Peat production method

FIELD: open-pit mining for obtaining peat.

SUBSTANCE: method involves prior dewatering peat deposit; serially excavating peat from separate zones for depth equal to peat deposit thickness; installing caisson with watertight walls to isolate zone having volume equal to that of caisson from remainder peat deposit; pumping out water from peat deposit zone isolated by caisson to dewater peat inside caisson; removing peat from caisson along with retaining of cut upper horizontal ground forming layer; taking out caisson from excavated zone and diverting water from adjacent zones to above excavated zone; filling hole created in place of previous caisson location with cut upper horizontal ground-forming layer; reinstalling caisson in adjacent zone and repeating above peat production operations.

EFFECT: increased output due to reduced time of prior peat deposit dewatering, reduced peat drying time due to production of peat mass having lesser moisture content and possibility to maintain natural water balance of surrounding territory.

 

The invention relates to the use of open development, in particular to methods of peat extraction.

There is a method of peat extraction, including the release of developed sites from guarantuee wood and wood-based inclusions in the upper layer of peat deposits, drainage deposits no later than 1-2 years for fields respectively lowland and upland types prior to the operation of the production area, removing the top layer deposits with tow and shrubs to a depth of 0.4 m, layer-by-layer milling (excavation) peat deposits, followed by drying peat chips (pieces) in a layer on the surface of the peat - fields drying (see "Handbook of peat" edited by Lazarev, A.R., and Korchagina, S., M.: 1982, p.205).

The disadvantage of this method is the high complexity of the drainage and the duration of the preparation of the production areas, disturbance of water regime of the adjacent areas, the vulnerability of dried peat from precipitation

There is a method of draining peat deposits, including the passage open dehydrators and cutting drains, which are cut without breaking them open dehumidifiers, accumulate in drains ground water, after the accumulation of ground water in the drains make the connection with open drains dehumidifiers, through the issue of groundwater drains with simultaneous smooch the harsh conditions of their accumulated soil (see RF patent for the invention №2044883, 6 IPC E 21 49/00 "Method of draining peat deposits", published 27.09.95 year).

However, this method is time-consuming and laborious. In addition, in this way, as in the previous analogue, is a violation of the water regime of the area.

The closest in technical essence is a method of peat extraction, including preliminary training and peat deposits (dehydration), peat extraction and the transportation of it, thus divide the prepared peat Deposit on separate faces (areas), cut the top horizontal rock-forming layer from the first face, keeping him peat extraction is conducted by selective excavation with charcoal inclusions on the depth, the transportation is carried out on a loading platform, where they perform peat separation of wood inclusions and separately store the peat and wood residue in the piles, at the end of the production cycle to the bottom of the generated first bottom stack the first rock-forming layer, shot from the second face, which consistently begin to develop, after which the operation of peat extraction is repeated (see RF patent for the invention №2146004, 7 IPC E 21 49/00 "Method of peat extraction peat deposits", published 27.02.2000 year).

The disadvantage of this method are the high labour intensity, energy intensity of the pre is satisfactory preparation (dehydration) peat deposits before excavation and long, to 10 months, the period of drying peat raw in piles on the stationary technological platform, as well as a violation of the water regime of the surrounding area.

The technical result of the claimed invention provides for reducing the complexity and intensity of peat extraction, increasing productivity by reducing the time required for dewatering peat deposits, reduce the time for drying of the peat due to the extraction of deposits of peat mass with a lower percentage of moisture, as well as maintaining the water balance of the area.

This technical result is achieved in the method of peat extraction, including preliminary dehydration of peat, extraction of peat excavation to the depth of the peat, while the production of consistently produce parts, cut the upper horizontal rock-forming layer further area laid on the bottom of the previous section, according to the new invention is that the preliminary dewatering peat deposits produced by the installation of a caisson with waterproof walls, isolate the area, equal to the volume of the caisson, of the total peat deposits, pumping water from the insulated by the caisson section, then after extracting peat caisson is removed, directing his place water from surrounding areas, PEFC is what rearrange the caisson to a neighbouring area and repeat the cycle of operations.

Installation of the caisson with waterproof walls, an insulating area, which is equal to its volume, of the total peat deposits, prevents backfeed isolated stretch of water from surrounding areas throughout the depth of the caisson, and also allows more efficient use of the entire area of peat for the production of peat.

Pumping water from the caisson, and therefore, from the stand-alone area of peat deposits, allows less labor intensive to produce preliminary dehydration of this site and get the peat mass with low moisture content.

Permutation of the caisson on the other site allows you to get an indentation which direct water from surrounding areas, draining them and reducing the cost of pumping water from a newly isolated-cell area, which significantly improves the performance of the method with less energy.

In addition, the direction of water from surrounding areas formed in the caisson deepening helps to maintain water balance and peat deposits, namely, in contrast to all known methods of pre-drainage of peat deposits, the water is not removed beyond its borders, which eliminates the fire developed peatlands and contributes to the reproduction of peat.

Technical solutions, which coincides with the set of essential features of the invention, not in the manifest, that allows to make a conclusion about conformity of the invention to condition patentability of "novelty."

Declared essential features of the invention, determining the receipt of the indicated technical result that is explicitly not follow from the prior art, which allows to make a conclusion about conformity of the invention to condition patentability of "inventive step".

The condition of patentability "industrial applicability" is confirmed by the example of a specific implementation method of peat extraction.

The method is as follows. Install using the mechanism mounted on the pontoon, the caisson with waterproof walls, isolating the area, equal to the volume of the caisson, of the total peat deposits, pump pump water from the isolated-cell volume of peat deposits. Using the mechanism, equipped with a thin cutter mounted on the pontoon, cut the upper horizontal rock-forming layer of peat and save it. Then the peat removed from the caisson to the entire depth of the deposits, unload it in the receiving device, for example on the mesh belt, and pass on the technological platform for further processing and drying. The surface of the developed land in the caisson may have a slope of 0.02 for accumulation and pumping filtered water. Then remove the caisson, directing modus adjacent parcel to the place of the caisson. Thus the top forming a layer of peat is placed in the recess formed on the caisson. Rearrange the caisson to a neighbouring area, cut the upper horizontal rock-forming layer of peat and placed it in the recess formed on the caisson. Then repeat the cycle works. When working with two caissons pumping water can be significantly simplified by the flow of water from the newly installed caisson developed in the caisson.

Method of peat extraction, including preliminary dehydration of peat, extraction of peat excavation to the depth of the peat, while the production of consistently produce parts, cut the upper horizontal rock-forming layer further area laid on the bottom of the previous section, characterized in that the preliminary dewatering peat deposits produced by the installation of a caisson with waterproof walls, isolate the area, equal to the volume of the caisson, of the total peat deposits, pumping water from the insulated by the caisson section, then after extracting peat caisson is removed, directing his place water from surrounding areas, then rearrange the caisson to the next sector and repeat the cycle of operations.



 

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