Method of express analysis of dispersed content of aerosol

FIELD: analysis of materials.

SUBSTANCE: dependence of weight and diameter of particles is determined on diameter of the particles' prints onto substrate. Fixing indicator substrate is scanned together with particles of applied aerosol to get contrast image and computer system is used to process of video images of fixing indicator substrates with particles of aerosol applied onto it. To register video images, digital cameras are used with variable discrete resolution which allows widening of range of sizes of aerosol particles.

EFFECT: improved precision; improved truth of results.

2 cl, 5 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of analysis, specifically to the analysis of non-biological materials by physical and chemical methods use optical devices and computers, combined with other machines involving computer processing of the results.

The effectiveness of the use of chemicals in agriculture is determined by the density of vyedaniya aerosol. In turn, the density vyedaniya aerosol depends on many properties, such as the speed of sedimentation of the particles, the degree of inertial deposition on their streamlined obstacles (capture ratio), the degree of demolition of the particles by the wind and scattering them in the atmospheric surface layer, the rate of evaporation and condensation growth, the behavior of particles at the contacts and collisions with other particles, wetting of various surfaces and fixation on them. All these particle properties are largely determined by their size.

Therefore, the problem of rapid and reliable determination of particle size distribution of the aerosol and density vyedaniya is very important.

Determination of particle size distribution and density vyedaniya aerosol begins with sampling. For sampling aerosol use of the fixation plate 10×10 cm cuvettes, glass slides, covered with the same or a different composition that ensures stability of the edge is the first edge of the deposited droplets of different sizes. In this case, the droplets have the correct form, and the spreading coefficient (the ratio of the diameter of the lens to the diameter of a spherical droplet) remains constant for droplets of different sizes. The use of such funds is based primarily on inertial and gravitational deposition of aerosol with subsequent chemical and microscopic analyses of samples taken.

For coarse aerosols are the most reliable methods of sampling particles on the locking indicator substrate, providing a contrast of the prints, and direct determination of the sizes of a large number of individual particles using an optical microscope with subsequent statistical processing of results /Weftwise and other Monodisperse aerosols.- M.: Nauka, 1975-191 C./. For sampling relatively fine drops (diameter less than 20 μm) using a cascade impactor may with the capture of droplets on various substrates.

This widespread nowadays the method is the closest of the analogues.

However, the evaluation of the size distribution of particles of polydisperse aerosol is associated with the measurement of a large number of particles. Methods of measurement is laborious, time-consuming and require a large staff of professionals. Besides the undoubted advantages of direct methods for the study of aerosol subjectivity of the obtained results and the dependence of the accuracy of determination of particle size from the moral and physical condition of the operator (fatigue, a defect of vision) are the most significant deficiencies that require improvement and automation of these methods.

The present invention is to improve the accuracy, objectivity and expressnet of results to disperse composition and density vyedaniya aerosol.

This object is achieved in that establish the dependence of the weight and diameter of aerosol particles on the diameter of the footprint of these particles on a substrate, scan the locking indicator substrate with deposited by aerosol particles to obtain a contrast image, use a computerized system for processing video images fixing the indicator substrate caused by aerosol particles, thus take into account the density values of the analyzed compounds, the empirical coefficients of this dependence, the values of fractional range and estimate the mass-average diameter of fingerprints on the display substrate.

To obtain video images used digital cameras or scanners with variable discrete resolution.

These tools can be used separately, as well as the functional units in devices intended for image analysis. With their help, we can quickly obtain high-quality images and high resolution.

Receiving the Noah image is subjected to computerized processing according to a predetermined system application software "Drop 1.0" specific task of determining the parameters of the aerosol.

Currently there are many software products capable of image processing. To select the optimal variant we tested programs PhotoStiler", "PaintBrash", "PhotoPhinish", "PhotoShop", "CorelDrow", etc. In our opinion the most optimal from the point of view of usability and provided opportunities is most common at the present time, the program "PhotoShop" different versions. In our work we used the software product version 5.0.

The image is loaded from the image file is processed line by line from top to bottom. When the points with color different from the background color, start the routine of finding such points in the immediate vicinity. After finding all the nearby points, the process continues. The collected data is analyzed and used to calculate the sizes of all detected spots. Next, taking into account the introduced coefficients calculated the diameter of each droplet and its weight.

The computerized processing of video images of the sample aerosol is the calculation:

- the total area of the fingerprint;

- medium size prints;

- mass-average diameter of the droplets of the aerosol;

- weight aerosol droplets;

- density vyedaniya aerosol on the analyzed surface.

