Device for measuring deflections from flat surface

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring unit which has prod, platform with through opening where measuring unit is installed. Prod is capable of touching surface to be measured and of moving at plane being perpendicular to measured surface and along direction of measurement. Platform is provided with three supports for installation. As measuring unit the linear shift detector is used, which detector has light source, illuminating two diffraction gratings. One of gratings is measuring, being tightly connected with prod, and the other one is additional grating. Detector also has photoreceivers. Supports are made of materials having low temperature expansion coefficient. Supports provide three-point installation of platform onto surface; they are disposed in vertexes of triangle in such a way that one catheter of triangle is parallel to one side of platform.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; reduced limitations in size of surface to be measured; accelerated measuring process; widened working temperature range.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to measurement devices, more specifically to the field of measuring deviations from flatness of the surface and can be used in mechanical engineering, opto-mechanical industry, as well as in all high-tech industries, science, technology etc.

A device for determining the deviation from flatness of the surfaces, including the autocollimator as the measuring element and the mirror on the measured surface can move on it /1/.

The device operates as follows.

The parallel light beam emerging from the lens of the autocollimator, goes to the mirror. The mirror is set so that this light beam is returned to the lens of the autocollimator, giving the image autocollimating mark on the minute scale of the autocollimator. If the mirror is moved progressively along the beam axis, the image of the brand remains motionless. If the mirror while moving on the measured surface is rotated by some angle ϕthen the rays reflected from it, turn on double corner 2ϕand autocollimating mark is offset by the minute scale on the value δH. using the compensator built into the autocollimator, determines the magnitude of the δs and 2ϕ and thereby Naples lastnosti surface in this direction. Measuring the value of ϕ in different directions, it is possible to determine the variation of flatness across the surface.

The disadvantage of this method consists in the following:

1. Due to the large size and weight of the autocollimator (9 kg) it is set as a rule, not on the surface to be measured, in order not to introduce distortions in the surface.

In addition, because the second scale of the autocollimator and mirror installed on the measured surface, are in different coordinate systems (fixed and mobile) and isolated among themselves, the information transfer is carried out with a certain error due to changes in time and space of their mutual locations.

2. Because each autocollimator measuring range of angles is limited, accordingly, is limited and the range measuring deviations from flatness. In Russia are three types of autocollimators. Listed below are the technical specifications:

AK-0,2U),AK-0,5U,AK-1U
- ϕ-the limit of measurement (angular minutes)102040
- L the maximum distance to the mirror (m)202530
- error in two coordinate and is the measurements on the whole range, (angular seconds)............



3




6




12
(in microns) at L=1300 mm1,536

Moreover, when the distance from the lens to the mirror more than 2 m measuring range all instruments decreases (at a maximum distance

Lmaxϕmaxno more than 2 angular minutes).

3. The duration of data acquisition. This is caused by the time necessary for the operator to visually centering and compensate for the offset autocollimating brand one or two coordinates.

4. The complexity of the automation device.

A device for determining the deviation from flatness of surfaces, using as the measuring node - test (reference) glass /2/. This device is a device for measuring deviations from flatness of the surface of small size, less than or equal to the size of the test glass.

The device consists of a test glass plate containing two plane-parallel surfaces, and a radiation source.

The device operates as follows. Set the test plate on the surface to be measured and collet seats itself before the appearance of interference fringes. If the plate is illuminated by a source nekoga entogo radiation, the interference fringes are painted in different colors corresponding to the wavelengths contained in the spectrum of the source. If the source is coherent and has a single wavelength, each of the interference band is equivalent to the wavelength of the radiation source. Conducting a straight line, crossing the interference pattern in any direction, you can count the number of interference fringes it crosses in this direction. This means that the variation of flatness in this direction is equal to the given value. Moreover, determining the number of bands selected to equal intervals, it is possible to determine the distribution of the deviations from flatness in this direction.

Using a device similar it is possible to determine the deviation from flatness of the surface accuracy λ/4 on the aperture of the reference plate, where (λ - wavelength light source).

The disadvantages of this device are the following:

1. The device is suitable only for small changes of the deviation from flatness and only for optical surfaces. In the case of the greater curvature of the surface frequency of the interference fringes is so great, and the picture is so complex that it is difficult to decrypt it without the use of special equipment, and in some cases this transcript may be even impossible.

2. Measurement of QCD is onania from flatness is carried out manually by the operator. The complexity of the process automation is related to the fact that it is necessary translation information analog pattern of interference fringes in discrete information for further automatic processing.

