Plasma cathode-compensator

FIELD: plasma engineering; process plasma sources for ion-plasma treatment of material surfaces.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cathode-compensator that can be used, for instance, in electric-arc jet engines for neutralizing ion beam has hollow holder 1 with face wall 2 and discharge hole 3 at outlet accommodating hollow capsule 4 with face wall 5 and through hole at outlet enclosed by heater and then by heat shields 8; this capsule accommodates thermal emitter 8 that has solid face wall 10 on one end and at least one working medium passage 11; cathode-compensator also has support insulator 16 and working medium supply pipe 17 communicating with hollow capsule 4; solid face wall of thermal emitter 10 is disposed so that clearance L1 is provided between this wall and face wall 5 of capsule 4 with through hole to form cavity between them; working medium passage 11 is formed in thermal emitter 9 at inlet by at least one blind longitudinal hole and at outlet, by at least one longitudinal slot on side surface of thermal emitter; they are intercommunicating through at least one transverse hole. Diameter d1 of through hole in hollow capsule 4 should be better smaller than diameter d2 of axial hole in thermal emitter 9. Insert 19 made of material of low heat conductivity may be installed between hollow capsule 4 and working medium supply pipe 17. Shield 20 may be installed coaxially to hole 3 of hollow holder 1 with clearance L2 allowed between this shield and face wall 5 of hollow capsule 4.

EFFECT: regulated parameters during cathode-compensator turn-on period, enhanced reliability.

4 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to a plasma technique, namely the cathode-compensator operating on gaseous bodies, and can be used as part of electro-motors to neutralize the ion beam and technology plasma sources intended for ion-plasma treatment of surfaces of various materials in vacuum, as well as the Autonomous functioning of the plasma source.

Known plasma cathode-compensator containing the bracket with the hole on the outlet, inside of which is hollow capsule with the front wall and the orifice at the exit, which is covered by the heater, heat shields, and inside is a thermal emitter with an axial channel for passage of the working gas, the reference insulator and the pipe working fluid, communicated with a hollow capsule [1].

A disadvantage of the known plasma cathode-compensator is the instability of the parameters and characteristics when it starts and work, especially at small flow of gas from unstable places bindings electric discharge with multiple inclusions, due to the use of flow diagrams to the expiration of the working gas. With this arrangement the cavity discharge, limited axial channel, coaxial bore hole of the hollow capsules so that they t the wife between each other without a gap so that the emission surface is a long cylindrical shape along the axial depth of the channel. In addition, this constantly floating "binding" of the electric discharge causes uneven erosion of thermal emitter depth channel as to form at the beginning of the resource edge, and then the entire front erosion, and the location of the maximum zone of erosion. Which ultimately leads to a different formulation of thermal emitters of one party cathode-compensator when the same resource time by time and number of inclusions.

Known plasma cathode-compensator adopted for the prototype, containing a hollow holder with the end wall and the outlet opening at the outlet, inside of which is hollow capsule with the front wall and the orifice at the exit, which consistently cover the heater and heat shields, and placed inside a thermal emitter, having on one side a solid end wall and at least one channel of the passage of the working fluid, the reference insulator and the pipe working fluid, communicated with a hollow capsule [2].

Supply of known plasma cathode-compensator thermal emitter with a channel passage of the working fluid, is made in the form of a labyrinth, helped to eliminate the disadvantage inherent in counterparts, and n is how much to increase the stability of the parameters and characteristics at start-up and operation of the cathode-compensator. This is achieved by creating at the entrance to the cavity of the discharge section in the feed channel of the working fluid with an increased hydraulic resistance and high gas density due to the branching of the channel from the entrance in thermal emitter in the form of separate grooves. Bypassing such grooves, the working body again converge in the radial direction toward the center in a single axial passage at the outlet of the heat emitter in the cavity of which is formed a cavity discharge.