Specialized software product "Drop 1.0",compiled by using rapid application development under WINDOWS DELPHI 5.0 programming language OBJECT PASCAL, with the help of which you can make various adjustments to make additions and changes depending on the tasks. The program works on any type of computer equipped with the WINDOWS shell 95 and above.

The use of a recording device variables with discrete values resolution allows you to extend the range of the designated size of aerosol particles.

The program "Drop 1.0" works in real time and allows you to quickly obtain the necessary information.

Processing of the obtained results is carried out using commodity software "Microsoft Excel", which is included with the software package "Microsoft Offis". This software allows any statistical and mathematical processing of data, as obtained in the resultant file contains almost all information about the analyzed substrate, ranging from the size of the spot of each individual droplets of the aerosol prior to its size and weight.

Developed the program also allows for the analysis of the package of images. This is useful if a large number of analyzed material. All of the analyzed fixing substrate are scanned and transferred to the image recording in the same directory, which is loaded into the program "Drop of 1.0" and is analyzed already be the direct involvement of the operator.

It should be noted that the equipment offered by us for registration and processing of video images, has a universal nature of its use and is issued by the industry in a wide range. No need to use special equipment and the availability of used equipment is one of the advantages of the proposed method.

An example of the method

Determination of particle size distribution of the investigated aerosol precedes the establishment of Taranay dependence, i.e. depending on the weight and diameter of aerosol particles on the diameter of the footprint of these particles on the substrate.

Studies to determine Taranay dependence spend in the following sequence:

- calibration microapplicator;

- the study of effective flowing property of aerosol particles on the substrate;

- obtain the original data and the definition of empirical coefficients.

Applying the aerosol to the substrate is carried out in laboratory conditions using microapplicator. On a substrate of the filter paper is applied xanthene dye (rhodamine) with different dispersion. The aerosol of the same size is applied on the substrate 3 and in parallel in the same amount of material cans with the solvent for further analysis fluorimetric method. Using an optical microscope to determine the number of prints and their average diameter, using the fluorimetric method of analysis - the number of marked simulator.

The processing sequence of aerosol samples by the proposed method consists in the following:

- scan the locking indicator substrate with deposited by aerosol particles to obtain a contrast black-and-white image in bitmap format with the extension bmp;

- upload images into the program "Drop 1.0";

- enter the density values of the analyzed compounds, the ratios Taranay dependence and fractional range (listed source data when booting programs are stored until the first adjustment by the operator);

- run the program image analysis;

- image analysis and transfer all of the data in the format of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet automatically (the results file is written to the same directory as the analyzed image, the same with him by name).

To assess the accuracy of determination of particle size monodisperse aerosol at the stage of establishing Taranay according to the mass-average diameter of fingerprints on the display substrate evaluate known method using an optical microscope and the proposed method. The values found error are listed in table 1.

Table 1
Evaluation of the accuracy of determining particle sizes of monodisperse aerosol
Range, micronsThe values of the mass-average diameters of the parallel measurements of the proposed method, mcmRelative error, %
100398810539910,8
5876005805910,5
3443473463430,3
2532582502570,8
1671651731701,2

Analysis of the values shown in the table shows that the maximum error in estimating the size of the particles of the proposed method in comparison with well-known not exceed 1.2%.

The automatic processing substrates using videosmeatholes complex, which includes the Registrar of the image (scanner) and the data processing system (computer type IBM PC), involves a number of actions, some of which is connected with the part of the operator, which may affect the accuracy of the results. These operations can be attributed is the proceed of images from the substrate, select the level of brightness and contrast, select typical plot of the video image, select the resolution with which the recorded image. These operations should be carried out, when, along with prints drops are interfering factors (the surface of the substrate is contaminated).

To determine the error at the stage of processing video experimental studies were performed. As object of research was used the same substrate of the filter paper with 10 prints drops of one dye dispersion. When this substrate was processed in 10 different versions. The results of the measurements are presented in table 2.

Table 2
The results of the estimation error of measurement of the mass-average diameter (SMD) using videosmeatholes complex at various stages of operations
№ p/pThe SMD values at various stages of dimensions, mm
Multiple registrationSelect the level of brightness and contrastThe choice of characteristic sites
1.348,5348,5348,5
2.350,9348,5 344,6
3.347,0348,5347,1
4.347,0348,5353,2
5.348.6m348,5343,4
6.346,3348,5353,2
7.347,8348,5of 345.7
8.347,6348,5343,5
9.348.6m348,5350,3
10.349,9348,5343,5
X, microns348,2348,5347,3
S, mcm1,4003,86
S %0,4001,11
Note. X - mean, S - standard deviation.