3. The device can detect a small variation of flatness of the surfaces, since this device is only applicable within the aperture of the test glass. It is very difficult to make a test glass with aperture greater than 300 mm And it is necessary to certify these test glass on the entire surface with an accuracy of not less than, and preferably greater than the required accuracy in the determination of the deviation from flatness. Next, you need these certifications to be considered when carrying out processing of the measurement data. If you use the trial the glass repeatedly, rearranging it in the right direction, and over the entire surface, in each new situation, of course get a new interference pattern. These all pictures must then be connected to each other, i.e. consistently paserovany each other. The process of phasing of these paintings is difficult, and when the curvature of the surface becomes even more difficult.

Known devices for determining the deviation from flatness of the surfaces closest to the technical essence is the line optical OL-800 /3/. The device OL-800 is intended for determining the deviation from the plane is the mortality of verified surface with the length of the monitored area up to 800 mm

The device includes a platform in the form of a casing connecting the two lens / mirror lens located at the ends, at a distance of not less than 800 mm, and measuring the node that contains the caret and lighting system. Straight line connecting the centers of lenses, an optical direct comparison. Along the body, between the lenses, made a groove that moves the carriage measuring unit on the surface along the direction of measurement by means of two rollers. The carriage is in contact with the surface using a probe that has the ability to touch with the measuring surface and moving in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the surface. The illumination system includes a light source and other optical elements. The carriage is located in the lower part of the measuring site. In the upper part of a projection microscope with screw ocular micrometer. It contains the sighting bar, illuminated by the light beam from the light source of the lighting system. To install the chassis on a controlled surface use support, providing a three-point installation of the device on the surface to be measured. Three-point arrangement of bearings on the lateral sides of the body.

The device operates as follows :

The light beam from the light source (bulb), covering the sighting bar, p is uhodit through the lens / mirror lenses and designs sighting bar on the field aperture, creating in its plane image. The micro carries enlarged image of the sighting bar in the plane of the grid bisector. Projection eyepiece designs bisector and the sighting bar in the plane of the Supervisory screen. The offset of the probe resulting from surface roughness is the offset of the target image of the bar relative to the image of bisector. This displacement is measured by a screw micrometer.

The device is an optical line OL-800 has a number of disadvantages:

1 - Limited length L measured surface:

50 mm<L<800 mm

determined by the size of the platform and the measuring node.

2 is Limited to the measured deviation of the surface from flatness of the surface: h=±0.2 mm, which is associated with the characteristics of the measuring projection microscope.

3 - Low accuracy of the measurements. The maximum permissible errors of the device is equal to:

±(0.5±3× (h) µm =±1.1 µm

Limit the accuracy of measurements is carried out for the following reasons:

measuring node changes its position relative to the support platform, thereby with respect to the optical axis of the device, as well as the optical axis of the nonlinear along the longitudinal groove of the platform, due to aberration lens / mirror lenses, then, of course, in this case, there are additional shipped is snasti in the measurements;

- metal case has limited rigidity, and it has a lens / mirror lenses, the centers of which define the optical axis of the instrument. Thus, the deformation of the body leads to a distortion of the optical direct comparison (the optical axis of the device) and thereby limit of accuracy;

- metal case significantly changing its dimensions with changes in temperature;

measuring carriage is also changing its dimensions during temperature changes, which is directly related to the accuracy of the instrument;

- need to make adjustments when moving from the right roller on the left;

- the presence of backlash in the micro flow;

- the visual countdown introduce subjective bias;

- a large number of opto-mechanical components, which, in principle, may not have enough hard-linked to each other with the aim of saving in time and in space of the main characteristics of the device.

4 - the Device operates only when the temperature of (20±5)°and With relative humidity below 80%.

5 - Manual measurement mode requires a large investment of time. Manual control and visual centering also leads to subjective error.

6 - Allows measurement of only the horizontal surfaces.

7 - Structural features of the device, containing a large number of opto-mechanical components, there is the military makes its automation.

8 - Large dimensions of the device (1200×155×370) mm3impedes its use in the measurement of small, embedded in the finished product, the surfaces of the individual parts, or even large, but built and bordering on non-planar parts of the whole complex shape products.

9 - greater weight of the instrument as a whole (23.5 kg), including in particular the measuring carriage (1.2 kg) can lead to deformation of the measured surface.

All these drawbacks limit the scope of the prototype accuracy in space and in time.

