Method for defatting of crude sheepskin-and-fur material

FIELD: defatting of crude sheepskin-and-fur material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves treating crude material in bacterial suspension having lipolytic activity of 20-30 units/g and proteolytic activity of 2.5-3.5 units/g. Suspension contains product of total microorganism vital activity used in an amount of 4-8 g/dm3, synthetic surfactant used in an amount of 0.25-0.5 g/dm3, and prokaryotic crop of Pseudomonas sp. type used in an amount of 107-109 cells/cm3, water the balance. Treatment is conducted at temperature of 40±2 C during 45 min by providing mechanical actions, and liquid coefficient of 7-10.

EFFECT: improved quality of defatting sheepskins, improved elastoplastic properties and reduced level of toxic contamination of sewage water.

3 dwg, 4 tbl

 

The invention relates to light industry and can be used in fur production during the process of degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials.

There is a method of degreasing using anion active surfactants (sodium salt of monoether sulfuric acid and the mixture of cetyl and oleic alcohol, formalin, sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide, nonionic surfactant and water (SU authorship, 1002358, 07.03.83, CL S. 14 1/08).

The disadvantage of this method with the use of known composition is that it has low degreasing ability in relation to the sheepskin, containing a high content of fatty substances in the hair coat and the leather, resulting in lower quality sheepskin.

There is a method of degreasing and weakening bristle pork skins, namely, that after treatment with lime and washing the skins are treated in a bath containing the drug of mold Aspergillus oryzae and ammonium sulphate. Under the action allocated to the preparation of lactic acid is observed degradation of fatty substances. Resulting lime plumping raw material falls down into the tub, where simultaneously there is a further loosening of the connection between the bristles and hair bag. This achieves the required reduction of the bristle (see A.S. SU 61614, CL 14 With 1/08. The way mo is irivine and weakening bristle pork skins. Publ. 31.08.1942).

The disadvantage of this method is the weakening of the link bristle pork skins with Koshevoy cloth, which is unacceptable in the processing of sheepskin and fur raw materials.

There is a method of degreasing fur sheepskin, in which the removal of organic substances washed out by using enzyme preparations lipolytic action (liposyn and/or lipase), isolated from porcine pancreas, as well as from cultures of Pseudomonas acrudinase with the addition of various adjuvants (bile, calcium chloride). In the case of the use of these enzyme preparations qualitative reactions on zagarenski negative (see Fomin L.A., Rochwarger OD, Zubin A.M. and other study of the process of enzymatic degreasing fur sheepskin. - Sat. scientific papers VNIIMP - M., 1980, p.3-7). However, when degreasing the lipases of animal origin there is some weakening of bonds of the hair with Koshevoy cloth, which is undesirable for fur pelts.

The main disadvantage of the above methods is the formation of toxic wastewater containing difficultly oxidizable organic compounds, such as synthetic surfactants and formaldehyde.

The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a method of degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, the conclusion is decomposing in the processing of raw materials enzyme bacterial culture and drug where the enzyme culture using Pseudomonas sp. in the amount of 106cells/cm3and bacterial drug produced by this culture, with the following parameters: bacterial preparation (BP) 1-2 g/DM3, SPAW - 0.5-1.0 g/DM3temperature - 40-42°and With constant mechanical stirring workers baths, lipolytic activity - 21,42 u/g and proteolytic - 212,00 u/g (see the patent for the invention №2216596 from 20.11.2003, the Way degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials /Sambuev DMV, Dumnov B.C., Yesina Mrs x, Tsyrenov claims VI).

The disadvantage of this method is the significant amount of proteolytic activity, which is in violation processing mode may cause some weakening of bonds of the hair with Koshevoy cloth, fur raw materials, which will be the cause of such a defect as teclast hair, which is unacceptable in the processing of sheepskin and fur raw materials.

