Packing mat and production method
FIELD: protective arrangements for foundations or foundation structures, particularly watertight packings.
SUBSTANCE: packing mat comprises base, open-cell foam plastic material connected to the base and covering web. Opened foam plastic cells are filled with swelling clay. Covering web is connected to the base by means of seams. The base and the foam plastic material are made as a single sheet having 3-10 mm thickness. The sheet has sealed shell arranged from the first sheet side and opened cells located from another sheet side. Cell lengths, widths and depths are from 1 mm to nearly 10 mm. Packing mat production method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased time of clay drying, prevention of crack formation in clay layer.
8 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to filled at least partially with bentonite or other highly swellable clay sealing Mat with frame and cover cloths, interconnected by joints, and swellable clay in the form of a powder or granulate is placed in a layer of foam with open cells, and to a method for sealing Mat.
Sealing mats of this type is known from published descriptions of the invention to unaccepted applications DE 19738169 and DE 19858180 A.
In order powder or granular bentonite during transport and laying of mats, for example, a width of 4 m and a length of 30 m was retained position, the mate laid out according to the description of the invention DE 19738169 AND razbunarea clay introduced into the nonwoven agromaterials or in the layer of foam with open cells, and the textile base, the intermediate layer of razboieni clay and textile top cloth are interconnected by passing in the longitudinal direction of the sealing Mat joints with a gap of 20 to 50 mm
Also sealing Mat laid out according to the description of the invention DE 19858180 AND consists of a lower base of narrow woven products, located on top of it structural layer formed by a loose layer of nonwoven material or a layer of foam with open cells or cellular structure, which is swellable clay, cover paintings, consisting, as the basis of narrow woven products. And here the Foundation, intermediate layer and cover fabric are interconnected arranged in parallel in the longitudinal direction of the seams.
In relation to known sealing mats is the risk that in the bentonite layer may be formed of shrinkage cracks in the case, when after swelling bentonite comes long dry period and as a result of this clay material loses moisture. Such shrinkage cracks can have the effect that when a sudden ingress of water is leaching, in which the sealing Mat becomes substantially unpressurized.
In order to prevent the formation of such cracks or cracks from drying out in DE 19649628 A1 it is suggested to place between the two containing razbujeny clay layers of elastic foam with open cells layer that violate water balance consisting of non-woven material or a layer of elastic foam with open cells and covered or filled on one or both sides vadodaria polymer. Violating the capillarity layer may also be elastic foam with open cells, which on one or both sides provided with a film or membrane. In this material, consisting of more than three layer is, the layer of foam with open pores and coating may also form the basis.
The objective of the invention is to provide a sealing Mat of the type specified above, which substantially prevents the formation of shrinkage cracks and erosion of these cracks without having to use two bentonite layers, separated not dependent on water balance layer or violate kapilyarnosti layer.
The problem is solved according to the invention in the sealing material containing a base on which is located the foam material with open cells, filled with a swellable clay, and fine linen, and cover fabric are connected through joints, characterized in that the base and the foam material with open cells are made in the form of a single blade thickness of from 3 to 10 mm, which has a closed shell with one hand and open cells on the other, the length, width and depth of the cells is from 1 to a value less 10 mm due To the fact that the swellable clay is only in the open with one hand cells of the foam material, on the one hand substantially delayed full drying clay swelling due to water absorption, and the walls of the cell and closed-shell fabric eliminate the erosion of cracks in the layer is clay, resulting prevents erosion of the sealing Mat.
Preferably, the layer of foam material with open cells and closed-shell was soft and supple and contained listoveska outer shell. Such foam material after filling the swellable clay is closed with a top layer consisting mainly of non-woven material or narrow woven products. Connecting the base with top canvas seams it is advisable to position in the longitudinal direction at a distance of 20-50 mm from each other. In order to prevent breakdown of the closed shell fabric it is advisable to reinforce the foam material, in particular a closed shell, short, glass, mineral or plastic fibers.
To ensure the sealing ability of the Mat to the perception on both sides of the large mechanical loads closed shell fabric is hardened textile reinforcing fabric, which together with the canvas, filled at least partially swellable clay, made with top of the canvas. The canvas can also be pasted on the textile reinforcing cloth before filling swellable clay or have any other planar connection. This can be ensured due to the fact that, for example, the cloth is produced by application of the foam on reinforcing p. the pilot, with which it is associated with a reinforcing cloth of his closed shell.