Analysis of the results presented in table 2 shows that the largest errors give the operation associated with the selection of the characteristic plot.

Also investigated substrates were subjected to scanning with varying degrees of resolution. The values of the mass-average diameter of the aerosol obtained after registration of images with substrates using different permissions, see the table 3.

Table 3
The values of the mass-average diameters of the aerosol obtained after registration of images with substrates at different resolution
No. substratesThe values of the SMD of the spray obtained by resolution of the scanner, mcmRelates. error, %
1200 dpi600 dpi300 dpi
1-15975936000,59
1-25815795800,17
1-35905875910,35
2-13383373471,62
2-23453423460,60
2-33343353431,46
3-12532512581,42
3-22492422501,76
3-32652502572,92
4-1167161165/td> to 1.86
4-21741701731,21
4-31711681700,90

The analysis values are presented in table 3 shows that for registration of images with substrates it is necessary to use a constant resolution. However, the resolution does not significantly affect the value of the measurement results, as the average relative error over the entire set of measurements SMD with different resolution does not exceed 1.24%of the.

For evaluating indicators of duration analysis of substrates using videosmeatholes complex substrate of the same size (6,5×6.5 cm) with different density deposition of rhodamine treated with different resolutions and on different computers from each other configurations. The results are presented in table 4.

Table 4
The results of experimental studies of temporal parameters of image processing with the use of videosmeatholes complex
The density of rhodamine on the substrate, mg/cm2The mass-average diameter of the droplets, mcm Resolution, dpiThe processing time on computers of various configurations, min
IBM "Pentium" processor - 300 MHz memory - 64 MBIBM "Pentium" processor - 233 MHz, memory - 32 MB


8,91*10-2


988
3000,412,15
6003,55of 8.47
12005,4213,21


with 3.27*10-2


600
3000,221,49
6002,386,29
12004,228,56


6,18*10-3


347
3000,151,40
6000,533,25
12003,24are 5.36

Analyzing the data of table 4, we can conclude that the main parameters affecting the processing speed of the image will be the image resolution, the speed performance computing, as well as the density of prints aerosol droplets on the substrate.

For comparison, the time spent on the processing of the substrate is known and before Agamim methods studies were performed on 3 substrates with the same number of prints monodisperse droplets of the aerosol.

The results of determination of temporal parameters are given in table. 5.

Table 5
The value of time spent on processing the locking indicator substrates
Stage of processing wafersTemporary performance of the methods of obtaining information about the disperse composition and density vyedaniya aerosol studied fixing substrate
The known method, minThe proposed method, min
Scan-3
Image processing (finding print sizes aerosol droplets)15





1,5
The calculation of the particle size distribution of deposited aerosol and SMD25
Determination of the density of contamination of substrates60
The total time spent processing 3 substrates1004,5

Thus, the results tables show the reduction of time costs more than 20 times. Thus we can assume that the difference in time of the compared methods will increase proportionally to the increase in the number of the processing is tihamah funds and density vyedaniya aerosol droplets on them. This will be driven mainly by the fatigue of the operator performing microscopic analysis to determine print sizes aerosol droplets. Not to mention the fact that operator fatigue when carrying out a large series of analyses increases the possibility of introducing random errors in the experimental results. When conducting a computerized processing the fixing substrates the probability of introducing random errors is minimal, as all stages of processing wafers executes the computer.

Total error at all stages of the image processing method proposed does not exceed 5.0%, while the use of microscopic analysis gives an error of up to 25.0%. The lower limit of the particle size, determined using videosmeatholes complex is 25 μm, it is two times higher than the capability of the most advanced means of microscopic analysis.

1. The method of rapid determination of particle size distribution of the aerosol, including the sampling of aerosol on the locking indicator substrate and the registration of aerosol particles with subsequent statistical processing results, wherein the set dependence of the weight and diameter of aerosol particles on the diameter of the footprint of these particles on a substrate, scan the locking indicator substrate with asenime by aerosol particles to obtain a contrast image, use a computerized system for processing video images fixing the indicator substrate caused by aerosol particles, thus take into account the density values of the analyzed compounds, the empirical coefficients of this dependence, the values of fractional range and estimate the mass-average diameter of fingerprints on the display substrate.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for obtaining video images used digital cameras or scanners with variable discrete resolution.



 

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