High-speed steel working method

FIELD: tool making industry branch, namely plastic working of materials.

SUBSTANCE: in order to improve metal using factor, to increase wear resistance of tool, steel (P6M5) blank. Is heated up to 830°C and it is deformed in isothermal mode at rate 10-3 s -1 and at deformation degree 60%. Then blank is subjected to deformation at 765°C at rate 10-3 s-1 and at deformation degree 40%. According to invention strength of tool made of deformed blanks exceeds by two times strength of tool made in accordance with well known process.

EFFECT: improved strength of tool made of worked steel blank.

1 dwg, 6 ex, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to thermo-mechanical processing of metals, in particular to the processing of metals by pressure, and can be used in the tool industry to produce blanks of high-speed steel tools and other steels in this group (R6M5, RMF, RM, RM-MP, RMC, RAM, RAMP).

A method of processing high-speed steel, including annealing, heating to a temperature of deformation and plastic deformation, while the annealing is carried out by thermal Cycling through the point Ac1a deformation is carried out in isothermal conditions at a temperature 880-920°with the degree of 40-50% and a rate of 10-4-10-10with-1(A.S. No. 1502636, IPC321 D 9/22, 1987).

The disadvantage of this method is the high energy intensity of the process, the presence of subsequent softening annealing of workpieces, the low resistance of the deforming tool, oxidation and loss of metal at high tolerances, reducing the utilization of metal.

The closest (prototype) to the proposed invention the technical essence is a method of processing high-speed steel comprising heating to a temperature of deformation and plastic deformation in isothermal mode at a rate of 10-4-10-1with-1in the process of metastable phase transition at a temperature of 760-770°predelnoi deformation rate of 92% (B. I. No. 35, 20.12.2003,, 2219255).

The disadvantage of the invention is not high enough utilization of metal, the low wear resistance of the tool.

The objective of the proposed invention is to increase the utilization of metal, increase the wear resistance of the tool.

The method of processing high-speed steel comprising heating to a temperature of deformation and plastic deformation in isothermal mode at strain rates of 10-3-10-1with-1carried out at a temperature 825-835°in the process of non-equilibrium phase transition, and then at a temperature of 760-770°C.

The drawing shows lines of equal values of relative elongation of steel R6M5 during tensile tests at different temperatures and strain rates. Analysis of mathematical models allows to identify the patterns of development of the studied processes. In all the investigated strain rates the resistance to deformation of steel R6M5 when the temperature decreases and reaches a minimum near the phase transition temperature, and then increases. From the analysis carried out after research it is clear that in steel R6M5 revealed a clear field of plasticity. So, at a temperature of 760-770°With steel exhibits plasticity, measured relative elongation of not more than 90 at strain rates of 10 -3with-1. Surface plasticity is limited to lines of equal values of relative elongation.

It should be noted that at temperatures above 770°and below 760°With maximum ductility of the samples at 30-40% below the maximum, which limits their practical application, as reduced resource deformation capacity of steel that is not possible to produce blanks of complex shape for a small number of transitions. Similar surface plasticity obtained tensile steel R6M5 shown in the drawing, in the temperature region 820-840°C and strain rates of 10-4-10-3with-1. At temperatures 835°C and strain rates of 10-4with-1is a narrow area of maximum effect of superplastic steel, bounded by lines of equal plasticity δ=107%. The results of the studies presented in the drawing, obtained experimentally using the optimum planning, statistical processing of experimental data and mathematical modeling of the isothermal processes of deformation and superplasticity.

For synthesized exact D-optimal plans of experiments in each study point in the factor space temperature and velocity fields shown in the drawing, held on 3-4 experiment n the tension and compression specimens of steel R6M5 at different speeds and temperatures. Then the experimental data were processed by the program of the regression analysis. Received adequate mathematical model according to criteria of process factors. Conducted control experiments, built the graphical dependence of the studied criteria. Established laws of their changes in temperature and velocity fields and determined the conditions of the manifestation of the effect of superplasticity.

The data is shown in the drawing, are of great practical importance as they define the boundaries of the effect of superplasticity and are the basis for creation of database changes plasticity in the paired temperature and velocity fields.