However, this known plasma cathode-compensator also has some significant drawbacks. With this configuration, the feed channel of the working fluid in thermal emitter portion with a maximum hydraulic resistance, and consequently, the maximum pressure and with increased density of the gas is located only on the approach to the discharge zone. Therefore, in the discharge zone, the gas pressure will disappear and the set operating pressures less than the maximum. These conditions, combined with the remoteness of the location of the site with high density and the maximum pressure at the depth of the zone of occurrence of discharge impede the penetration of discharge, the depth of the channel and its subsequent stable maintenance. And in such a constructive way after the ionized gas comes directly from the zone once the poison through the penetration hole of the hollow capsules, just as in the well-known counterpart, and is straight.

Because of the relatively long emission surface defined by the depth of a blind hole located at the outlet of the heat emitter, its uniform heating at the time of launch impossible. This is because the distribution of the own field of the temperature of the heater is unevenly due to a rather lengthy form, which leads to the fact that the maximum temperature of the heater is in its middle part, whereas closer to the edges it decreases due to the outflow of heat at the point of fastening. And due to the uneven heating of thermal emitter in the initial ignition of the discharge in the form of an electric arc is not distributed throughout the area of the discharge, which leads to uneven erosion surface of thermal emitter due to a random place and constantly wandering in time "binding". This has a negative impact on the stability of the parameters and characteristics when running, especially when working at relatively low flow rates and pressures of the working gas in the cavity of the channel.

In addition, this plasma cathode-compensator has poor reliability when it starts, because of the mutual location of the heater and thermal emitter, in which extreme witk the spiral heater closer to the exit, than the emission surface of thermal emitter. Such a mutual arrangement of elements in combination with the primary heating of the heater, which has its own emission material, leads to the fact that the conditions under which the probability of "binding" discharge to any other structural elements, in particular to the coils of the heater increases. And these unwanted bindings discharge to the various structural elements lead to local evaporation of the material of the heater or the hollow holder, damage to the heater, pollution emission surface of thermal emitter and reduction of emission current, which ultimately limits the service life of the cathode-compensator.

In the claimed invention solved the problem of the stabilization parameters and characteristics of the cathode-compensator when the inclusions and improve its reliability.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the plasma cathode-compensator containing hollow holder with the front wall and the outlet opening at the outlet, inside of which is hollow capsule with the front wall and the orifice at the exit, which consistently cover the heater and heat shields, and placed inside a thermal emitter, having on one side a solid end wall and at least on the in the channel of the passage of the working fluid, the reference insulator and the pipe working fluid, communicated with a hollow capsule according to the invention the solid end wall of thermal emitter positioned relative to the end wall with a through hole of the hollow capsules with a gap between them formed by the cavity and the channel of the passage of the working fluid in thermal emitter formed from the input of at least one hollow longitudinal bore, and on the output side at least one longitudinal groove on the lateral surface of thermal emitter and communicated between the at least one transverse hole. Diameter of through hole of the hollow capsules can be made smaller than the diameter of the axial bore of thermal emitter. Between the hollow capsule and the working gas supply pipe can be inserted insert made of a material with low heat conductivity. Coaxial output hollow hole of the holder can be mounted screen with axial clearance relative to the end wall of the hollow capsules.

Placing a solid end wall of thermal emitter with a gap relative to the end wall with a through hole of the hollow capsules and education between the cavity and the formation of the channel of the passage of the working fluid in thermal emitter due to perform on the input side of one deaf longitudinal openings, and with the output side of the longitudinal grooves on the lateral surface of thermal emitter, which are communicated between a transverse holes, allow to solve the problem of stabilization of the parameters and characteristics of the plasma cathode-compensator when the inclusions by reducing the length of the emission surface along the axis of the channel and its localization near the bore hole. While the emission surface formed by the surface of the end wall of thermal emitter and the surfaces of longitudinal grooves spaced around the periphery of the cavity of the discharge. This constructive scheme allows you to implement a curvilinear expiration of ionized gas directly from the zone of discharge. In addition, such a localization zone "bind" discharge with respect to the emission surface of thermal emitter allows for a soft launch conditions and to achieve the identity conditions for ignition discharge for large quantity runs. This is achieved by making the channel diverging forms directly in the discharge zone, and create a plot with a high hydraulic resistance, and hence the high density gas directly in the cavity of the discharge by placing several longitudinal grooves opposite end wall of the hollow capsules.