The problem to be solved in the present invention is the development of technology, held at the minimum value of the proteolytic activity, which will be optimal to carry out the destruction of the protein coat of fatty substances in the dermis sheepskin and fur raw materials, while maintaining sufficient due hair with Koshevoy fabric, using the minimum amount of synthetic surfactants (detergents) and the exception of formaldehyde and the carb is Nata sodium when conducting this method of degreasing.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality degreasing of sheepskins, the improvement of their elastic-plastic properties, while reducing the consumption of detergents in a degreasing bath with 8 to 0.25-0.5 g/DM3and the exclusion of sodium carbonate and formaldehyde, which can significantly reduce the level of toxic pollution of wastewater after executing this process. While the waste water generated after the microbiological process of degreasing, may be directed to otmichnii drum. Also, the degreasing process of the proposed method is proposed to hold the minimum value of the proteolytic activity of 2.5-3.5 u/g and increased the amount of lipolytic - 20-30 IU/g, which provides optimal removal of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather, while maintaining the connection of the hair with it.

This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved by a method for degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, which consists in processing the suspension according to the invention, the processing of sheepskin and fur raw materials spend bacterial suspension with both the lipolytic - 20-30 IU/g, and proteolytic - and 2.5-3.5 u/g activity, containing the cumulative product of vital activity of microorganisms in the amount of 48 g/DM 3synthetic surfactant 0.25-0.5 g/DM3and prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas sp. in the amount of 107-109cells/cm3and the rest is water, the treatment is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°, duration 45 min, AC mechanical impact and volume ratio 7-10.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method microbiological degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw material is then processed in a bacterial suspension having a maximum lipolytic and minimal proteolytic activities, including fewer synthetic surfactants (up to 0.25 g/DM3), the total product of vital activity of microorganisms in the amount of 4-8 g/DM3and prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas sp. in the amount of 107-109cells/cm3. The degreasing effect is due to the fact that after cleavage of the protein coat of the fat cells is observed decay of lipids from microorganisms which happens biocatalytic under the action of the enzyme lipase. When this bacterial suspension is characterized by a high value of lipolytic activity, with minimal proteolytic, ensure communication of hair with Koshevoy cloth fur at the optimal distance of fatty substances the STV from the surface of the fur and leather. The presence of bacterial suspension detergents ensures removal of mineral impurities from the surface of the hair, and the presence in it of the proposed culture of microorganisms Pseudomonas sp. allows you to dispose of fatty substances without re-deposition on the surface of the fur and leather. The treatment is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°, duration 45 min, AC mechanical impact and magnitude liquid ratio (LCD) 7-10.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not found the source, which is characterized by symptoms that are identical to all the essential features of the claimed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials. The definition from the list of identified unique prototype, which is closer to the totality of symptoms analogue, has allowed to establish the essential towards perceived by the applicant to the technical result of the distinctive features set forth in the claims.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the conditions of "novelty" and "inventive step".

To perform the present invention, the SPO is both degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials were held semiindustrial studies, which were established conditions of culturing prokaryotic organism Pseudomonas sp., the optimal ratio of lipolytic and proteolytic activities, the concentration of the total product of microorganisms, synthetic surface-active substances (detergents), duration of cultivation, temperature parameters, the number of input inoculant.

Bacterial suspension prepared on the basis of the synthetic environment, including water, mineral and organic components, detergents and culture of Pseudomonas sp. Culturing duration is 24 h at a temperature of (37±0,5)°and periodic mechanical action. At the end of the cultivation assess the content of the total product of microorganisms, lipolytic and proteolytic activities of the bacterial suspension, the residual concentration of detergents and active acidity (pH). Options prepared bacterial suspension are presented in table 1.

Table 1
The name of the parameterQuantitative expression
1. Total bacterial count, cells/cm3107-109
2. Lipolytic activity, u/g20-30
3. Proteolytic activity, u/g2,5-3,5
4. The concentration of the total product of microorganisms, g/DM34-8
5. The concentration of detergents, g/DM30,25-0,5
6. Active reaction (pH)7,0-8,5

As can be seen from table 1, the prepared bacterial suspension has minimal proteolytic activity (for 2.5-3.5 u/g) with a predominance of lipolytic (20-30 IU/g), which, in our opinion, will provide optimum removal of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather. Low value proteolytic activity allows the degreasing process not only in a fairly wide time range, but also significantly reduce the impact on proteins malpighiales layer - inner layer of the hair of the bag, thereby reducing the likelihood of teclast hair.