It is advisable to produce a fabric with one side open cells and closed shell of the fabric of double thickness, containing a closed shell on both sides and divided at its mid-plane. On the basis of experience it is known that the integral or structural foams contain on both sides of the closed shell, and the core with open cells, and the diameter of the cells decreases from the center to the edge. If such foam material divided by its Central plane, relatively large cells are completely open, so that the canvas can easily be filled with a swellable clay. Shaking or kneading foam material, it is possible to increase the degree of filling.
In the following description are explained in more detail examples of carrying out the invention with reference to the drawings. This is depicted on:
figure 1 is a perspective view of the sealing Mat according to the invention;
figure 2 is a top view of the sealing Mat, in which a closed outer shell foam fabric reinforced with cloth of tissue;
figure 3 - schematic representation of the process of obtaining the foam fabric with open cells and closed outer shell.
the AK can be seen from figure 1, the base 1 consists of elastic fabric with a closed shell 4 and open cells 5 filled with a swellable clay, and from top cloth 2, tabbed filled swellable clay foam material. Seams 3 are arranged in the longitudinal direction of the sealing Mat at a distance of 20 or 30 mm from each other. In order also closed shell 4 was able to perceive increased local loads, canvas and, in particular, the outer casing 4 is reinforced by fibers. As a material for the base 1 of foam are used, in particular, polyethylene, polypropylene or polyamide.
As shown in figure 2, to strengthen the closed shell 4 canvases can be applied textile reinforcing cloth 6, which together with filled with a swellable clay foam material sewn with top canvas 2. Seams 3 are designed so that the closed shell 4 or reinforcing cloth 6 is located on top of the blade 2 at a distance which approximately corresponds to the thickness of the canvas.
As shown in figure 3, for receiving the blade with a closed outer casing 4 and open cells 5 first made canvas 10 double thickness, containing both sides of a closed shell. After curing of this foam blade 10 it is divided by the median plane 11. Razdelenieto be made by cutting, by sawing or using a hot wire or laser beam. After this the foam panels can nakativaetsa and fed to further processing.
1. Sealing Mat containing the base (1), a foam material with open cells, filled with a swellable clay, and cover sheet (2)and cover sheet (2) is connected to the base (1) by means of joints (3), characterized in that the base and the foam material with open cells are made in the form of a single blade thickness of from 3 to 10 mm, which has a closed shell with one hand and open cells on the other, the length, width and depth of the cells is from 1 mm to a value less 10 mm
2. Sealing Mat according to claim 1, characterized in that the closed shell (4) canvas reinforced with fibers.
3. Sealing Mat according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the closed shell (4) fabric reinforced textile reinforcing cloth (6), which, together with at least partially filled with a swellable clay canvas stitched with cover canvas.
4. Sealing Mat according to claim 3, characterized in that the canvas with a closed shell (4) pasted on textile reinforced canvas.
5. Sealing Mat according to claim 3, characterized in that the foam cloth is obtained by applying the foam to a reinforcing fabric (6) and provide them internally is its connection between them in the closed area of the outer shell (4).
6. Sealing Mat according to claim 1, characterized in that the fabric made of polyethylene, polypropylene or polyamide.
7. A method of obtaining a sealing Mat according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the manufacture of the foam blade carried out by extrusion, foaming between the conveyor belts (12, 13), curing and after curing to make a separation in the median plane, and open on one side of the cell formed thereby foundations enter swellable clay.
8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that between the foamed layer of plastic and conveyor belts (12, 13) are ignored textile reinforcing cloth (6), ensuring their connection with closed shells (4) of the canvas.
FIELD: oil industry, particularly oil-field construction, namely to built storage pit adapted for oil-drilling waste storage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging out ground; erecting banking; forming waterproofing screen of film material with weld seams; connecting polymeric adhesive strips to back film side transversely to weld seams facing outwards so that space between strips is not more than 3 m and strip ends extend over outer screen surface, wherein the waterproofing screen has ample size; securing one end of waterproofing screen on pit edge by shackles and covering thereof with ground along the full pit edge; gradually laying unstrained waterproofing screen on pit bottom and side walls to reach opposite pit edge so that weld seams face outwards; loading screen edges across the full width and forming pleat at pit edge along the full perimeter thereof; securing the pleat with ground; fastening free edges of laid waterproofing screen along the full pit perimeter with shackles and covering thereof with ground; folding free screen edges in two in shackle installation areas and placing cantledge on pit bottom along the full perimeter thereof; placing textile protective screens over rocky ground zones. The waterproofing screen dimensions may be determined from given relation.
