Method of reprocessing of the liquid nuclear wastes

FIELD: technology of handling of the liquid nuclear wastes of the nuclear fuel and power cycle; methods of reprocessing of the liquid nuclear wastes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the procedure of the liquid nuclear wastes handling of the nuclear fuel and power cycle and may be used during reprocessing of the liquid nuclear wastes (LNW). The method includes the preliminary concentration, ozonization, microfiltration of the vat residue with fractionation of the permeate and the concentrate and the ion-selective purification of the permeate using the ion-selective a sorbent. At that the microfiltration is conducted at least in two stages: the permeate of each previous stage of the microfiltration is directed to the microfiltration as the source solution for the subsequent stage of the microfiltration, and at the final stage of the permeate from the microfiltration is sent to the utilization. The concentrate produced at each next stage of the microfiltration is mixed with the source solution of the previous stage of the microfiltration. The concentrate produced at the first stage of the microfiltration is directed to the conditioning and dumping. The ion-selective sorbent is added in the permeate of the previous stage of the microfiltration before the final stage of the microfiltration. The invention ensures: reduction of the volume of the liquid nuclear wastes due to the deep purification of the LNW with the high saline share from the radionuclides and extraction of the radionuclides in the compact form of the sparingly soluble compounds at the corresponding increase of the factor of purification of the salts extracted at the stage of the vat residue treatment; reduction and optimization of the consumption of the permeate and concentrate interacting with the source solution as well as produced at the further stages.

EFFECT: the invention ensures: reduction of the volume of the liquid nuclear wastes; the deep purification of the LNW with the high saline share from the radionuclides and extraction of the radionuclides in the compact form of the sparingly soluble compounds at the corresponding increase of the factor of purification of the salts extracted at the stage of the vat resudue treatment; reduction and optimization of the consumption of the permeate and concentrate interacting with the source solution ands produced at the further stages.

 

The invention relates to a process for the treatment of liquid radioactive waste, nuclear energy and fuel cycle and can be used in the processing of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) to reduce their volume and removal of radionuclides with their concentration in the solid phase and/or release of radionuclides in the form of insoluble compounds, when processed by existing methods is the reliable localization of radioactive substances from the environment.

The liquid radioactive waste treatment aims to address two main tasks: clean up the main mass of the waste from radionuclides and the concentration of the latter to a minimum.

We know the decision to patent RU 2066493, IPC G 21 F 9/08, 13.11.1995, "METHOD for TREATMENT of LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE of nuclear power plants".

the method includes pre-evaporation with receiving condensate and VAT residue, ozonation VAT residue, separating the resulting radioactive sludge and concentration of the filtrate deep process of evaporation. While ozonation VAT residue is carried out directly after the preliminary evaporation when the solution pH from 12 to 13.5. After separation of the radioactive sludge filtrate passed through the filter container with selective for cesium inorganic sorbent, stenotrophomonas filter container is sent for storage or disposal.

Also known technical solution according to the patent RU 2226726, IPC G 21 F 9/08, G 21 F 9/12, 27.04.2002. "METHOD for PROCESSING LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE from NUCLEAR power PLANTS"

the method includes pre-evaporation with receiving condensate and VAT residue, ozonation VAT residue, separating the resulting radioactive sludge and concentration of the filtrate deep process of evaporation. While ozonation VAT residue is carried out directly after the preliminary evaporation of the solution. After separation of the radioactive sludge filtrate passed through the filter container with selective for cesium inorganic sorbent, then exhaust filter container is sent for storage or disposal.

The disadvantages of this method include low coefficient of purification of salts released at the stage of processing VAT residue, a significant and unsustainable consumption of interacting with the initial solution, as well as subsequently produced a permeate and a concentrate of the reactants.

The objective of the invention is the reduction of the volume of radioactive waste by deep LRW treatment of high TDS from radionuclides and highlighting the latest in compact form insoluble compounds, with a corresponding increase in cleaning factor salts, eye-catching in the processing phase, the cubic is of the STATCOM, reduction and optimization of the flow interacting with the initial solution, as well as subsequently produced a permeate and a concentrate reagents. This problem is solved by using the necessary and sufficient set of essential features, namely:

method for processing liquid radioactive waste, including the preliminary concentration by receiving condensate and VAT residue, ozonation, microfiltration VAT residue from the separation into fractions of the permeate and concentrate and ion-selective purification of the permeate ion-selective sorbent, and the microfiltration is performed in at least two stages,

permeate from each previous stage microfiltration sent for microfiltration as initial solution for the next stage microfiltration, and at the final stage microfiltration permeate from the microfiltration sent for recycling,

the concentrate obtained at each subsequent stage microfiltration, mixed with the initial solution for the previous stage microfiltration, and the concentrate obtained in the first stage microfiltration, sent for conditioning and disposal, ion-selective sorbent is added to the permeate from the previous stage microfiltration before the final stage of filtration.