The objective of the proposed invention is:

1 - increase the measurement accuracy,

2 - removing the restriction on the amount of the measured surface from both small and large values (i.e. the extension of the range of measured surface),

3 - acceleration of the measurement process,

4 - increase the limit of the measured deviations from flatness,

5 - increase the working temperature range,

6 - reduce the size of the platform and the measuring node

7 - reducing the weight measuring unit, based on the working surface,

8 - the possibility of automation of the measurement process.

The task is achieved by the fact that in the known device, containing the measuring site, which includes a probe, a platform with a through hole, in which installation the flax measuring node, and the probe has the capability of touch with the surface to be measured and moving in the plane perpendicular to the measured surface and along the direction of measurement, and the platform is equipped with three bearings for mounting on the surface to be measured, what is new is that as a measuring unit uses a linear displacement sensor including a light source that illuminates two diffraction gratings, one of which is measuring rigidly connected with the probe, and the other auxiliary, and photodetectors, and a support made of materials with a low coefficient of thermal expansion and providing a three-point platform installation on the surface to be measured, are located at the vertices of a triangle in such a way that one of the legs of a triangle is parallel to one side of the platform, with a through hole in the platform is located in the middle of this hole, and is electrically connected with the control unit and data processing.

This structural embodiment of the device allows to determine the deviation from flatness of the surface with higher accuracy and flatness deviation vertically limited by the length of the measuring grid DLP, which can reach values of 100 mm or more /4, 5/. There is no limitation of the size of the measured surface deviations from pleskot the spine up to 200 mm and more for integrity and compactness measuring unit, containing a small amount of opto-mechanical elements and, most importantly due to the fact that the measuring node always keeps a certain location relative to the support points and the AGP is calibrated against the reference (test) plate at a certain temperature. The calibration factor is entered into the memory of the control unit or PC and retains its value, while preserving the environment. This leads to the fact that no additional errors introduced in multi-step measurement process, as in the case of the prototype, where the measuring node in the measurement process changes its location relative to the supports and thereby relative to the optical axis of the device, serving as a reference and are not constant along the groove of the optical device line due to the aberration of the lens / mirror lenses.

This structural embodiment of the device allows to determine the deviation from flatness of a surface with high accuracy due to the lack of subjectivity of the human factor in the measurement process.

Figure 1 shows a concrete example of the constructive solutions of the inventive device showing the location of the supports on the platform. Figure 2 gives the picture of the device, and figure 3 is an example of one of the measured surface with this concrete is th device. Figure 4 shows a picture of a deviation from flatness of the surface shown in figure 3, deployed on the same coordinate along the direction of movement of the measuring node.

The device comprises a measuring node 1 (see figure 1) with probe 2 for contact with the surface to be measured, the platform 3 with the three legs with the lugs 4, and the platform has a through hole 5, which is rigidly fixed to the measuring node 1. As the measuring unit uses a linear displacement sensor (DLP) type holographic donomar HSM-30 /4, 5/. The supports are located at the vertices of a triangle and are marked in figure 1 by the letters ABC, among which two bearings are located at the edges of the base of the triangle AB. The linear displacement sensor is fixed in the hole 5, marked in figure 1 the point O, located in the middle of the leg (base AB), which is parallel to one side of the platform 3. In addition to the device came with a trial glass required for its calibration (see figure 2, item 6).

DSP 1 is a precision measuring device with digital output information, and the measuring element in the form of a linear holographic diffraction grating. In DLP uses a pair of two diffraction gratings, of which one is measuring with length not less than the expected deviation from flatness ismere the second surface, and rigidly connected with probe 2 (figure 1 and 2), and the other small, ancillary. When the illumination light flux from the light source contained in the measuring node at the output of the gratings appear Raman interference moiré patterns resulting from interference beams of different diffraction orders of these lattices. Step and form moire fringes depends on the lattice parameters and of their mutual arrangement. Basically they are a family of straight lines. The movement of one of the gratings, rigidly associated with the probe 2 relative to the second leads to the simultaneous movement of the moire fringes in the case of reverse - synchronized reverse. It is possible to evaluate the relationship between the displacement measuring a diffraction grating on the measured surface and moving moiré patterns, i.e. to determine the coefficient of optical reduction. In DLP uses one fundamental property of moiré patterns, the resulting bitmap of the conjugations of the two lattices, namely, that small displacement of the movable measuring the lattice corresponds to a significant movement of the moire fringes. Thus, there is a large-scale (increased) conversion of small displacements of the measuring grid in much greater proportional to move moiré patterns. This circumstance allows us to set the field moiré patterns photodetectors, with a substantially larger size than the produced movement of the measuring grid. The photodetectors are mounted in the aperture of the indicator lattice, which determines its size. Moving moiré patterns is converted by the photodetector into electrical signals that are processed in the electronic logic control unit DSP or PC via RS-232 with the aim of obtaining digital information about the measured move.

