Method and device for treating harmful waste

FIELD: chemical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises using gas made of a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the plasma burner. The plasma burner ionizes gas thus producing carbon monoxide and reactive oxygen that removes ash from the gas. Oxygen and vapor are sprayed and injected to chamber (3) that receives the device with plasma burner. The control system (6) is provided with feedback and controls the concentration of the production gas, nozzle, and plasma burner.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

29 cl, 3 dwg

 

This application has a priority of the provisional application U.S. 60/378357, filed may 8, 2002, and includes the subject matter of the invention described therein.

The invention relates to the processing gas, the exhaust from industrial systems or processing systems hazardous waste.

Hazardous waste, except that they are a source of serious pollution of the environment, affect human health because of their toxicity, Flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity activity and infectious hazards. Hazardous waste is usually removed by burial, incineration and recycling. However, since cases of improper disposal, such as emissions of toxic waste incineration and landfills (e.g., dioxin during incineration and toxic wastewater in landfills), began to create serious problems for the environment and health awareness has led to the strengthening of laws and stricter policies for the protection of the environment. This policy has led to the search for other effective, reliable and cost-effective alternative solutions for waste disposal.

Was offered a number of ways on the basis of plasma arc for destruction of hazardous organic and inorganic waste in all forms, to transform hazardous waste into a combustible synthesis gas to generate electricity, and to make stable the second vitreous substance all non-combustible materials, which you can safely delete. However, these methods are inefficient and require a very high capital costs and operating costs.

Usually for the formation of a plasma arc for the destruction of hazardous waste or conversion processes were offered two main plasma arc technology: plasma burner (direct and indirect heating) and plasma-arc system with graphite electrodes (AC or DC).

Systems using the plasma torch, usually are not as energy efficient as those using graphite electrodes, due to higher energy losses in the water, cooling the plasma torch. The efficiency of plasma burners usually less than 70%, especially when the metal plasma torch operates inside a hot reactor/vessel. Thus, the plasma torch is effective only for heating gas and the processing or production of special materials, and they are inconvenient and uneconomical for melting substances. Moreover, when the plasma working gas is air, oxides of nitrogen (NOxand hydrocyanic (HCN) because of the reactions of nitrogen - plasma working gas is oxygen and hydrocarbons in the vessel/reactor at high temperatures. In addition, the steam generated in the vessel, will condense n is the surface of the metal housing of the plasma torch. Therefore, soot/soot together with non-toxic substances to Deposit and accumulate on the cold wet metal case that will lead to incomplete decomposition of hazardous wastes. When maintenance of the plasma burner is removed from the vessel, workers are exposed to toxic substances.

The service life of the electrodes and stability (coefficient of performance) plasma arc generated plasma burners, also depends on the atmosphere inside the vessel/reactor. Therefore, systems with a plasma torch is more complex than plasma arc systems with graphite electrodes. For metal plasma torches require cooling water high pressure to cool internal components. Chemical composition and electrical conductivity of cooling water should be controlled and regulated to prevent chemical corrosion and the deposition of minerals inside the burner. These requirements necessitate the use of expensive auxiliary equipment, which increases capital costs and operating costs.

In other systems apply plasma-arc technology with graphite electrode. Such systems can result in either a strong oxidation of graphite electrodes, or overly big is the formation of small particles of soot/soot in the stream side of the gas. Were developed combined systems AC and DC with graphite electrodes, to ensure the generation of an electric arc and simultaneously heating dzhoulevo warmth in the tub. Other technologies are applied DC with concentric electrodes and one of the upper graphite electrode with a conductive bottom for melting and gasification. However, in a DC system with only the upper graphite electrode must always supported the conductivity of the lower electrode, especially when the lower electrode of the cold vessel/reactor is covered with a layer of slag, which does not conduct electricity at low temperatures.

It was found that the rate of soot formation was very high at high temperature cracking of hydrocarbons under conditions of moderate recovery. Thus, in the process of rehabilitation plasma arc gasification are formed soot/soot, which must be removed to set forth the system of control of air pollution. The increase in time of by-products inside the vessel/reactor or the increase in the operating temperature assists in the removal of soot. However, the increase in time requires the use of larger vehicles or feed rate of the waste. Accordingly, it was suggested that carried the only systems which include an afterburner or thermal oxidation unit to increase the reaction kinetics by turbulent external environment as a secondary process gas to ensure complete combustion. However, in these methods to create a large heat oxidation process used air and fuel. Therefore, in such systems in such an oxidizing atmosphere may form a secondary waste stream, such as nitrogen oxides.

Therefore, it is necessary to create such a system and such a method of processing gas, waste from waste treatment systems in which these disadvantages are eliminated, at least partially.

The present invention relates to a system for gas treatment, waste from waste treatment systems, such as plasma gasification system with graphite electrodes, which reduces the presence of soot in the exhaust gas without the formation of nitrogen oxides and other contaminants. The system includes an afterburner using the plasma torch, not containing nitrogen working gas, which in one embodiment is a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Plasma arc ionizes the working gas, thereby generating atomic oxygen, which provides the removal of soot from the exhaust gas.

In one embodiment, the present invention includes the apparatus for processing the TCI gas, the waste from the waste management system, containing:

(a) a cyclone oxidation installation with the pipe for the exhaust gas and the outlet,

(b) operating on direct current plasma torch next to the pipe for the exhaust gas in the cyclone installation oxidation, and the burner is served working gas that includes a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen and eliminates the nitrogen with a plasma burner provides heating cyclone installation oxidation and exhaust gas into exhaust gas, which is discharged through the outlet.

A mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen contains by volume of from 15 to 25% oxygen.

Apparatus for processing gas may contain oxygen nozzle chamber connected with cyclone installation oxidation, for injection of powdered oxygen and forosoco steam chamber connected with cyclone installation oxidation, to discharge atomized vapor. Thus the oxygen nozzle and nozzle pair are heat resistant nozzle connected in fluid with cyclone installation of oxidation.

Apparatus for processing gas may contain a sensor connected to the outlet pipe, for analysis of the composition of the exhaust gas and a process controller connected to the sensor, for receiving data from the sensor and coupled with the injector to control the injection to the of Sloboda and steam.

Apparatus for processing gas may contain dynamic mixer connected to the plasma torch and allow the supply of the working gas, and in the amalgamator oxygen gas and carbon dioxide, which are mixed in the mixer in response to control signals from the process controller.

Preferably the plasma torch includes a plasma zone operating at temperatures above 5000°C.

Apparatus for processing gas may contain temperature sensors inside the cyclone oxidation unit, and the temperature within the cyclone oxidation unit is supported above 1300°C.

Preferably the cyclone installation oxidation is horizontal and includes located upstream end located downstream end and side wall between them.

The plasma torch is preferably placed on located upstream end of the cyclone oxidation unit, the pipe for the exhaust gas includes an inlet pipe that goes in the side wall tangentially and near located upstream end.

Preferably, the working gas consists essentially of carbon dioxide and oxygen or working gas includes carbon dioxide and oxygen.

In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of processing gas, the exhaust from which istemi waste treatment, includes the following stages:

(a) receiving the exhaust gas through a pipe to the flue gas cyclone installation oxidation,

(b) heating the cyclone oxidation unit by ionization of the working gas using plasma burners DC, near the chimney for the flue gas in the cyclone installation oxidation, and working gas includes a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen and eliminates nitrogen, thereby rendering the exhaust gas in the product gas,

(c) the removal of this gas from the cyclone oxidation unit.

The method of processing gas may include a stage of injection of oxygen and steam in the cyclone oxidation installation.

The method of processing gas may include the stage of analysis of the content of the exhaust gas and the regulation of the injection of oxygen and steam based on the analysis stage.

The method of processing gas may include a stage of mixing of supplied oxygen and carbon dioxide to create a working gas in a dynamic mixer.

In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a treatment system for waste treatment of hazardous waste containing:

(a) the stage of primary processing of waste, and at the stage of primary processing of waste supplied hazardous waste and is side exhaust gas

(b) stage of secondary waste treatment connected with study is the first primary processing of waste which is supplied to the exhaust gas, and stage of secondary waste treatment includes:

(i) cyclone installation oxidation, with a pipe for the tangential admission of the exhaust gas and the outlet,

(ii) operating on direct current plasma torch next to the pipe for the exhaust gas in the cyclone installation oxidation, and the burner is served working gas that includes a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen and eliminates the nitrogen with a plasma burner provides heating cyclone installation oxidation and exhaust gas into exhaust gas, which is discharged through the outlet.

The waste processing system contains primary processing stage comprising a gas generator/rasplavil and conveyor system connected to the generator/rasplatilas through gas-tight door, and through the conveyor system serves hazardous solid wastes at the generator/rasplavil.

At this stage the primary processing waste includes gas generator/rasplavil and inlet pipe connected to the gas generator/rasplatilas, and through the inlet serves liquid or gaseous hazardous waste generator/rasplavil.

The waste processing system contains primary processing stage comprising a gas generator/races is lavital with graphite electrodes.

In this gas generator/rasplavil with graphite electrodes includes a pair of spaced at graphite electrodes, each of which is supported by a respective clip electrode attached to the rolling elektrogerate, and elektrogerate are intended to control the relative distance between a specified pair of graphite electrodes or between the electrodes and the molten material inside the gasifier/rasplavitsya with graphite electrodes, adjusting the length of the arc.

Other objectives and advantages of the present invention will be clear to experts in this field after reviewing the following description of specific embodiments of the invention with reference to the attached drawings.

Using the example will be made reference to the attached drawings, which shows one variant of implementation of the present invention, where

figure 1 shows a diagram of the waste management system according to the present invention;

figure 2 shows a top view block diagram of the waste management system;

figure 3 shows a cross-section of cyclone oxidation unit according to the present invention.

To denote the same elements in different figures use the same reference position.

1 shows a diagram of a system 100 processing on the moves according to the present invention, and figure 2 shows a top view block diagram of a system 100 processing waste. The system 100 includes a plasma generator/rasplavil 4 DC with graphite electrodes and cyclone installation 3 oxidation with a plasma torch. Waste is fed into the gasifier/rasplavil 4, in which the melted non-combustible substances and dissolved organic matter. In core/rasplavil 4 is the exhaust gas that is directed into the cyclone installation 3 oxidation. Then in cyclone installation 3 oxidation processed exhaust gas in accordance with the present invention. The generator/rasplavil 4 can be named the same as the camera gasification/vitrification.

Prior to the filing of hazardous waste in a plasma gasifier/rasplavil 4 DC with graphite electrodes for the destruction of the generator/rasplavil 4 is heated to a temperature above 1500°C, melting steel scrap in the gasifier/rasplavil 4. The generator/rasplavil 4 are lined, and the side walls and the top of the plasma gas generator/rasplavitsya 4 DC are cooled by water in order to increase the resistance of refractories, minimizing mechanical erosion and chemical corrosion by the melt. Refractory system used for holding the melt and reduce heat loss through the gas generator/aslavital 4. Refractory system is also chemically compatible with the formed slag and exhaust gas.