The method of processing high-speed steel is the following. First, the workpiece is heated to a temperature of 830°With, withstand up to full heat of the workpiece, and then perform the plastic deformation in the isothermal mode at a rate of 10-3with-1at a temperature of 830°with the degree of deformation of up to 60%. The plastic deformation is carried out in two stages: the workpiece is transferred into the other die block temperature 760-770°C, maintain it and deform when the temperature in the isothermal mode with the degree of deformation up to 40%.

The first deformation allows the forming, and the second deformation at high resistance is x, ensuring saturation of the material (steel R6M5) structural defects, procrea it, which increases the mechanical and operational properties of a tool made from this steel.

For the procurement of steel R6M5 before heat is applied protective and lubricating coating of stilografica mixture to protect against decarburization, oxidation and lubrication during plastic deformation in the heated state.

Table 1 presents General information, i.e. the received data and displays the data of the prototype.

Example 1.

Spent the manufacture of disk cutters of steel R6M5 GOST 19265-73 in the state after annealing with the original hardness HB 250, tensile strength δin=770 MPa and elongation δ=15%.

Billets with a diameter of 16 mm and a height of 22 mm with a protective and lubricating coating on them and subjected to drying, was heated in a chamber of an electric furnace to 750°C. Then heated workpiece carried in insulated stamp with a temperature of 750°and deformed in isothermal conditions at a rate of 10-3with-1and with deformation rate of 75% in the die block, which is made of heat-resistant Nickel alloy LGL-6K installed on a hydraulic press, a force of 400 kN. When the degree of deformation Σ<75% on the side of the sample surface cracks and there is a discontinuity of the material and the destruction of the sample.

Example 2.

Spent the manufacture of disk cutters of steel R6M5 GOST 19265-73 in the state after annealing with the original hardness HB 250, tensile strength δin=770 MPa and elongation δ=15%.

Billets with a diameter of 16 mm and a height of 22 mm with a protective and lubricating coating on them and subjected to drying, was heated in an electric chamber furnace up to 765°C. Then heated workpiece carried in insulated stamp with a temperature of 765°and deformed in isothermal conditions at a rate of 10-3with-1with deformation rate up to 92% in the die block, made of heat-resistant Nickel alloy LGL-6K installed on a hydraulic press, a force of 400 kN. There is no destruction of the sample, and the formation of cracks on the side surface of the workpiece disk cutters of steel R6M5. After deformation, the workpiece has a hardness of HB 247, not to exceed the original.

Example 3.

Spent the manufacture of disk cutters of steel R6M5 GOST 19265-73 in the state after annealing with the original hardness HB 250 tensile strength δin=770 MPa and elongation δ=15%.

Billets with a diameter of 16 mm and a height of 22 mm with a protective and lubricating coating on them and subjected to drying, was heated in an electric chamber furnace up to 790°C. Then heated billet shift is and insulated stamp with a temperature of 780° With and deformed in isothermal conditions at a rate of 10-3with-1in the die block, made of heat-resistant Nickel alloy LGL-6K installed on a hydraulic press, a force of 400 kN. The degree of deformation does not exceed 70-75% due to the discontinuity of the sample material and its destruction.

Example 4.

Spent the manufacture of disk cutters of steel R6M5 GOST 19265-73 in the state after annealing with the original hardness HB 250, tensile strength δin=770 MPa and elongation δ=15%.

Billets with a diameter of 16 mm and a height of 22 mm with a protective and lubricating coating on them and subjected to drying, was heated in an electric chamber furnace up to 800°C. Then heated billet was filed in isothermal stamp with a temperature of 800°and deformed in isothermal conditions at a rate of 10-3with-1with the degree of deformation of up to 60% in the die block, made of heat-resistant Nickel alloy LGL-6K installed on a hydraulic press, a force of 400 kN. Then the workpiece is carried in insulated stamp with a temperature of 750°and deformed in isothermal conditions with a speed of warp 10-3with-1with the degree of deformation up to 40%. When cracks are formed on the side surface of the workpiece disk cutters of steel R6M5. After deformation gotowka has a hardness of HB 247, not exceeding the original.

Example 5.