To eliminate the temperature dependence of the platform 3 is made of quartz, the probe 2 and the support 4 from Invar, and the tips of the supports 4 of the sapphire. In addition, glinoer HSM-30 has the ability calibration in a large temperature range (±10° (C)that allows the device to operate at a different temperature environment without loss of accuracy. The accuracy of the device when using donomar HSM-30 (limit of measurement 30 mm) reaches a fraction of a micron at a resolution of 0.01 ám.

The principle of operation of the device is as follows.

First is the calibration of the device using a reference plate 6 (figure 2). The platform 3 by means of bearings with lugs 4 and the measuring node 1 and the probe 2 are mounted on the surface of the reference plate 6. The control unit is set to "calibration" and zanulyayutsya readings DLP, the che is on in the control unit automatically determines the calibration factor and he further readings during all acts of measurements will automatically account for this value. And he>0 if the surface etalonas plate convex, and he<0, if its surface is concave.

Next, after calibration, the platform 3 and 1 AGP with probe 2 is transferred onto the surface to be measured and transferred to the measuring deviations from flatness of the surface. The control unit is installed in the "measure" position and zanulyayutsya readings AGP. Then you can start measuring surface.

Measuring deviations from flatness of the surface based on the principle of measuring deviations from flatness of surface when measuring in different directions this surface (for example, X and Y). To do this, connect an orthogonal coordinate system with the surface to be measured XOY and determine the origin of coordinates. The leg of the triangle AB should be on measuring line parallel to the direction OX or OY, and AGP 1 must be located in the middle of the leg by means of fixing in the hole 2. In this case, errors of Abba will be minimal.

Move the side of the platform, parallel to leg AB along the selected direction of movement OH or OY, selected through equal intervals associated with a particular task. In this particular case, was selected interval equal to half of the leg AB. As a guide, along which you want to move the platform 3, you can use the line is y or a laser beam, etc. After each move the carriage to stop and shoot digital values with electronic unit AGP.

In memory of the computer recorded digital elevation values hix sensor in this direction OH.

The same steps are performed for all other lines parallel to the axis OX, covering the whole of the surface to be measured at appropriate intervals.

In memory of the computer also recorded digital elevation values hiy sensor in the direction OY and for all other lines parallel to the axis OY. The program on the measured values builds the deviation from flatness of a surface within XOY of the three coordinates X, Y, Z.

Moreover, the design of the device is such that there are no restrictions on the number of measurement points, thus the magnitude of the measured surface.

Figure 3 shows an example of the measured surface 500×400 mm figure 4 is given a detailed cross-section deviations from flatness of the surface in the direction of measurement along the axis OX. The same cross-section can be obtained along the axis OY. The intervals at which measurement was carried out, was equal to half the length of the leg AB, i.e. the distance from one of the pillars located in Catete, to probe AGP.

Thus, the device has the following advantages over the prototype:

1. Higher precision through the use of:

- high-accuracy m the th node DLP 1, which does not change its position relative to the support points of the platform.

Currently in Russia are produced DLP type holographic glenmary measuring lengths up to 200 mm /3, 4/ and with a measurement accuracy of vertical ±0.2 μm and a resolution of 0.01 ám.

The accuracy of measuring deviations from flatness of the surface of this device can reach a share of micron on the surface of one square meter.

Figure 4 shows the corridor of change of the deviation from flatness of the surface within -0,08 to +1.2 µm, determined with a resolution of 0.01 ám.

The measuring node does not change its position relative to the points of the supports of the platform. And setting it in the middle of the base AB, i.e. symmetrically with respect to the supports, allows you to keep the same accuracy in every act of measurement:

- a small number of opto-mechanical assemblies

- fixing of the measuring site in the hole of the platform relative to the support points,

platform 3 and the support lugs 4 with a small dependence on temperature.

2. There is no restriction of the size of the measured surface.

3. The measured deviation of the surface from flatness of the surface h=±100 mm, which is associated with the characteristics of measuring donomar HSM-30. However, instead of glenmere can be used, if necessary, high-precision linear displacement sensor, and more on the ins - up to one meter.