As shown in figure 2, two graphite electrode pass through the top of the gasifier/rasplavitsya 4. The clamps 16 and 17 of the electrode support graphite electrodes and connected to the power supply 2 DC. Clamp electrode 16 is connected to the cathode, and the clip electrode 17 is connected to the anode of the source 2 power supply. The clamps 16 and 17 of the electrode connected to electrodiathermy 15 and are part of the automatic reactive control electrodes, which moves elektrogerate 15. Automatic reactive electrode control system moves elektrogerate 15 thus, to ensure the selection of the position of the two graphite electrodes relative to each other and relative to the molten material in the hearth of the gasifier/rasplavil 4. Adjusting the relative position of the graphite electrode affects the length of the arc. For regulation of the electrodes used one sealing electrode on the cover, which prevents the entrance of atmospheric air and the side leakage of gas from the plasma gas generator/rasplavitsya 4 DC.

Inspection hole 25 in the gasifier/rasplavil 4 provides a uniform introduction of steel scrap. The anode is the electrode, supported by a clamp electrode 17, drowned in steel scrap and cathode electrode, which is supported by the clamp 16 of the electrode is located over solid steel scrap. Then, the cathode electrode is slowly lowered until between the cathode electrode and steel scrap will not install an electrical arc. Steel scrap begins to melt with the formation of the molten bath at a temperature above 1500°C. When steel scrap is completely melted in the hearth, the cathode electrode rises to form a long arc, and the anode electrode remains immersed in the molten bath.

The system 100 includes a feed mechanism for entering hazardous solid waste at the generator/rasplavil 4. In another embodiment, instead of the direct feed of solid hazardous waste generator/rasplavil 4 can be made toxic by-products of the main chemical processes or combustion processes. The main chemical processes or combustion processes produce toxic by-products, which are oxidized to non-toxic sustainable slag in the gasifier/rasplavil 4.

In the present embodiment, the feed mechanism includes a conveyor 20 and the gas-tight chamber 22, which is connected with the gas generator/rasplatilas 4. Gas-tight shutter 21 divides the conveyor 20 and ha is nepronitsaemoi chamber 22, and water-cooled gas-tight door 24 separates the gas-tight chamber 22 and the gas generator/rasplavil 4.

Waste can be fed through a pipeline 20 in gas-tight chamber 22 through the gas-tight shutter 21. After the portion of waste was introduced into the gas-tight chamber 22, the gas-tight shutter 21 is closed. Then gastight chamber 22 vacuum to remove the air in the gas-tight chamber 22 by opening the vacuum control valve 14. Then the vacuum control valve 14 closes and opens the valve 13, the regulating carbon dioxide to refill gas-tight chamber 22 carbon dioxide to prevent the exit side of gas from the plasma gas generator/rasplavitsya 4 DC, when chilled water gastight door 24 will begin to open. Gas-tight chamber 22 includes a high temperature-resistant hydraulic platform 23 to push forward in waste gas-tight chamber 22. When gastight door 24 is fully opened, the piston 23 pushes the waste into the plasma core/rasplavil 4 DC through the groove in the side wall or cover. As soon as the waste is pushed into the generator/rasplavil 4, the piston 23 is given in the initial put the e in gas-tight chamber 22. Then water-cooled gas-tight door 24 is closed, the valve 13 is closed and the vacuum valve 14 is opened to remove the carbon dioxide in the gas tight chamber 22 until such time as gas-tight shutter 21 will not begin to open to accept the following waste from the conveyor 20 to complete the cycle of feed of solid waste.

In the case of liquid and gaseous hazardous waste is injected and forced through retractable high temperature-resistant nozzle in the side wall on the molten bath in the plasma gas generator/rasplavil 4 DC. As the carrier gas and purge the supply line of the liquid/gas cleaning is used pairs.

Inside the gasifier/rasplavitsya 4 waste exposed to very hot atmosphere and electric arc arising between the cathode electrode 16 and the molten iron. Organic substances in the waste are decomposed into their atomic form. Due to the extremely high temperatures it is possible to completely prevent the formation of dioxin/furan. Non-combustible substances, including metals and glass are melted and mixed with the molten iron to form a liquid slag and metal from the hearth. The slag and metal from time to time are removed from the plasma gasifier/rasplavitsya 4 DC by TCI is itia screw holes 19 drill. In the side walls, the cover and below the inserted thermocouple for monitoring the temperature of the shaft furnace and the refractory material. If the temperature of the refractory material and the shaft of the furnace will begin to fall, increase the power on the electrodes by increasing the current or voltage on the cathode electrode. The pressure inside the plasma core/rasplavitsya 4 constant current is maintained below atmospheric, to avoid allocating side of the gas in the surrounding atmosphere by an exhaust fan system 8 air pollution control.

The gas formed in the gasifier/rasplavil 4, is processed in the cyclone installation 3 oxidation. Cyclone installation 3 oxidation connected with the gas generator/rasplatilas 4 to take the side of the gas formed in the gasifier/rasplavil 4. Side gas formed in the plasma gas generator/rasplavil 4 DC, in one embodiment, may include carbon monoxide, hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, soot and small amounts of carbon dioxide. Soot/soot due to the very small particle sizes is always a serious operating problem in the following systems energy recovery and air pollution control. In addition, soot/soot can act as the center of nucleation for the re-formation of toxic organic is of such compounds. This exhaust gas enters the cyclone installation 3 oxidation tangentially at a very high speed, thereby creating a vortex conditions in the cyclone installation 3 oxidation. In one embodiment, cyclone installation 3 oxidation is nearly flat with a slight slope down from located upstream end located downstream of the end of the installation.

Figure 3 shows a sectional cyclone installation 3 oxidation according to the present invention. To connect plasma gasifier/rasplavitsya 4 DC and cyclone installation 3 oxidation uses a direct vertical lined pipe 26 to the exhaust gas. In the pipe 26 to the exhaust gas is fed side gas tangentially into the lower portion of the cyclone installation 3 oxidation located on its upstream end. Straight vertical pipe 26 to the exhaust gas minimizes the pressure drop between the plasma gasifier/rasplatilas 4 DC and cyclone installation 3 oxidation to improve the flow of exhaust gas in the cyclone installation 3 oxidation. The efficiency of the oxidation reaction increases due to intense internal mixing gas side and put powdered oxygen and steam caused by the force of the vortex action in the cyclone is the first installation 3 oxidation.

In another embodiment, in cyclone installation 3 oxidation treated flue gas formed in the main chemical reactions or combustion, in this case, the exhaust gas flows directly into the cyclone installation 3 oxidation and gas generator/rasplavil 4 may not be necessary.

Cyclone installation 3 oxidation includes the plasma torch 18 DC button located on its upstream end. Plasma burner 18 provides heating cyclone oxidation unit to a temperature above 1300°C. Plasma burner 18 DC powered DC power supply 1. In one embodiment, the power source 1 DC plasma torch 18 is separated from the power source 2 DC for core/rasplavitsya 4, to provide a cyclone installation 3 oxidation, if the power of 2 core/rasplavitsya refuse. Cyclone installation 3 oxidation lined with refractory material 32, and along the inner side of the refractory material 32 is installed thermocouples 27, 28 and 29 to control the temperature of the hot face surface. If the temperature during the process falls below 1350°To increase the power of the plasma torch 18 or the input of oxygen. The operation of a plasma torch 18 can control is to find the controller 6 of the process (figure 2) through the feedback circuit. The controller 6 may include a microcontroller, programmed appropriately to execute a set of instructions or functions to implement the steps of the regulation and supply of control signals according to the present invention.

In the plasma torch 18 is a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen as the plasma working gas. Gases are first mixed in a dynamic mixer 5, which actively regulates the composition of the gas mixture and controls the flow rate of the gas mixture in accordance with the necessary working conditions and requirements to the plasma gas. In one embodiment, the oxygen content in the gas mixture ranges from 15% to 25% by volume, preferably 21%. Dynamic mixer 5 includes an oxygen sensor to monitor the oxygen content in the gas mixture. The use of carbon dioxide and oxygen as the plasma working gas prevents the formation of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocyanide. Dynamic mixer 5 can receive the control signals from the controller 6 of the process.

When the gas mixture is ionized in the plasma arc zone, where the temperature exceeds 5000°C, carbon dioxide dissociates to carbon monoxide and atomic oxygen, which is very reactive. Combining reactive atomic oxygen and pelendritou environment in cyclone installation 3 oxidation you can efficiently convert and destroy soot/soot and volatile toxic substances in the gas side. Particles in the gas side melt with the formation of a molten layer held on the side wall of the centrifugal force created by the action of the cyclone in the cyclone installation 3 oxidation. The molten material flows into the lower part, which is supplied by a pipe 33 for a drain connected to a container 34 for receiving the molten material. Then melted substance otverzhdajutsja in the container 34 are removed and returned to the plasma gasifier/rasplavil 4 DC for vitrification of the slag.

Oxygen and steam are pumped and injected into the cyclone installation 3 oxidation, as oxidizing agent through the control valves 10 and 11. Gases are sprayed heat-resistant nozzles 30 and 31. The controller 6 includes an online sensor controlling exhaust gases for analysis of the composition of the gas by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. After analyzing the data, the controller 6 process quickly sends a signal control process control valves 10 and 11 to control the injection of oxygen and steam. In the case of waste with low calorific value of cyclone installation 3 oxidation side completely transforms the gas into water and carbon dioxide for clean waste is asego in the atmosphere gas by increasing the injection of oxygen and/or steam until while the total concentration of light hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide will not be less than 20 ppm In the case of waste with high calorific value end side of the gas can be high quality combustible synthesis gas to generate electricity. If the carbon dioxide concentration above 3%, the injection of steam and/or oxygen is reduced. And when the carbon dioxide concentration below 1%, the injection of oxygen and steam is increased.

As shown in figure 1, the dry heat in side the gas formed in the cyclone installation 3 oxidation, is extracted by the heat exchanger 7, in order to get hot water or steam to improve the efficiency of the whole process. Steam is returned to the supply system liquid/gaseous waste as a carrier gas in the cyclone installation 3 oxidation as oxidizing agent. The cooled gas is processed by the control system 8 air pollution before the end of the target gas is collected as a combustible synthesis gas, which contains mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide, or target gas is compressed in the compressor 9 for receiving the liquefied carbon dioxide.

The present invention can be implemented in other specific forms without deviating from its essence or basic principles. Certain changes and modifications of the invention will be obvious to experts in this field. The investigator is about, the above-discussed embodiments of should be considered as illustrative and not restrictive, and the scope of the invention defined in the attached claims and not the foregoing description, and therefore assumes that it covers all modifications which correspond to the nature and degree of equivalence points.

1. Apparatus for gas treatment, waste from the processing of waste containing:

(a) a cyclone oxidation installation with the pipe for the exhaust gas and the outlet, and

(b) operating on direct current plasma torch next to the pipe for the exhaust gas in the cyclone installation oxidation, and the burner is served working gas that includes a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen and eliminates the nitrogen with a plasma burner provides heating cyclone installation oxidation and exhaust gas into exhaust gas, which is discharged through the outlet.

2. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen contains by volume of from 15 to 25% oxygen.

3. The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, optionally containing oxygen nozzle chamber connected with cyclone installation oxidation, for injection of powdered oxygen, and the jet of steam chamber connected with cyclone installation oxidation, to discharge raspy the military couple.

4. The apparatus according to claim 3, in which the oxygen nozzle and nozzle pair are heat resistant nozzle connected in fluid with cyclone installation of oxidation.

5. The apparatus according to claim 3, additionally containing a sensor connected to the outlet pipe, for analysis of the composition of the exhaust gas, and a process controller connected to the sensor, for receiving data from the sensor, and coupled with the injector to control the injection of oxygen and steam.

6. The apparatus according to claim 5, additionally containing a dynamic mixer, connected to the plasma torch and allow the supply of the working gas, and in the amalgamator oxygen gas and carbon dioxide, which are mixed in the mixer in response to control signals from the process controller.

7. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the plasma torch includes a plasma zone operating at temperatures above 5000°C.

8. The apparatus according to claim 1, additionally containing temperature sensors inside the cyclone oxidation unit, and the temperature within the cyclone oxidation unit is supported above 1300°C.

9. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which cyclone installation oxidation is horizontal and includes located upstream end located downstream end and side wall between them.

10. The apparatus according to claim 9, in which the plasma burner once esena located on the upstream end, the specified pipe for exhaust gas includes an inlet pipe that goes in the side wall tangentially and near located upstream end.

11. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the working gas consists essentially of carbon dioxide and oxygen.

12. The apparatus according to claim 11, in which the working gas includes carbon dioxide and oxygen.

13. The method of gas treatment, waste from waste treatment systems, including the following stages:

(a) receiving the exhaust gas through a pipe to the flue gas cyclone installation oxidation,

(b) heating the cyclone oxidation unit by ionization of the working gas using plasma burners DC, near the chimney for the flue gas in the cyclone installation oxidation, and working gas includes a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen and eliminates nitrogen, thereby rendering the exhaust gas in the product gas, and

(c) the removal of this gas from the cyclone oxidation unit.

14. The method according to item 13, wherein the mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen contains from 15 to 25% oxygen by volume.

15. The method according to item 13 or 14, further comprising a stage of injection of oxygen and steam in the cyclone oxidation installation.

16. The method according to clause 15, further comprising the stage of analysis of the content of the exhaust gas and the regulation of the injection of oxygen and steam is based on the analysis stage.

17. The method according to item 16, further comprising a stage of mixing of supplied oxygen and carbon dioxide to create a working gas in a dynamic mixer.

18. The method according to item 13, wherein the stage of ionization is carried out in a plasma zone at operating temperatures above 5000°C.

19. The method according to item 13, further comprising a stage of measuring the temperature inside the cyclone oxidation unit, and the temperature of the support above 1300°C.

20. The method according to item 13, wherein the working gas consists essentially of carbon dioxide and oxygen.

21. The method according to claim 20, wherein the working gas comprises carbon dioxide and oxygen.

22. The waste processing system for processing hazardous waste containing:

(a) the stage of primary processing of waste, and at the stage of primary processing of waste supplied hazardous waste and is side exhaust gas

(b) stage of secondary waste treatment connected with the stage of primary processing of waste, which is supplied to the exhaust gas, and stage of secondary waste treatment includes:

(i) cyclone installation oxidation, with a pipe for the tangential admission of the exhaust gas and the outlet, and

(ii) operating on direct current plasma torch next to the pipe for the exhaust gas in the loop is authorized installation oxidation, the burner is supplied working gas that includes a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen and eliminates the nitrogen with a plasma burner provides heating cyclone installation oxidation and exhaust gas into exhaust gas, which is discharged through the outlet.

23. Processing system according to item 22, in which a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen contains from 15 to 25% oxygen by volume.

24. The waste processing system according to item 22 or 23, in which the primary processing stage includes a gas generator/rasplavil and conveyor system connected to the generator/rasplatilas through gas-tight door, and through the conveyor system serves hazardous solid wastes at the generator/rasplavil.

25. The waste processing system according to item 22 or 23, in which the initial processing waste includes gas generator/rasplavil and inlet pipe connected to the gas generator/rasplatilas, and through the inlet serves liquid or gaseous hazardous waste generator/rasplavil.

26. The waste processing system according to item 22 or 23, in which the initial processing includes plasma arc gasifier/rasplavil with graphite electrodes.

27. Treatment system waste p, in which the gas generator/rasplavil with graphite electrodes includes a pair of u is contained at a distance of graphite electrodes, each of them is supported by a respective clip electrode attached to the rolling electrode holder, the elds of application are intended to control the relative distance between a pair of graphite electrodes or between the electrodes and the molten material inside the gasifier/rasplavitsya with graphite electrodes, adjusting the length of the arc.

28. The waste processing system according to item 21, in which the working gas consists essentially of carbon dioxide and oxygen.

29. Treatment system waste p, in which the working gas includes carbon dioxide and oxygen.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: toxic flue gas combustion technology for fuel-burning units.

