiency of ground base consolidation due to providing of predetermined grout body shape in horizontal grout breaking plane.

3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: building, particularly technology and equipment for structurally unstable ground, for instance for industrial and civil building.

SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling well; forming longitudinal stress concentrator on wall thereof, locking upper well part along with injection zone separation; introducing binder under pressure in ground and forming plane of fracture in ground. Longitudinal concentrator is created by advancing, impressing and subsequent rolling of sliding punch-type rotary lentil-shaped disk within injection zone. The disc is connected with retainer through stop member. Upper well part is closed by filling gap between well wall and binder introduction means with quick-hardening material. Binder introduction means is made as perforated tube formed of elastic material and having diameter lesser than well diameter. Stress concentrator forming means has tube, head and cutter arranged in groove of the head. The cutter is made as sliding punch-type rotary lentil-shaped disk and connected to retainer by stop member including clamp and fork.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: building, particularly to reconstruct underground structures and reinforce foundations and engineering services in confined space.

SUBSTANCE: method involves reinforcing foundation in vicinity of existent structures; building vertical tube with the use of well rings; excavating ground with the use of grab; breaking tunnel liner and driving tunnel. Method of foundation reinforcement near existent structures involves injecting quick-setting cement mix through perforated pipes installed in wells drilled through support foundation part and ground; drilling guiding wells beyond vertical tube below upper tunnel level and ground water level; providing guiding wells with casing pipes; injecting grouting mortar in ground through casing pipes up to grouting mortar appearance at well head; installing well rings having perforation orifices along ring perimeters and installing injectors in above orifices; additionally reinforcing contour part of vertical tube by supplying grouting mortar through orifices in well rings; breaking tunnel link section after well ring laying onto upper liner plate of deep tunnel by cutting orifices having necessary dimensions; removing tunnel link section and seating well ring on rock base; concreting well ring; forming two orifices in well ring before tunnel driving arranged in direction of tunnel reconstruction; driving the tunnel and installing support members.

EFFECT: extended field of usage, reliability and safety of operations.

4 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to form base member in ground.

SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing excavation device in ground zone to loose the ground; mixing the loosened ground with liquid to obtain suspension, which hardens in the ground zone; before suspension hardening the suspension is drawn-off from the first ground zone area located above the second ground zone area; supplying at least part of suspension drawn-off from the first area back into the second ground zone area. Device for base member production comprises excavation rig adapted to loosen ground in ground area; supplying means to supply liquid to loosened ground and mixing means to mix loosened ground with liquid to obtain hardening suspension. The device is provided with outlet device to draw-off the suspension from the first ground zone area and supply device to repeatedly supply at least part of suspension drawn-off from the first area to the second ground zone area.

EFFECT: increased quality of base and foundation member production.

9 cl, 1 dwg

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