Practical implementation Savino what about the method of treatment of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) is in the preliminary concentration of LRW with receiving condensate and VAT residue, conducting ozonation, microfiltration membrane filters Paladino VAT residue from the separation into fractions of the permeate and concentrate, as well as in carrying out ion-selective treatment of the permeate ion-selective sorbent.

When making such technological operations is optimal holding microfiltration, at least in two stages, the permeate from each previous stage microfiltration herewith sent for microfiltration as initial solution for the next stage microfiltration, and at the final stage microfiltration permeate from the microfiltration sent for recycling.

The concentrate obtained at each subsequent stage microfiltration, mixed with the initial solution for the previous stage microfiltration, and the concentrate obtained in the first stage microfiltration, sent for conditioning and disposal, ion-selective sorbent is added to the permeate from the previous stage microfiltration before the final stage of filtration.

The specified sequence and content of technological methods allow the solution of a technical problem and reduce the volume of radioactive waste by deep LRW treatment of high TDS from radionuclides, highlighting the latest in compact form the sparingly soluble compounds, with a corresponding increase of the coefficient of purification of salts released at the stage of processing VAT residue, also provided the reduction and optimization of the flow interacting with the initial solution, as well as subsequently produced a permeate and a concentrate of the reactants.

Examples of the method for use, for example, three stages of refinement.

1. Activity source of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) Cs is 2.1×105Bq/liter. When you start the installation of the ion-selective sorbent at the rate of 2 g/liter of injected at the first stage of purification, the activity of the permeate of the first stage is reduced to a value of 6×102Bq/liter. In the second stage also introduce fresh sorbent at the rate of 2 g/liter, while the activity of the permeate of the second stage is reduced to a value of 11 Bq/liter, which is below the regulated value in accordance with applicable law, and he goes on the air conditioning, for example, evaporation to dry salts, and storage as chemical waste. The concentrate of the second stage microfiltration (approximately 10% of the original volume) is mixed with the source of liquid and are microfiltration. The activity of the permeate of the first stage is 6×102Bq/liter. The concentrate is directed to air conditioning (e.g., cementation) and disposal. In the permeate enter swerissen and spend microfiltration. The activity of the permeate of the second stage is 11 Bq/liter, then the process repeats.

2. The activity of the original LRW on Cs is 2.1×107Bq/liter. When you start the installation of the ion-selective sorbent at the rate of 2 g/ liter of injected at the first stage of purification, the activity of the permeate of the first stage is reduced to a value of 3×104Bq/liter. In the second stage also introduce fresh sorbent at the rate of 2 g/liter, while the activity of the permeate of the second stage is reduced to a value of 2×102Bq/liter. With the introduction of fresh sorbent in the permeate of the second stage microfiltration activity permeate the third stage is reduced to a value of 9 Bq/liter. Concentrates first and second stage microfiltration is directed to air conditioning and disposal, concentrate the third stage is mixed with the source of liquid and sent to the first stage of filtration. The activity of the permeate of the first stage is reduced to a value of 3×104Bq/liter. To proceed to the start of installation to the permeate of the second stage add the fresh sorbent, while the activity of the permeate of the second stage is equal to 2×102Bq/liter. The second stage concentrate is mixed with the initial solution and sent to the first stage of filtration. In the permeate of the second stage microfiltration add the fresh sorbent and sent to the third stage of microfil the ation. Activity permeate the third stage is 9 Bq/liter. Concentrate the third stage microfiltration (approximately 10% of the volume) is mixed with the permeate of the first stage and is directed to the second stage filtration. The activity of the permeate of the second stage is 2x102Bq/liter. The concentrate of the second stage of filtration is mixed with the original LRW, permeate add the fresh sorbent and sent to the third stage of filtration. Activity permeate the third stage is 9 Bq/litre, and he goes on air conditioning and disposal as chemical waste, concentrate third stage microfiltration is mixed with the permeate of the first stage of filtration.

Next, the cleaning process is repeated, but the fresh sorbent is injected only into the permeate from the second stage microfiltration.

In the examples above expenditure data on the sorbent have a fairly wide range of possibilities, but in the subsequent study for the solution of specific problems, possible specification of the above values.

Method for processing liquid radioactive waste, including the preliminary concentration by receiving condensate and VAT residue, ozonation, microfiltration VAT residue from the separation into fractions of the permeate and concentrate and ion-selective purification of the permeate ion-selective sorbent, trichosis fact, the microfiltration is performed in at least two stages, permeate each previous stage microfiltration sent for microfiltration as initial solution for the next stage microfiltration, and at the final stage microfiltration permeate from the microfiltration sent for recycling, the concentrate obtained at each subsequent stage microfiltration, mixed with the initial solution for the previous stage microfiltration, and the concentrate obtained in the first stage microfiltration, sent for conditioning and disposal, ion-selective sorbent is added to the permeate from the previous stage microfiltration before the final stage of filtration.



 

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