EFFECT: increased liquid product storage reliability.
2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly canal sealings or joints.
SUBSTANCE: canal lining includes anti-heaving bed laid on prepared base and provided with upper water-tight covering. Lining made of concrete or reinforced concrete panels, as well as of cast-in-place concrete or reinforced concrete with control joints is laid on the water-tight covering. Anti-heaving bed has different thickness and is multilayered along canal perimeter. Heat-conductive layers are laid in upper part of the anti-heaving bed. Minimal thickness of anti-heaving bed zone, namely that located below lower shore line, and maximal thickness of anti-heaving bed zone, namely located above upper shore line, are selected from mathematical expressions.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability and service life, prevention of water losses from canal, elimination of agricultural land swamping, salinity and flooding and, as a result, improved irrigation and ecological environment.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: water-resources development, particularly to seal and repair joints of concrete and reinforced concrete irrigation channel and water-supply channel liners.
SUBSTANCE: joint comprises pipe formed of resilient gas-tight material and filled with pressurized air. The pipe is arranged in joint grooves at edges of panels to be joined. Space defined by groove walls and pipe is filled with air-tight viscous material. Covering plate is jammed in grooves by the pipe. Joint interior is filled with sealant having width less than pipe diameter. Isolation release layer is located between sealant layer over the pipe and under the pipe and covering plate. Sealant surface under the pipe is additionally provided with watertight packing means having isolation release layer and extending along contact area between the sealant and ground base. Optimal control joint width is determined from mathematical equations.
EFFECT: increased quality, reliability and service time, prevention of water leakage through the joints, improved irrigation and ecological situation in land to be irrigated.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: waterworks facilities and hydraulic building, particularly to seal and repair reinforced concrete liner joints of irrigation channels and water supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: joint sealing device comprises resilient member formed as two prisms symmetrically connected to hydraulic structure members and flushed with outer surfaces thereof. Expanding member is arranged between the prisms. Waterproofing pad is located under lower surfaces of hydraulic structure members to be joined. Dimensions of resilient member, expanding member and waterproofing pad are determined by mathematical relations.
EFFECT: increased joint quality, reliability and service life of the joints, which reduces water losses and improved irrigation and ecological conditions in lands to be irrigated.
3 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: waterworks and hydraulic building, particularly to seal and repair joints of reinforced concrete irrigation channel and water supply system liners.
SUBSTANCE: control joint of water-tight liner assembled of concrete panels includes sealing member arranged in joint cavity between liner panels and protective layer. Sealing member is made as elastic shell with filler, namely plastic water-repellent grinding dust waste obtained during asbestos cement article production. Elastic shell takes shape of control joint section and is adhered to panel ends in air-tight manner. Protective pad is arranged over elastic shell inside the control joint. Upper elastic shell part is provided with compensator made as freely-deformable pleat. Compensator interior and space between protective pad and upper elastic vessel part are filled with plastic water-repellent frost-resistant grease. Control joint parameters are selected in accordance with mathematic relations.
EFFECT: increased quality of joint sealing, improved reliability and extended service life, prevention of water losses through joints and, as a result, enhanced ecological safety and irrigation efficiency.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: waterworks and hydraulic building, particularly to seal and repair joints in concrete and reinforced concrete linings of irrigation channels and water-supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: control joint adapted to connect concrete or reinforced concrete panels of channel lining, includes polymeric or bitumen-polymer sealing mastics, porous packing of porous sealing material and releasing layer. Porous packing is covered with mastic water-proof layer of 1.5-2 mm thickness applied to porous packing perimeter.
EFFECT: increased joint air-tightness, increased joint life, reduced water filtration caused by water filtration through joints and, as a result, increased irrigation efficiency and improved ecology.