After the analysis in the barge pour water, add the calculated amount of water volume of bacterial suspension, then the barge is placed sheepskin fur in the expanded form. The process is carried out at a temperature of (40±2)°With variable mechanical action within 45 min, when the value LC=7-10. After biotechnologica is anyone degreasing spend washing sheepskin running water at a temperature of 40-42° C for 30 minutes

The finished semi-finished product is characterized by a white, clean, crisp hair. In addition, the symbiotic effect of the enzymes protease and lipase, present in a bacterial suspension provides additional abating the leather, and this is caused by the improvement of the quality of the semifinished product.

The proposed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials is as follows. When preparing raw materials for processing pre-picked batch of skins sheepskin fur one conservation method weighed. Raw materials are : soaking off, according to a Single processing technology fur sheepskin (1988). Then the raw material is squeezed and punish him biotechnology degreasing. Pour water, heated to 40-42°add the estimated amount of the bacterial suspension with a temperature of 40±2°C. characterization of the bacterial suspension are presented in table 1. Thus prepared working solution mix and load raw materials. Duration 45 min at AC mechanical action. The end of the degreasing estimated by the reaction of Lieberman. Followed by a runoff. Washing raw materials provide running water at a temperature of 40-42°C for 30 minutes Further processing is conducted according to a Single processing technology furs the x sheepskin (1988). In the control variant (see unified technology for processing fur sheepskin, 1988) used the composition comprising: paste "News" - 8 g/DM3, sodium carbonate and 0.5 g/DM3and formaldehyde - 0.5 cm3/DM3.

Was later carried out the process of pickling, tanning-fatliquoring and finishing operations according to a Single processing technology fur sheepskin (1988). After the finishing operations are evaluating the physico-mechanical and chemical properties of the finished product. The results are presented in table 2.

Table 2
Name of indicatorGOST 4661-76PrototypeControl option
For leather
Temperature welding, °Not below 7072; 73; 7371; 71; 72
The moisture content, %No more than 141213
Chrome content, %0,8-1,81,51,7
Ash content, %No more than 86,77,8
The content of unbound fatty substances, %10-201518
the pH of water is Oh hoods 4,0-7,56,07,2
The load at break of the whole lambskin, N.Not less than 200>200>200
For hairline
The content of unbound fatty substances, %No more than 21,81,5
The tensile bond strength of the hair with the dermis, MPa-4,84,8

As can be seen from the obtained results, physico-mechanical and chemical properties of fur sheepskin, tanned on the claimed technology meet the requirements of GOST 4661-76 "Sheepskin fur tanned. Technical conditions". Evaluation of bond strength hair fur sheepskin with dermis showed that the value of this parameter for the experimental and control options amounted to 4.8 MPa. The same value of the examined indicator to the different scenarios indicates that weakening the connection of the hair with Koshevoy tissue does not occur.

After experimental degreasing of the proposed method and the control variant carry out sampling of wastewater to assess their quality and level of toxic pollution. Assessment of the quality of water carried out by the following indicators: active reaction (pH); chemical oxygen demand (CP, is), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), the concentration of suspended substances, synthetic surface-active substances (detergents), formaldehyde, fatty substances and toxic pollution (UTZ). As a test object to determine the level of toxic pollution of wastewater use Daphnia magna Straus. The criterion of toxicity the survival rate of the test object. Characteristics of wastewater are presented in table 3.

Table 3
Water quality indicatorsExperienced degreasingControl degreasing
The concentration of suspended solids, mg/DM343404750
COD, IHO2/DM39541982
BOD5, IHO2/DM3155244
Active reaction (pH)of 6.968,8
The concentration of detergents, g/DM30,364,8
The concentration of formaldehyde, g/DM30,00,45
The concentration of the fatty substances, mg/DM3952200
The level of toxic pollution (UTZ), class a OligocarbonateHypertensionthe
Classification of water according to the classification of the state Committee for HydrometeorologyNetVery dirty

Analysis of waste wastewater after the test and control degreasing showed that less toxic effluents are formed on the basis of bacterial suspension. Significant decrease in the content of fatty substances in the waste water to experienced options to 95 mg/DM3while prototype - 2200 mg/DM3due to destruction microorganisms contained in the bacterial suspension. The reduction of this indicator suggests that the destruction of the fatty material flows not only in the leather and the hairline, but in the spent solution.