Execution diameter bore holes in the end wall of the hollow capsules smaller than the diameter of the axial bore at the entrance to the baths is ical emitter can further increase the reliability run by increasing the hydraulic resistance to flow of the working fluid. This will lead to an increase in the density of the working fluid directly into the cavity in front of the front wall of thermal emitter, i.e. in the cavity of the discharge. In addition, the ionization of the working fluid received in the longitudinal grooves of the channel thermal emitter, mainly occurs in the cavity in which the gas pressure is close to the maximum pressure of the working fluid within the outlet part of the tract. These conditions greatly facilitate the processes of ignition and combustion of the main discharge, since it is known that the higher the pressure of the working fluid, the lower the voltage required for ignition of the discharge and ionization.

To improve thermal efficiency of the scheme by reducing heat loss in the proposed plasma cathode-compensator between the hollow capsule and pipe working fluid tightly mounted cylindrical insert, which can be made from a material having low thermal conductivity.

Installation screen coaxial output hollow hole of the holder with the outer side of the end wall to further increase the reliability of the plasma cathode-compensator due to the exclusion of "bindings" category to the coils of the heater in the initial run through their protection of thin-walled element, made of refractory material and located under the same capacity with the unit's electric is LEM.

Thus, the plasma cathode-compensator, made according to the invention, in which the mutual position of thermal emitter relative to the other elements of design creates more favorable conditions of ionization of the working fluid, can improve the stability of the parameters and characteristics at run-time and reliability in its operation, particularly at low flow rates of gas, and also to make the production of the emitter in the resource more predictable.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings.

1 shows a longitudinal section of the proposed plasma cathode-compensator.

Figure 2 shows the external element And the configuration of the cavity of the discharge and the area of emission of the plasma cathode-compensator.

Plasma cathode-compensator includes a hollow holder 1 with the front wall 2 and the outlet 3 at the output, which performs the function of one of the feed lines (terminal "+"). Inside the hollow holder is coaxially hollow capsule 4 with the front wall 5 and the orifice 6 at the output. Hollow capsule 4 consistently covered by the heater 7 (for example, a spiral shape) and heat shields 8. Inside the hollow capsule 4 is a thermal emitter 9, having on one side a solid end wall 10 and the channel of the passage of the working fluid 11. The channel of the passage of the working fluid (for example the EP, gaseous xenon) divergent forms in the discharge zone may be formed on the output side of the working fluid (solid end wall 10) at least one longitudinal groove 12 on the side surface 13 of thermal emitter 9, and on the input side at least one hollow axial bore 14, which reported at least one transverse hole 15. Plasma cathode-compensator also includes connecting the reference insulator 16 and the supply pipe working fluid 17, which also performs the function of the other current-carrying line (terminal "-"). Thermal emitter 9 is placed so that between its solid end wall 10 and front wall 5 of the hollow capsule 4 is formed a gap (L1), providing the required working volume of cavity 18. To be formed in the cavity 18 of the differential gas pressure and high gas density the cross-sectional area (S1exit from the cavity 18 through the diameter (d1) bore hole 6 of a hollow capsule 4 is less than the cross-sectional area (S2) entry into the cavity 18 through the diameter (d2) the axial bore 14 of thermal emitter 9. Between the entrance of the hollow capsule 4 and the supply pipe working fluid 17 can be tightly integrated thin-walled insert 19, made of refractory material with low heat conductivity. Coaxial outlet opening 3 t is komododave holder 1 with the outer side of the end wall 2 can be located protective screen 20, for example, a conical shape, in which the longitudinal direction extends to the end wall 5 of the hollow capsules 4 and does not reach her on the axial clearance (L2). The gap L2is selected from a condition of maintenance of the electric strength of independent electrical circuits, i.e. excluding electric breakdown energized from the source of electrical power.