FIELD: building, particularly for water-management structure construction, namely to seal, repair control joints in concrete and reinforced concrete linings of irrigation channel and water-supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: control joint in accordance with the first embodiment comprises poroisol packing, polymeric sealing mastic and non-adhesive layer. Water-proofing padding is glued in air-tight manner to lower surface of panels to be joined one to another or to end faces of the panels in joint structure. The padding has width of 100...500 mm and has compensator made as freely deformed pleat. Control joint formed in accordance with the second embodiment comprises poroisol packing, bituminous-polymeric sealing mastic, laid in joint interior and creating shoulders of 30...50 mm width over panels to be joined, and non-adhesive layer. Water-proofing padding is glued in air-tight manner to lower surface of panels to be joined one to another or to end faces of the panels in joint structure. The padding has width of 100...500 mm and has compensator made as freely deformed pleat. Maximal dimensions of joint formed in accordance with the first and with the second embodiments are determined from predetermined relations. Pleat-like compensator interior is filled with pliant water-repellent frost-resistant lubricant.
EFFECT: increased control joint quality and service life.
8 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: impervious structures, particularly devices to prevent contaminated industrial waste ingress in water-bearing horizons, water streams and water bodies.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises water-impervious hydrodynamically-perfect curtain closed in plane view and immersed in water-tight ground. The curtain is provided with filtering means including sectional anti-suffosion filter and precipitation tank, which are placed in metal bodies. The bodies have perforated walls extending in polluted water flow direction and impervious end walls. Device also has at least two replaceable adsorption filter cassettes arranged at flow outlet. Filter end walls have member, which provides replaceable adsorption filter cassette movement in vertical plane during filter replacement. Filtering device is installed in window opening arranged in closed water-impervious curtain in area of the lowest ground water level and extends for depth equal to half of ground water flow depth.
EFFECT: prevention of contaminated waste water ingress into ambient space, increased device reliability, reduced costs, simplified maintenance, possibility to control device operation.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly to recover water permeability of hydraulic structure (water-permeability reduction) made of low-temperature ground and rock, especially in permafrost areas and to create and repair antifiltering screens of ground dams built in permafrost zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mudding ground with waterproofing polymeric composition by interval injection of above composition under pressure less than ground hydraulic fracturing pressure. The waterproofing polymeric composition includes structure-forming agent, namely polyvinyl alcohol, in amount of 3.0-10.0% by weight, boric acid in amount of 0.2-1.0% by weight, remainder is water. The waterproofing polymeric composition may form gel at positive temperature and cryogenic gel during freezing-thawing processes.
EFFECT: increased water-tightness, structural strength and waterproofing properties, increased binding ability to carbonate material.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic and industrial building, particularly to create fill ground structures, dams, motor roads, stacks and bases thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing base for dam erection; filling dam body with ground and compacting thereof. The ground material is sludge taken from aluminum waste sludge storage facility and consists of electric filter dust and residues of gas cleaning and flotation operations. The sludge is prepared by dewatering thereof to obtain 0.4-0.5 humidity. Then the sludge is compacted to provide porosity of not more than 0.60.
EFFECT: provision of aluminum waste utilization, reduced costs.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: water facilities and hydraulic structures, particularly to repair joints in concrete and reinforced concrete linings of irrigation channels and water supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: control joint comprises packing, joint sealant and sliding member. The sliding member is formed of two polyethylene bands with partition layer of 0.5 - 1.5 mm thickness arranged in-between and created of Vaseline or other plastic frost-resistant lubricant. Lower polyethylene band of sliding member is arranged along porous packing perimeter in air-tight manner to prevent ingress of water infiltrating through the lining in packing pores, which leads to water freezing in the pores in winter period, to prevent damage thereof.
EFFECT: increased quality of joints, reliability and service life.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: polymer production.
SUBSTANCE: object of invention is to obtain urea-formaldehyde foamed plastics with low formaldehyde emission and improved physicochemical properties. Essence if invention resides in that raw material, formalin or urea-formaldehyde concentrate, is neutralized with aqueous ammonia solution and urea-formaldehyde condensation is carried out at ratio 1:(1.9-2.2) in medium with variable acidity at heating until required water number (solubility in distilled water) is attained. Reaction mixture is then neutralized to pH 7.0-8.5 using aqueous solutions of alkali metal silicates or water-alcohol solutions of sodium alkylsiliconate and cooled to 65-75оС. Thereafter, plasticizing modifier and more urea are added and post-condensation at 65-70оС is performed followed by cooling to temperature no higher than 35оС, said plasticizing modifier being dispersions of polymers (thermoplastics, elastomers), which may contain polyacrylamide as thickener.
EFFECT: increased hardening velocity, reduced water absorption of foamed plastic, and retained low formaldehyde emission.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex