Thermoplastic monofilament for bristle
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of manufacturing thermoplastic monofilaments and can be used in fabrication of bristle used under high humidity conditions. Monofilament is composed of polymer blend constituted by at least one polyamide and at least one thermoplastic polyester. Ratio of constituents in the blend is selected according to technical and functional properties determined, on one hand, by destination of bristle and, on the other hand, by environmental conditions in the bristle application location. Polyamide fraction ranges from 10 to 30% and that of polyester from 70 to 90%. Bristle completely meets functional and technical requirements as well as environmental conditions.
EFFECT: reduced manufacturing cost.
The invention concerns thermoplastic monofilament to bristle, which is exposed to high humidity.
The bristles of thermoplastic plastic is used for brushes of various kinds, for brushes and the like. However, it is subject to very different influences physical and chemical nature that, on the one hand, following its functional use when cleaning, dyeing, polishing, application environments, or the like, and on the other hand, from the conditions prevailing during the operation itself or in the workplace. To the latter, in particular, are supporting the environment used in the operation, as detergents, cleaners, cosmetics, water or the like. The environmental conditions in the workplace especially in high humidity, which in cooperation with a damp auxiliary media contributes to the fact that auxiliary wet environment is not dry.
Therefore, the bristles should be characterized by a set of properties that meet these very different requirements. This can be explained on the example of the toothbrush, for which different requirements are particularly clearly because the bristles are primarily characterized by extremely small diameter, which has a value of between approximately 0.05 and 0.4 to mdale, fiber bristles are located at a small distance from each other and together even tightly Packed. On the other hand, the bristles for toothbrushes should have good Flexural properties, in order, on the one hand, to bend in a purely elastic region and, on the other hand, again without deformation to be able to return to its original position (the possibility of regeneration of forms). Due to the large number of forms of movement and pressure, depending on the user, while brushing bristles should have, taking into account a certain time of use, good resistance to alternating bending and durability. Further, the plastic must be such that the bristles could be processed in a mechanical or thermal manufacturing processes, specifically as it relates to the fastening of the bristles on the media. Finally, the bristles to the end of the operation should be rounded, so that, on the one hand, to carry out careful, but still sufficient cleaning action on the surface of the teeth and mizuna space, on the other hand, not to harm the tooth enamel due to the extreme hardness by edges or the like, and not to damage the gums.
Because, if necessary, the dense arrangement of the bristles on the toothbrush bristles because your assistive environments, so the x as a means for cleaning teeth, water, etc. and also due predominantly to high humidity in the place of use, for example in the bathroom is always wet, because the drying due to the dense arrangement of the bristles, on the one hand, and environmental conditions, on the other hand, it would be possible only through a very long period of time.
At high humidity occurs deterioration of the bristle, which was already known for previously used a natural bristle. Even then, the cases of failure was identified as "wet collapse", "wet breakdown" (US 2309021). For natural bristle these cases of failure, primarily due to the fact that it is already in the process by washing and cleaning is deprived of his natural fat, which in live animals has a hydrophobic effect. This process is the toothbrush still supported by hydrolytic interaction between the means for cleaning the teeth and bristles, and abrasive particles in the means for brushing your teeth. This "wet collapse" try to resist by chemical treatment of the surface of a natural bristle.
Thus, based on the above, natural fibers toothbrush largely could be replaced by synthetic polymers in the form of high-quality thermoplastics. Today the La toothbrushes use a bristle exclusively from polyamides of high quality such especially PA 6.10 or 6.12. These qualitative polyamides are expensive, that is why, last but not least, for otherwise these high quality polyamides because of cost, are not used.
Despite the fact that high-quality polyamide fully meet the requirements of strength, however it is known that they largely absorb moisture, and therefore their favorable strength partially damage. This deterioration of the strength properties of the earlier leads to the exit of the bristles of the system, the smaller its diameter, as the humidity quickly penetrates to the core of the bristle. Today toothbrushes often depending on the rigidity of their bristles are subdivided, for example, for soft, medium or hard, which primarily depends on the diameter of the bristles. This gradation of quality due to moisture absorption after some time of operation ceases to be true. Absorption and accumulation of moisture in between the bristles leads to significant hygiene problems, because moisture promotes the growth of bacteria that leads to a long drying time, which in practice cannot be observed (U.S. News & World Report 12.10.87, page 88).
Therefore, it was taken a sufficient number of attempts to use the bristles of the other thermoplastic monofilaments, which has already proved to be suitable for each bristle is of the second kind. To them especially the bristles of thermoplastic polyesters, which shows comparable behavior in bending and resistance to alternating bending, but for toothbrushes still could not be used, first, because of the increased stiffness and associated risk of damage to gums and tooth enamel. Further, the bristles have a tendency to splitting and the formation of burrs during mechanical processing, especially when rounding is used. Finally, it is characterized by strong adhesion of dirt, which makes clean toothbrush with rinsing.
Although the textile industry is known coextrudable fiber (EP 0763611 A1), which consist of a polyester core and a polyamide sheath, however, in this case in the first place is a different set of properties than in the case of the bristles. Coextrudable monofilament toothbrush is known (WO 97/14830) and consist of, among other things, of the polyamide sheath and polyester core, but in the shell again, use only high-quality polyamide. In another embodiment, with a low-quality polyamide in the shell core consists of a copolymer of simple and complex ether, which, however, is an elastomer and therefore does not meet the requirements of the bristles for toothbrushes. The same occurs in the case of the AE other known structures composites (GB 980814), the core and the cladding which consist of various processed PVC.
The aim of the invention is the development of monofilament to the bristle, a set of properties which reduced the cost of materials meets the desired functional and technical requirements and environmental conditions when used.
The problem is solved thermoplastic monofilament forming the source material for the bristles, while the monofilament polymer is characterized by a mixture of at least one polyamide (PA) and at least one thermoplastic complex polyester (PE).
Concrete mix ratio (PA/PE) are chosen in accordance with the techno-functional properties required for operation of the bristles, on the one hand, and with the environmental conditions in which the bristles are operated with the other hand.
With few exceptions, a mixture of polymers form a multiphase system, which is known for metal alloys. Thus, the polymers behave in mixes differently than many low-molecular substances, for example, into solution and form a single phase system. The reason is the molecular interaction on the basis of van der Waals forces, dipole interactions and hydrogen bonds, which have homogeneous macromolecules over expression is s, than between the different polymers in the phase mixture. Further, the extent of the collapsed macromolecules and win the entropy of mixing, which is also due to the steric effect of macromolecules smaller than the low molecular weight substances.
In mixtures of thermoplastic polyesters and polyamides polar groups both polymers have a positive effect on Miscibility. Various lengths of segments explain the tendency to mnogofaznoi. It is desirable, if at sufficiently high forces binding persist technical-physical and chemical properties of the components of the mixture that takes place in a mixture of PA/PE. The reason is that the morphology of the mixed phase PA/PE, in contrast to the homogeneous mixture, largely characterized by a crystallinity of individual components, so remain positive properties of the polymers forming the blend. A mixture of PA/PE fiber is less characteristic rigidity than in the case of a pure complex of the polyester, but, on the contrary, the best characteristic of the hysteresis losses, which are more consistent with the behavior of nylon. Next, the mixed phase has a character similar to dispersion than can be explained better impact strength compared to the pure components of the mixture. The proportion of polymers in the mixture for extrusion of thermoplastic monovol the Kohn allow optimal control of the profile of requirements of the bristles. So, the behavior in bending and the possibility of regeneration of forms may be regulated by the diameter of the bristles and its length, and depending on a particular use of a bristle (toothbrushes, massage brushes, manual brushes, cosmetic brushes, brushes, and so on). In the same way they can adapt to physical and chemical conditions prevailing in the place of operation, based on the used media (cleaning teeth, cleaning products, water and so on) and the prevailing environmental conditions (dry or wet atmosphere, the moisture content in the bundle of bristle and so on).
Mixing ratio PA/PE can vary within wide limits without causing any damage to the stability of the mixed phase. For example, the mixing ratio PA/PE can vary between 10/90 wt.% and 90/10 wt.%, preferably it is between 20/80 wt.% and 80/20 wt.%.
If Flexural strength ("bending strength") and its constant during the period of operation also under extremely wet conditions is one of the basic requirements, increase the proportion of PE at the expense of the share of PA. For its part, matched the proportion of PA provides improved recovery of the original shape after bending in the dry state ("bend recovery"). On the contrary, the possibility of regeneration of forms in extremely humid environments high proportion of PA rather who showed adverse effects, because of the increased absorption of water PA. If one of the main requirements is wrinkle resistant bristles and cleaning efficiency (behavior abrasion), increase the proportion of PA due to the share of PE, which simultaneously leads to the best treatment cleansing of surfaces and their environment (e.g., tooth enamel, gums). Optimized mixing ratio PA/PE, at least, most likely corresponding to a set of requirements, the conventional toothbrush is for the fraction of PA between 10 and 30 wt.% and for the fraction of PE of 70 to 90 wt.%.
Further, the mixture ratio allows you to choose the geometry of the bristles, taking into account the environmental conditions on site. Thus, the share PE ratio is set higher, the smaller the cross-section of the bristles to prevent the penetration of moisture into thin profile and, as a consequence, damage to the Flexural properties and the possibility of regeneration of the form.
Regardless of the geometry of the bristle is recommended to increase the share of PE at the expense of the share of PA, the stronger and/or longer the influence of moisture at the place of operation of the bristle. However, this recommendation is not required, as in certain cases the operation of the absorption of moisture by the bristles, it is desirable that the liquid active medium better contact with the bristles.