4. Reducing the weight measuring unit 1 and the platform 3, based on the work surface. Thus, the entire device weighs no more than 500g

5. The time for one cycle of measurements is minimal, since the storing and processing of data is carried out automatically by the control unit or on the computer.

6. Allows measurement of not only horizontal surfaces.

Literature:

1. Autocollimators unified AK-0,2U, AK-0,5U, AK-1U. GOST 11899-77.

2. Kuznetsov V.A., Alumina VG General Metrology, Standards Publishing house, 2001.

3. Line optical OL-800, specifications ACE-3.655-77. Publisher: 140061, glycerine, Mosk. region, Rubin, 1990.

4. Turegano astray freight, Turegano N. Measuring micrometer head "Tobor", Patent of Russian Federation №2032142 (prior. 27.04.95).

5. Certificate of type approval of measuring PATTERN APPROVAL CERTIFICATE OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS EN. C.27.001. A No. 10889.

Device for measuring deviations from flatness of the surface containing the measuring site, which includes a probe, a platform with a through hole, which has a measuring site, and the probe has the capability of touch with the surface to be measured and moving in the plane perpendicular to the measured surface and along the direction of measurement, and the platform is equipped with three bearings for mounting on the surface to be measured, from which causesa fact, as a measuring unit uses a linear displacement sensor including a light source that illuminates two diffraction gratings, one of which is measuring rigidly connected with the probe, and the other auxiliary, and photodetectors, and a support made of materials with a low coefficient of thermal expansion and providing a three-point platform installation on the surface to be measured, are located at the vertices of the triangle so that one of the legs of a triangle is parallel to one side of the platform, with a through hole in the platform located in the middle of the leg and the linear displacement sensor is fixed in the hole and electrically connected with the control unit and processing data.



 

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3 dwg

FIELD: determination of inner surface contour.

SUBSTANCE: the device has a laser, reflectors symmetrically installed on the scanner assembly provided with means for angular scanning of the reflectors relative to the axis of the mentioned assembly, and receiver of the laser beam reflected from the object surface. The scanner assembly is made in the form of a motor, whose shaft is coupled to the reflectors; the means for angular scanning relative to the axis of the scanner assembly are made in the form of a solenoid installed in the axis of the motor shaft, a laser beam splitter is positioned between the laser and deflectors.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and efficiency of contour measurement.

1 dwg

FIELD: engineering of touch sensors.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring diffraction grid, probe, two guides, two reading heads, substrate, engine, a group of magnets. First reading head is rigidly connected to body of indicator. Second reading head contains receiver of radiation, collimator, indicator diffraction grid, a matrix of photo-receivers. Group of bearings provides for movement of measuring diffraction grid along movement direction. Measuring diffraction grid and substrate are utilized as guides. One indicator diffraction grid is held in carriage. Carriage is connected to probe, which touches measured surface and moves relatively to same together with measuring diffraction grid. Measuring diffraction grid and substrate are connected to engine, and reading heads are connected to adders.

EFFECT: increased precision of touch coordinate detection at measured surface.

5 dwg

FIELD: non-destructive inspection.

SUBSTANCE: device has standard side-view endoscope, which has system for illuminating object and system for observing object provided with measuring scale. Device is additionally provided with bushing having linear and angular scales, which bushing is capable of translation and rotation about axis of symmetry of flange fastened to input opening of cavity to be controlled. Tube with optical system for laser illumination of object is mounted inside bushing; tube has microscopic laser and mirror. Tube is mounted in bushing for linear movement relatively endoscope in parallel to its longitudinal axis. Precision of measurement of sizes of objects disposed at long distances to surfaces to be controlled is improved. Measurement of coordinates of defect location on surfaces of object can be made with higher precision.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

3 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring unit which has prod, platform with through opening where measuring unit is installed. Prod is capable of touching surface to be measured and of moving at plane being perpendicular to measured surface and along direction of measurement. Platform is provided with three supports for installation. As measuring unit the linear shift detector is used, which detector has light source, illuminating two diffraction gratings. One of gratings is measuring, being tightly connected with prod, and the other one is additional grating. Detector also has photoreceivers. Supports are made of materials having low temperature expansion coefficient. Supports provide three-point installation of platform onto surface; they are disposed in vertexes of triangle in such a way that one catheter of triangle is parallel to one side of platform.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; reduced limitations in size of surface to be measured; accelerated measuring process; widened working temperature range.

4 dwg

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