Plasma cathode-compensator operates as follows.

The working body (for example, gaseous xenon), arriving in plasma cathode-compensator, is ionized when voltage is applied to the anode of the plasma accelerator (not shown) and thermal emitter 9, which is the emission element in a hot state, when this occurs, the ignition of the discharge. The flow of the working gas is carried by the supply pipe 17 in the hollow capsule 4, and then through the axial hole 14, the transverse hole 15, the longitudinal grooves 12 in the working cavity 18, which is formed between the front wall 5 of the hollow capsules 4 and a solid end wall 10 of thermal emitter 9. Using the heater 7 to heat the emitter 9 is heated to a temperature that provides the necessary electron emission and sufficient to maintain a constant electric discharge between the solid end wall 10 of thermal emitter and the anode of the plasma accelerator. After you is an ode to the stationary mode, the heater 7 is turned off, and plasma cathode-compensator operates in automatic mode in which the necessary temperature level of thermal emitter 9 is provided by the energy supplied from the discharge. Localization region bindings discharge before a solid end wall 10 and, accordingly, stabilization of the electric discharge in the working cavity 18 is achieved by a difference in pressure of the gas and increase the density of the gas directly into the working cavity 18. This is achieved by a certain ratio of the diameter (d1) bore holes 6 in the hollow capsule 4 and the diameter (d2) the axial bore 14 of the channel of the passage of the working fluid 11 in thermal emitter 9. The first time you run through the protective screen 20 eliminates the possibility of "binding" discharge to the coils of the heater 7 as element initially heated and has its own emission material. Thin-walled insert 19 is placed between the input of a hollow capsule 4 and the supply pipe working fluid 17, the process reduces the outflow of heat from a thermal emitter 9. And in the radial direction of the heat shields 8 prevent the dissipation of radiated heat flux emitted by a heater 7 and a hollow capsule 4 thermal emitter 9, and the heat transfer to other structural elements. The emission of electrons flowing from the cathode-compensator, p is oshodi sequentially passing through the opening 6 in the end wall 5 of the hollow capsules 4, and then through the outlet 3 of the end wall 2 of the hollow holder 1.

Sources of information

1. RF patent №2168793, CL 7 H 01 J 37/077, N 05 N 1/54, F 03 H 1/00.

2. RF patent №2012946, CL 5 H 01 J 37/077, F 03 H 1/00 - prototype.

1. Plasma cathode-compensator containing hollow holder with the front wall and the outlet opening at the outlet, inside of which is hollow capsule with the front wall and the orifice at the exit, which consistently cover the heater and heat shields, and the inside of thermal emitter, having on one side a solid end wall and at least one channel of the passage of the working fluid, the reference insulator and the pipe working fluid, communicated with a hollow capsule, characterized in that the solid end wall of thermal emitter positioned relative to the end wall with a through hole of the hollow capsules with a gap between them formed cavity and the channel of the passage of the working fluid in thermal emitter formed from the input of at least one hollow longitudinal bore, and on the output side at least one longitudinal groove on the lateral surface of thermal emitter and communicated between the at least one transverse hole.

2. Plasma cathode-compensator according to claim 1, characterized in that the diameter of the bore hole is a hollow capsule is made smaller than the diameter of the axial bore of thermal emitter.

3. Plasma cathode-compensator according to claim 1, characterized in that between the hollow capsule and the working gas supply pipe entered the insert made of a material with low heat conductivity.

4. Plasma cathode-compensator according to claim 1, characterized in that the coaxial output hollow hole of the holder mounted on the screen with an axial clearance relative to the end wall of the hollow capsules.



 

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