SUBSTANCE: flue gases are neutralized in combustion chamber; total fuel flow is bifurcated; first fuel flow is mixed up with flue gases supplied to combustion chamber and second one is conveyed to combustion-chamber burners wherein it is burned in air environment and then passed to combustion chamber. Coke gas, flue gas, or blast-furnace gas, or generator gases, or mixture thereof can be used as fuel; total flowrate of flue gases (B"G) at combustion chamber outlet, total flowrate of fuel (BF) supplied to combustion chamber, flowrate of air (BA) supplied to combustion chamber, and flowrate of fuel (BFBRN) supplied to burners are found from following set of equations (1), (2), (3), (4):

, where B'G is flowrate of flue gases from combustion chamber outlet, kg/h; T'G is temperature of flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, °C; O'2 is oxygen content in flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, %; C'G is heat capacity of flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, kcal/kg; B"G is total flowrate of flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, kg/h; BF is total flowrate of fuel supplied to combustion chamber, kg/h; BFBRN is fuel flowrate to burners, kg/h; QFL is fuel low heating value as fired, kcal/kg; O2" is oxygen content in flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, %; VAO is theoretical air flowrate for burning 1 kg of fuel, kg/h; BA is air flowrate to combustion chamber, kg/h; TG" is gas temperature at combustion chamber outlet, °C; CG" is heat capacity of flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, kcal/kg; α is excess air coefficient. Temperature within combustion chamber is maintained between 850 and 1150 °C.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of flue gas neutralization in fuel-burning units.

1 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: valve comprises rotatable housing provided with passage, outer unmovable ring seal of the housing, ring seal between the rotatable housing and outer unmovable ring seal of the housing that has bore made for permitting gas to flow to the passage or from the passage. The ring seal is movable with respect to the outer ring seal of the housing. The passage and the bore are made for permitting receiving the compressed gas to provide continuous sealing between the outer ring seal of the housing and ring seal when the housing rotates. The valve is additionally provided with means for permitting gas to flow through the radial passage and between the ring seal and outer unmovable ring seal of the housing and setting ring connected with the rotatable housing and locking ring that is mounted at a distance from the setting ring and connected with the rotatable housing. The ring seal is interposed between the setting ring and locking ring.

EFFECT: simplified structure and enhanced efficiency.

16 cl, 30 dwg

Head of torch plant // 2285863

FIELD: arrangements or devices for treating smoke or fumes.

SUBSTANCE: head comprises gas supply pipe with gas gate and protecting shield mounted outside and coaxially at the top end of the gas supply pipe. The protecting shield is composed of two baffles made of two hollow trancated cones mounted one on the other. The grater base of the top baffle faces downward, and that of the bottom baffle faces upward. The smaller base is connected with the gas supply pipe.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: burning combustible gas at pressure above atmospheric.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is used for burning lean gases; it consists of unit for burning gas at pressure above atmospheric including lean gas chamber, combustion chamber, heat regeneration section and exhaust; pipe line supplying lean gas to lean gas chamber; heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber and preheated air chamber; plant is also provided with pipe line supplying the compressed surrounding air to heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber, preheated air pipe line for delivery of preheated air to preheated air chamber; provision is made for hole for delivery of lean gas from lean gas chamber to combustion chamber and hole for delivery of preheated air from preheated air chamber to combustion chamber. Heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber is made for heat exchange between lean gas chamber, preheated air chamber and combustion chamber and compressed surrounding air; lean gas and preheated air are burnt in combustion pressure at pressure above atmospheric.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; minimum difference in pressure between gas and air chambers.

12 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to industrial ecology and may be used for flameless purification of ejections of industrial enterprises.

SUBSTANCE: the reactor for catalytic purification of gaseous ejections has a cylindrical body, which interior surface is covered with a catalyst with a source of infrared radiation placed in the body, a tube heat exchanger located in the lower part of the body, a turbine mixer located in the upper part of the body and additionally - a permeable cylindrical drum out of the catalyst so that the axles of the symmetry of the drum and body coincide. The drum embraces the mixer and the source of infrared radiation fulfilled in the shape of a six-ends star is installed in the middle of the body so that its flatness is perpendicular to the axle of the symmetry of the reactor. The drawing off socket is connected with the tube space of the heat exchanger, and the feeding socket is located so as to provide heating of gaseous ejections with the heat of the gases moving out of the reactor.

EFFECT: increases effectiveness of purification of gaseous flow and reduces power inputs for heating the gas flow.

1 dwg

FIELD: technologies for combustion of flush gases, including those under high pressure, during extraction and processing of natural gas and oil.

SUBSTANCE: body of burner, mounted on gas inlet pipe, is made conical with widened portion at upper portion, in the body additionally mounted are two catalyst elements, at lower portion on inlet section first catalyst element is positioned, and above on outlet section - second catalyst element, rotary shutters are mounted on base of conical body in additional way, so that in closed position they are in contact with first catalyst element, and open position between first catalyst element and body gap is formed, also, device is additionally provided with one or more main torches, mounted in gas inlet pipeline below rotary shutters and first catalyst element. Relation of diameters of first and second catalyst elements matches relation of debits of hydrocarbon gas, fed in normal mode and during salvo exhaust. Catalyst elements are manufactured either in form of cell-like structured blocks with direction of channels in parallel to direction of feeding of flush gases, or in form of block sections with granulated catalyst, for example, Rachig rings, or in forms of block sections with active-catalyst metallic shavings, or in form of blocks with active-catalyst metallic meshes.

EFFECT: higher ecological safety and fullness of combustion of flush gases in broad flow range, simplified construction and comfort of maintenance.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to apparatus of regenerative thermal oxidation with multi pass valves.