Spent the manufacture of disk cutters of steel R6M5 GOST 19265-73 in the state after annealing with the original hardness HB 250, tensile strength δin=770 MPa and elongation δ=15%.

Billets with a diameter of 16 mm and a height of 22 mm with a protective and lubricating coating on them and subjected to drying, was heated in an electric chamber furnace up to 830°C. Then heated billet was filed in isothermal stamp with a temperature of 830°and deformed in isothermal conditions at a rate of 10-3with-1with the degree of deformation of up to 60% in the die block, made of heat-resistant Nickel alloy LGL-6K installed on a hydraulic press, a force of 400 kN. Then the workpiece is carried in insulated stamp with a temperature of 765°and deformed in isothermal conditions with a speed of warp 10-3with-1with the degree of deformation up to 40%. There is no destruction of the sample and the formation of cracks on the side surface of the workpiece disk cutters of steel R6M5. After deformation, the workpiece has a hardness of HB 247, not to exceed the original. Resistance of cutting tools made of such deformed workpieces up to 2 times higher than in other modes.

Example 6.

Spent the manufacture of disc cutters from storm GOST 19265-73 in the state after annealing with the original hardness HB 250, tensile strength δin=770 MPa and elongation δ=15%.

Billets with a diameter of 16 mm and a height of 22 mm with a protective and lubricating coating on them and subjected to drying, was heated in an electric chamber furnace up to 840°C. Then heated billet was filed in isothermal stamp with a temperature of 840°and deformed in isothermal conditions at a rate of 10-3with-1with the degree of deformation of up to 60% in the die block, made of heat-resistant Nickel alloy LGL-6K installed on a hydraulic press, a force of 400 kN. Then the workpiece is carried in insulated stamp with a temperature of 780°and deformed in isothermal conditions with a speed of warp 10-3with-1with the degree of deformation up to 40%. When cracks are formed on the side surface of the workpiece disk cutters of steel R6M5. After deformation, the workpiece has a hardness of HB 247, not to exceed the original.

Compared with the existing method proposed has several advantages.

1. Wider temperature region of superplasticity than 835°that does not require expensive high-precision regulating pyrometers.

2. Lower process temperature of 70°below the existing, which reduces energy consumption and speed scaling.

3. The practical absence of both the carbonization of the resulting preform.

4. After forming the workpiece has a hardness of 240 HB, does not require training patterns before quenching and well processed by cutting.

5. Higher tool life due to material hardening by deformation at 765°and improving the structural and mechanical characteristics of steel R6M5.

6. Less deformation force.

7. The use of technology isothermal and superplastic deformation can reduce the harmful impact on the natural environment by reducing emissions that accompany technological processes.

8. The increase in cost of expensive high-speed steels and scarce alloying elements: vanadium, molybdenum, chromium, and especially the strategic element of tungsten can be attributed to the forming processes using the effect of superplastic to the process of rational nature management.

Cracks on the side
Table 1
The method of processing workpiecesInterval thermal Cycling, °The degree of deformation, %The temperature of deformation, with-1The rate of deformation, with-1Score carbideThe appearance of the blanksThe path length of the cutting groove in detail the x of article 18 SA ready tool, m
Known (prototype)thermal Cycling process is missing9079010-12Cracks on the side-
9079010-32The same-
9079510-31-2No cracks12720
7579510-41-2The same1120
6579510-31-2-"-11400
6079510-12-"-10310
4581010-12-"-14680
5082010-22-1-"-15390
7582010-41-2-"-18100
6583010-31-2-"-17190
9582510-11-2
The proposed methodthermal Cycling process is missing7075010-31-2Cracks on the side-
9276510-31-217500
7578010-31-2Cracks on the side12200
6080010-31-2Cracks on-
40750side surface
6083010-31-2No cracks19100
40765
60

40
840

780
10-31-2Cracks on the side-

The method of processing high-speed steel comprising heating to a temperature of deformation and plastic deformation in the isothermal p is the bench press with a speed of warp 10 -3-10-1c-1in the process of metastable transition when 760-770°with a given degree of deformation, wherein the pre-exercise plastic deformation when 825-835°with the degree of deformation of up to 60%, and then when 760-770°with the degree of deformation up to 40%.



 

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