Thermoplastic complicated by ifir preferably is polyalkyleneglycol (PAT), and in particular we are talking about terephthalate (PET) or polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), or their mixtures.
These thermoplastic polyesters, not only particularly suitable for bristle because of their technological properties, moreover considerably cost-effective than high-quality polyamide, such as PA 6.12, still used for the manufacture of bristle toothbrush.
Further, a high proportion of the PAT allows you to replace the high-quality PA, at least in part, of lower quality and affordable PA as PA 6.
Thus, the polyamide component of the mixture may be selected, for example, from the group of high-quality polyamide, such as PA 6.10, PA 6.12, PA 11, PA 12, on the one hand, and from the group of lower quality polyamides, such as PA 6, PA 6.6, on the other hand, taking into account the requirement that the mixed phase must have sufficient stability.
Further, the invention relates to thermoplastic monofilament in the form of at least two layers of coextruded to bristle, which during operation is exposed to high humidity. This coextruding at least one layer consists of a polymer mixture of the above composition.
Coextruded can have both layers in a concentric form, i.e. in the form of the core and the shell. Instead, coextruded can also characteriza the change multiple monofilaments, they are laid in the second layer defining an external profile of the monofilament. Further, coextruded may consist of a core, which defines only part of the volume, while the second layer forms a volume through complementary segments, for example, is generally rectangular cross-section, which predominantly consists of one layer and only at the end of another layer.
Regardless of the specific geometry of coextruded, one layer of which is formed from a mixture of polymers according to the invention, the second layer may consist of a single polyamide or a mixture of polyamides, as, on the contrary, the second layer may also be formed from thermoplastic complex polyester or mixtures of such polyesters.
If coextruded consists of the core and the shell, preferably, the core consists of a PAT or a custom blend of polyalkylene glycol esters, while the shell is formed from a polyamide or a mixture of polyamides.
In the case of bristle toothbrush core determines mainly the behavior in bending and the possibility of regeneration of forms, while the shell is mainly responsible for the cleaning action, the distribution of the applied media or abrasive environments. Although this bristle is characterized by increased absorption of moisture in the shell, but this is not reflected or only nathnac the positive effect on the strength properties, since they are mainly determined by the core with its significantly reduced moisture absorption.
The core may also consist only of a thermoplastic complex polyester or a mixture of polyesters, as it directly participates in the cleaning step, while the shell consists of a polymer mixture according to the invention. Further, the polymer mixture according to the invention can be present in the core and in the shell and in the core of the mixing ratio can be increased in favor of the proportion of PE or share PAT, and in the envelope in favor of the share of PA.
Further, the exceptional mechanical properties of polymer mixtures according to the invention allow for the core, consisting of the mixture, to provide a shell made of any polymer, especially from one PA or a mixture of PA. Thus, it becomes possible to optically different to paint the shell that PE and mixtures PE is only possible to a very limited extent, while, for example, the polyamides can be painted very well. Further, this combination of materials allows us to produce shell is very thin. Depending on the purpose of application of the diameter of the bristles varies from 5.0 mm for coarse brushes, as street brush, up to 0.1 mm for tooth brushes, cosmetic brushes, etc. Have bristles with a diameter of from 0.5 to 5 mm, the membrane can have a thickness of from 0.01 to 0, mm. The bristle toothbrush with a diameter in the range from 0.1 to 0.3 mm shell thickness may be between 10 and 50 microns. Thus, the wear can be determined that in the long run painted shell wears out and exposes the core, unpainted or at least a different color, so that the user visually draws attention to the degree of deterioration.
Further, the polymer mixture according to the invention with its determining stability properties allows us to produce three-layer coextruded the fact that, for example, the core consists of PAT or PAT mixture, the second layer consists of a polymer mixture according to the invention and the outer layer is formed of elastomer or mixture of elastomers. It is particularly recommended copolymer of simple and complex ether due to its affinity to share complex polyester in the middle layer. There is also using the external of the useful layer are optimal requirements brushes, cleaning, massage and application environments.
Further, the core can also be obtained in the form of the hollow core to absorb the environment and to submit them to the free ends of the bristles.
Next, to bristle, consisting of the core and the shell, if the shell consists of a polymer mixture according to the invention or of the PA, or a mixture of PA, machining of the ends of the bristles which leads to improved quality, in particular the possible perfect curves without the education edge.
1. Thermoplastic monofilament to bristle when used at high humidity, the monofilament is characterized by a polymer mixture of at least one polyamide (PA) and at least one thermoplastic complex polyester (PE), characterized in that the ratio PA/PE includes the share of PA from 10 to 30% wt. and the share of PE of 70 to 90 wt.%.
2. The monofilament according to claim 1, characterized in that thermoplastic complex polyester is polyalkyleneglycol (PAT).
3. The monofilament according to claim 1, characterized in that thermoplastic complex polyester is polyethylene terephthalate (PET)or polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), or their mixture.
4. The monofilament according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the polyamide (PA) is a mixture of various polyamides.
5. The monofilament according to claim 4, characterized in that the components of a mixture of polyamides selected from the group PA 6.10, PA 6.12, PA 11, PA 12 and PA 6, PA 6.6.
6. Thermoplastic monofilament in the form of at least two layers of coextruded to bristle that is exposed to high humidity, while coextruded has a core and a shell and at least the membrane consists of a polymer mixture, of at least one polyamide (PA) and at least one t is replanting complex polyester (PE), characterized in that the ratio PA/PE includes the share of PA from 10 to 30% wt. and the share of PE from 70 to 90% wt.
7. The monofilament according to claim 6, characterized in that the core consists of polyamide or mixtures of different polyamides.
8. The monofilament according to claim 7, characterized in that the components of a mixture of polyamides selected from the group PA 6.10, PA 6.12, PA 11, PA 12 and PA 6, PA 6.6.
9. The monofilament according to claim 6, characterized in that the core consists of a thermoplastic complex polyester or a mixture of such polyethers according to claim 2 or 3.
10. The monofilament according to one of p-9, characterized in that the core consists of pure PAT or custom blend of polyalkylene glycol esters.
11. The monofilament according to one of p-9, characterized in that also the core consists of a polymer mixture in which the ratio PA/PE includes the share of PA from 10 to 30% wt. and the share of PE of 70 to 90 wt.%.
12. The monofilament according to one of PP-11, characterized in that at least one layer of a double layer of coextruded compared with the other layer is optically differently colored.
13. The monofilament according to one of p-12, characterized in that the core has a diameter of between 0.1 and 5.0 mm, and the shell has a thickness of between 0.001 and 0.5 mm
14. The monofilament according to one of PP-13, characterized in that the bristle dental or cosmetic brush core has a diameter between 0.1 and 0.3 mm and the shell has a thickness of about is about 0.001 to 0.005 mm
15. The monofilament according to one of PP-14, characterized in that it consists of a sandwich of coextruded with the core and the shell, and an outer layer of elastomer.
16. The monofilament according to one of p-15, characterized in that the core is formed as a hollow core.
FIELD: production of electric conducting pulp for manufacture of paper, reinforcing polymer materials and packaging films.
SUBSTANCE: pulp contains fibrous particles including 65-95 mass-% of para-amide and 5-35 mass-% of sulfonated polyaniline containing sulfur in the amount of 8.5-15 mass-% which is dispersed over entire para-amide partially covering the particles externally. Specific area of surface of fibrous particles exceeds 7.5 m2/g. Pulp may be mixed with 95 mass-% of pulp of other material including poly-n-phenylene terephthlamide. Paper made from this pulp reduces rate of electric charge lesser than 150 ml.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: processes for manufacture of synthetic threads, fibers and filaments from polyamide.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing melts of two compounds, namely, linear polyamide and polyamide including macromolecular star-like or H-like chains comprising one or more nuclei, and at least three polyamide side chains or segments, which are bound with nucleus and produced from amino acid and/or lactam monomers, or multifunctional compounds with three similar acidic or amine functional groups; forming resultant melt mixture into threads, fibers or filaments and drawing if necessary.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of process for producing of threads, fibers and filaments and improved elongation properties.
22 cl, 4 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: optionally materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-resistant thread manufacture technology and can be utilized in manufacture of special materials for flak jackets, high-pressure containers, and in airplane construction. Thread is made from aromatic heterocyclic polyamide prepared via low-temperature polycondensation of a mixture composed of 25-70 mol % diamine of formula: , where X represents -NH, -S, -O, -N(CH3), and N(C2H5) and Z represents N or C, and 30-75 mol % of p-phenylenediamine with aromatic dicarboxylic acid chloride used in equimolar proportions in organic solvent and in presence of lithium or calcium chloride. Thus prepared solution is molded into water-dimethylacetamide precipitation bath. Thread is rinsed, dried, thermally treated for 10-30 min at 340-360°C, and then is drawn at 230-270°C at heating time 1-3 sec.
EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of thread.
1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymer composition based on granulated polycaproamide, which contains polycaproamide, oligomers, water, titanium dioxide, and, additionally, complex modifying additive constituted by 1,1,5-trihydroperfluoripentanol and N,N-bis(2,2,6,6-yrytamethyl-4-piperidiniyl) 1,3-benzenedicarbamide.
EFFECT: increased engineering and thermal resistance of granulate, reduced appearance of low-molecular oligomer compounds during formation, and improved essential properties of thread such as thermal resistance and resistance against oxidative UV destruction.