Examples of implementation of the proposed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials

Example 1. Party fur sheepskin priceswhere conservation method after soaking, pressing, made according to a Single processing technology fur (1988), subjected to microbiological degreasing when the LCD 7, the temperature of 40-42°C for 45 min, with variable mechanical action.

The composition of the bacterial suspension: total product life microorganisms - 8.0 g/DM3, lipolytic activity 30,0 u/g, proteolytic activity of 3.5 u/g, the acidity of a solution of 3.5 g/DM3optical density of the medium, D540- 0,26, the concentration of detergents - 0.25 g/DM3, prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas sp. in the amount of 107cells/cm3.

The amount of bacterial suspension in the working bath - 100%.

In a degreasing bath contribute 100% of the bacterial suspension is then filled sheepskin fur after soaking in expanded form in the barge containing the bacterial suspension. The processing time of 45 minutes, with alternating mechanical action, the LCD 7, the solution temperature - 40°C. After degreasing spend washing sheepskin running water at a temperature of 40-42°C for 30 minutes

Example 2. Party fur sheepskin microcalendar conservation method after soaking, pressing, made according to a Single processing technology fur (1988), subjected to microbiological degreasing when the LCD 10, the temperature of 40-42°C for 45 min, with variable mechanical action.

The composition of the bacterial suspension: total product life microorganisms - 8.0 g/DM3, lipolytic activity - 30,0 u/g, proteolytic activity, and 3.5 u/g, the acidity of a solution of 3.5 g/DM3optical density of the medium, D540- 0,26, the concentration of detergents - 0.25 g/DM3about eroticheskie culture of Pseudomonas sp. in the amount of 107cells/cm3.

The amount of bacterial suspension in the working bath - 50%.

In a degreasing bath pour water and make 50% of the bacterial suspension from the volume of the working bath, then put the sheepskin fur after soaking in expanded form in the barge containing the bacterial suspension. The processing time of 45 minutes, with alternating mechanical action, the LCD 10, the solution temperature - 40°C. After degreasing spend washing sheepskin running water at a temperature of 40-42°C for 30 minutes

Example 3. Party fur sheepskin fresh-dry method of canning after soaking, pressing, made according to a Single processing technology fur (1988), subjected to microbiological degreasing with LCD 8, the temperature of 40-42°C for 45 min, with variable mechanical action.

The composition of the bacterial suspension: total product life microorganisms - 4.0 g/DM3, lipolytic activity to 20.0 u/g, proteolytic activity of 2.5 u/g, the acidity of the solution of 4.6 g/DM, optical density, D540- 0,20, prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas sp. in the amount of 109cells/cm3.

The amount of bacterial suspension in the working bath - 100%.

In a degreasing bath make 100% bacteria Inoi suspension from the volume of the working baths and detergents 0.5 g/DM 3, then put the sheepskin fur after soaking in expanded form in the barge containing the bacterial suspension. The processing time of 45 minutes, with alternating mechanical action, the LCD 8, the solution temperature - 40°C. After degreasing spend washing sheepskin running water at a temperature of 40-42°C for 30 minutes

Example 4. Party fur sheepskin microcalendar conservation method after soaking, pressing, made according to a Single processing technology fur (1988), subjected to microbiological degreasing when the LCD 9, a temperature of 42°C for 45 min, with variable mechanical action.

The composition of the bacterial suspension: total product life microorganisms - 4.0 g/DM3, lipolytic activity to 20.0 u/g, proteolytic activity of 2.8 u/g, the acidity of the solution of 4.6 g/DM3optical density of the medium, D540- 0,20, prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas sp. in the amount of 109cells/cm3.

The amount of bacterial suspension in the working bath - 50%.

In a degreasing bath pour water, contribute 50% of the bacterial suspension from the volume of the working baths and detergents 0.5 g/DM3, then put the sheepskin fur after soaking in expanded form in the barge containing the bacterial suspension. P is abolitionist treatment 45 min, when AC mechanical action, the LCD 9, the temperature of the solution - 42°C. After degreasing spend washing sheepskin running water at a temperature of 40-42°C for 30 minutes

The residual content of fatty substances in the leather and hairline in examples 1-4 and the control option are summarized in table 4.