SUBSTANCE: the apparatus for regenerative thermal oxidation for gas processing has a combustion zone, the first heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; the second heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; a valve for alternate direction of the gas flow between the first and the second heat exchanging layers. At that the valve has the first valve passage and the second valve passage separated from the first valve passage; a flow distributor having an admission passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with the admission opening of the surroundings and an exhaust passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with exhaust opening of fluid surroundings. At that the distributor is fulfilled with possibilities of its the first and the second valve passages between the first position in which the first valve passage communicates with the help of liquid with the admission passage and the second valve passage communicates with the help of liquid surroundings with exhaust passage and the second position in which the indicated the first valve passage communicates with the help of the fluid surrounding with exhaust passage and the second passage of the entry of the valve with the help of liquid surroundings communicates with the admission passage. At that the distributor of flow has a blocking surface which blocks the flow through the first part of the first valve passage and through the second part of the second valve passage when the distributor of the flow is between the first and the second positions and is fulfilled with possibility of its turning to 180o between the first and thesecond positions. At that valve passage is divided as the first so is the second at least into two chambers and the first and the second parts of the valve passages are congruous.

EFFECT: simplifies the construction, provides comfort of controlling and exploitation and deep removal of volatile organic combinations.

22 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: burning waste gases of pyrolysis furnaces in reworking solid domestic wastes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed combustion chamber includes mixing chamber with active and passive nozzles mounted at its inlet; active and passive nozzles are connected respectively to compressed air source and to waste gas source; mixing chamber is made in form of diffuser at aperture angle of 10-18 deg; ratio of diameters of active and passive nozzles is equal to: Dact:Dpas=0.35-0.4.

EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency of use of vapor-and-gas cycle.

2 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to the oil industry and can be used for burning waste gas in the oil fields and refineries

The invention relates to furnaces for afterburning of flue gases and can be used to solve environmental problems incineration of household and industrial waste

The invention relates to environmentally friendly methods and devices for burning combustible solid and gaseous wastes, namely the recycling of organic waste in solid, liquid and gaseous state and can be used in the domestic sector waste incineration and heat recovery from combustion

The invention relates to the field of solid waste in utilities and industry by gasification to produce in the quality of the final products of the flue gas and coke-ash residue, the composition of which satisfies the environmental requirements

FIELD: purification of the gas outbursts; methods and devices for purification of the gas outbursts.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method and the device for purification of the industrial, exhaust and ventilation gases from impurities of the organic substances, carbon black, nitrogen oxides. The method provides for the catalytic oxidation of the organic substances and products of their decomposition by their treatment with the electric field with the simultaneous catalytic treatment of the gas flow with the catalytic coating arranged on the settling electrodes. The treatment with the electric field is exercised using ionization of the gas flow by the corona discharge with generation of ozone, the atomic oxygen, the charged particles of aerosols and radicals. The settling electrodes are made out of the gas-permeable foam porous materials. The catalytic coating is synthesized with the bimodal distribution of the porosity with the type of crystallization of agglomerates of the coral-like form. The device contains the settling electrodes with the catalytic coating made with the capability of the direct gating of the electric current or with the built-in in them the heat-generating components for heating of the catalytic coating up to the temperature necessary for the catalytic treatment of the gas flow. The invention allows to provide the high efficiency of purification of the air-98 % from the organic compounds, 39 % - from carbon black particles, 90 % - from nitric oxide and to reduce power inputs at the small materials consumption.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the high efficiency of purification of the air from the organic compounds, carbon black particles, nitric oxide and reduction of power inputs at the small materials consumption.

3 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: natural gas industry; methods and devices for the natural gas dehydration.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of natural gas industry, in particular, to the method and the flow reactor for natural gas dehydration and may be used at the preparation of natural gas for the pipeline transportation. The method of the natural gas dehydration provides for irradiation of the volume of the gas mixture in the flow reactor by the electromagnetic wave of the ultra-violet range within the interval of the waves lengths of 130-200 nanometers. The flow reactor for the natural gas dehydration contains the pipe duct and the uniformly located in it the eximer electronic tubes on the basis of xenon. The electronic tubes are made in extended cylindrical bodies made out of the quartz glass. The invention ensures the increased efficiency of the natural gas dehydration, structural reduction of the technological process, simplification of the flow reactor maintenance, utilization the separable moisture and reduction of the power inputs.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency of the natural gas dehydration, structural reduction of the technological process, simplification of the flow reactor maintenance, utilization of the separable moisture and reduction of the power inputs.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: substance treatment methods.

SUBSTANCE: particles composed either of a single element selected from group consisting of silicon, titanium, nickel, and samarium or of carbon fluoride are arranged relative to each other such as to enhance wave energy intrinsic to element or carbon fluoride in order to create power field between particles wherein energy is concentrated. Resulting activating structure is capable of generating hydrogen by liberating it from hydrogen bonds of water or hydrocarbons and also capable of removing injurious substances from gas under no external energy supply conditions. Invention is appropriate for use in food processing, chemical, pharmaceutical industries, and agriculture.

EFFECT: expanded substance treatment possibilities.

55 cl, 23 dwg, 4 tbl, 29 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; a method and an installation for treatment of a solid powder fluoropolymer.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, to a method and an installation for treatment of a solid powder fluoropolymer. The method provides for: generation in a zone of high temperature of an electric arc between at least one cathode and at least one anode; generation in the zone of high temperature and using an electric arc and the gaseous plasma, a conflagrant up thermal plasma having a caudal torch; formation of a chemically active thermal mixture of the thermal plasma with the caudal torch, and a fluoropolymer, which dissociates with formation at least of one precursor of fluorocarbon or other chemically active varieties for formation at least of one monomeric fluorocarbon compound. The invention also presents the installation for treatment of a solid powder fluoropolymer and the sonde for the plasma reactor switching off. The invention presents the method and the installation for production of monomeric fluorocarbon compounds from the solid powdery fluoropolymers.