Table 4
ExampleType preservation of raw materialsFat content, %
In hairlineIn leather
Control optionMicrocolony1,9316,89
ExampleType preservation of raw materialsFat content, %
In hairlineIn leather
Example 1Fresh-dry2,0517,12
Example 2Microcolony2,14of 17.35
Example 3Fresh-dry1,8516,86
Example 4Microcolony1,90 16.88 in

The results presented in table 4 show that all methods of microbiological degreasing provide optimal removal of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather fur sheepskin.

After performing these operations sheepskin are pressed hair, haircut, pickling and tanning-creasing with the consumption of the necessary ingredients according to a Single processing technology fur (1988).

As can be seen from the examples, the proposed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials allows for optimal removal of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather fur sheepskin. Thus formed biotechnological waste water after degreasing can be attributed to the relatively pure by reducing the consumption of detergents, elimination of sodium carbonate and formaldehyde from experienced staff.

The characteristics of sheepskin fur tanned correspond the requirements of GOST 4661-76 "Sheepskin fur tanned. Technical conditions".

On the basis of the foregoing that the claimed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials meets the condition of "industrial applicability".

The way degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, lies in its handling suspension, Otley is audica fact, that the processing of sheepskin and fur raw materials is carried out in a bacterial suspension with both the lipolytic - 20-30 IU/g, and proteolytic - and 2.5-3.5 u/g activity, containing the cumulative product of vital activity of microorganisms in the amount of 4-8 g/DM3synthetic surfactant - 0.25-0.5 g/DM3and prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas sp in the amount of 107-109cells/cm3water - the rest, the treatment is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°, duration 45 min, AC mechanical impact and volume ratio 7-10.



 

Same patents:

The invention relates to leather and fur industry and is aimed at improving devices for liquid processing leather and fur raw materials and semi-finished products at the enterprises of light industry

The invention relates to light industry, namely the preparatory and finishing processes of fur production

The invention relates to the production of wool and can be used in breeding work on the improvement of the breeds of sheep in the determination of fractional composition of grease wool, will allow to define the technological value of the grease as feedstock for production of wool grease, and lanolin, to implement a differentiated approach in development of technological processes for primary wool processing

The invention relates to chemical agents for the treatment of the hide, hides, skins or leather, in particular, to a degreasing tools for processing raw material containing collagen and can be used in the manufacture of tennis and musical strings, leather and fur industry and leagalities industry and in the manufacture of surgical suture material (catgut)

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises pickling, tanning, and neutralizing the semifinished item. During pickling and subsequent tanning, the picking liquid is provided with acetate sodium in amount of 0.2-0.5 % and, then, chromic tanner in amount of 1.5-1.8%. The tanning is carried out until the pH of the solution reaches 4.2-4.4.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of tanning.

2 tbl

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.

EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.

EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

2 tbl, 2 ex

The invention relates to light industry and can be used in fur production during the process of degreasing hair and leather fur skins
The invention relates to the leather industry, in particular to a method of treatment of skin obtained from raw materials of cattle intended for the manufacture of Shoe uppers, garments and leather goods
The invention relates to the leather industry, in particular to the method of manufacture of leather from leather obtained from raw materials of cattle intended for the manufacture of Shoe uppers, garments and leather goods

The invention relates to the fur industry and can be used in the processing of fur raw material for making clothes and other products

The invention relates to light industry and can be used in fur production in degreasing sheepskin and fur raw materials

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: method of preparing protein hydrolyzate comprises stripping and enzyme treatment of leather manufacture waste. Treatment is carried out in four stages: using pepsin, oxalic acid, neutral or alkali protease, and acetic acid.

EFFECT: enabled preparation of protein hydrolyzate with low content of mineral substances, high content of solids, and molecular mass comparable with that of collagen (300-360 thousands).

2 tbl

The invention relates to the fur industry and can be used in the processing of fur raw material for making clothes and other products

The invention relates to the leather industry and can be used in otlochno-ash manufacturing processes of the skin for different purposes

The invention relates to the leather industry and can be used in making leather for Shoe uppers from raw cattle
Up!