EFFECT: the invention presents the method and the installation for production of monomeric fluorocarbon compounds from the solid powdery fluoropolymers.

29 cl, 2 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: cleaning gas emissions from organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particular.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes exposure of gas emissions to ultraviolet radiation of electric discharge in working range of wave length at average density of light energy of 10-3-3x10-1 J/cm2; exposure is performed in presence of vapor of liquid to saturated vapor at temperature of gas emissions from 0°C to +250°C. Exposure is performed in spectral range of wave length of 300-400 nm. Used as working liquid is water with addition of ozone at concentration of 0.1-1000 mg/m3 or water with addition of sulfur oxides at concentration of 0.1-300 mg/m3.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of method; reduced power requirements.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: production of nanodispersed powders of refractory inorganic materials and compounds, in particular, installations and methods for realization of plasmochemical processes of production of nanodispersed powder products.

SUBSTANCE: the installation comprises production-linked: microwave oscillator 1, microwave plasmatron 2, gas-flow former 3, discharge chamber 4, microwave radiation absorber 5, reaction chamber 6, heat-exchanger 7, filter-collector of target product (powder) 8, device for injection of the source reagents in a powdered or vapors state into the reaction chamber, the installation has in addition a device for injection of the source reagents in the liquid-drop state, it has interconnected proportioner 9 in the form of cylinder 10, piston 11 with gear-screwed electric drive mechanism 12 adjusting the speed of motion of piston 1, evaporative chamber 13 with a temperature-controlled body for regulating the temperature inside the chamber that is coupled to the assembly of injection of reagents 14 in the vaporous state and to the assembly of injection of reagents 15 in the liquid-drop state, injection assembly 14 is made with 6 to 12 holes opening in the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the axis of the chamber consisting at least of two sections, the first of which is connected by upper flange 16 to the assemblies of injection of reagents, to discharge chamber 4, plasmatron 2, with valve 17 installed between it and microwave oscillator 1, and by lower flange 18, through the subsequent sections, it is connected to heat exchanger 7, the reaction chamber has inner water-cooled insert 20 rotated by electric motor 19 and metal scraper 21 located along it for cutting the precipitations of powder of the target product formed on the walls of the reaction chamber, and heat exchanger 7 is made two water-cooled coaxial cylinders 22 and 23, whose axes are perpendicular to the axis of the reaction chamber and installed with a clearance for passage of the cooled flow, and knife 24 located in the clearance, rotating about the axis of the cylinders and cleaning the working surfaces of the cylinders of the overgrowing with powder, powder filter-collector 8 having inside it filtering hose 25 of chemically and thermally stable material, on which precipitation of powder of the target product from the gas flow takes place, in the upper part it is connected by flange 26 to the heat exchanger, and in the lower part the filter is provided it device 27 for periodic cleaning of the material by its deformation, and device 28 with valve 29 for sealing the inner space of the filter. The method for production of nanodispersed powders in microwave plasma with the use of the claimed installation consists in injection of the source reagents in the flow of plasma-forming gas of the reaction chamber, plasmochemical synthesis of reagents, cooling of the target product and its separation from the reaction chamber through the filter-collector, the source reagents are injected into the flow of plasma-forming gas, having a medium-mass temperature of 1200 to 3200 K in any state of aggregation: vaporous, powdered, liquid-drop or in any combination of them, reagents in the powdered state are injected in the form of aerosol with the gas-carrier into the reaction chamber through injection assembly 35 with a hole opening into the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the chamber axis, reagents in the liquid-drop or vaporous state are injected into the reaction chamber through injection assemblies 15 or 14, respectively, in the form of ring-shaped headers, the last of which is made with 6 to 12 holes opening into the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the chamber axis, each of them is blown off by the accompanying gas flow through the coaxial ducts around the holes, at expenditure of the source reagents, plasma-forming gas, specific power of microwave radiation, length of the reaction zone providing for production of a composite system and individual substances with preset properties, chemical, phase composition and dispersity.

EFFECT: universality of the industrial installation, enhanced capacity of it and enhanced duration of continuous operation, as well as enhanced yield of nanodispersed powders and expanded production potentialities of the method.

20 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; natural gas industry; petroleum industry; petrochemical industry and other industries.

SUBSTANCE: the invention falls into chemical industry, natural gas industry, petroleum industry, petrochemical industry and other branches pertaining to processing of hydrocarbon raw material, in particular, with production of a condensate consisting of light hydrocarbon gases and with processing of high-viscosity petroleum and petroleum residue. Substance of the invention: the method provides for a thermal treatment of the raw materials and treatment of a surface of a layer or a stream of a feed stock in a gaseous medium containing hydrogen and-or gaseous alkanes at a heightened temperature and an atmospheric pressure by ionizing radiation of relativistic electrons with energy in the range from about 0.5 up to about 10.0 MeV, preferably, from about 0.5 up to about 2.5 MeV at a width of the layer or a stream of a feed stock equal to the depth of sorption of the electronic emission, defined by the ratio λ x ρ = 0.5 E - 0.1, where λ - the depth of sorption of the electronic emission, cm; ρ - a density of the raw material, g /cm3; E - energy of electrons, MeV. Electrons irradiation is conducted onto the one side of the layer or from the two counter sides of the layer in the mode of a continuous irradiation or in a pulsed - periodic mode. The invention offers devices for realization of the method. The invention allows to increase output of the low-molecular hydrocarbons and to ensure a desirable productivity of the process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased output of the low-molecular hydrocarbons and a desirable productivity of the process.

20 cl, 8 ex, 5 dwg, 3 tbl

The invention relates to the field of gas electrochemistry to neutralize the residual ozone
Up!