# Method for independent instantaneous determination by users of co-ordinates of location, velocity vector components, angular orientation in space and phase of carrier phase of radio signals of ground radio beacons retransmitted by satellites

FIELD: satellite radio navigation, geodesy, communication, applicable for independent instantaneous determination by users of the values of location co-ordinates, velocity vector components of the antenna phase centers of the user equipment, angular orientation in space and bearing.

SUBSTANCE: the method differs from the known one by the fact that the navigational information on the position of the antenna phase centers of ground radio beacons, information for introduction of frequency and time corrections are recorded in storages of the user navigational equipment at its manufacture, that the navigational equipment installed on satellites receives navigational radio signals from two and more ground radio beacons, and the user navigational equipment receives retransmitted signals from two satellites.

EFFECT: high precision of navigational determinations is determined by the use of phase measurements of the range increments according to the carrier frequencies of radio signals retransmitted by satellites.

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The present invention relates to the field of satellite navigation, surveying, communication, and can be used for self-identifying instantaneous values of the location coordinates, the components of the velocity vector of the phase centers of the antennas satellite emitters, location coordinates and the components of the velocity vector of the phase centers of the antennas equipment users, the angular orientation in space and bearing, as well as for the integration of current satellite systems narrowly targeted destination in the multipurpose integrated global satellite system (GISS), creating a global information space to provide users with services, navigation, surveying, communications, surveillance, management and a range of other services real time, at any time, in any point of the globe and at the highest level.

There is a method of determining location coordinates, the components of the velocity vector of the navigation satellites (NISS) and users of satellite navigation systems (SNS), implemented, for example, GPSr second generation American Global Positioning System (GPS) [1].

Each GPS satellite, and in the system 24, continuously emit radio signals and transmit its own navigation message is tion, contains service information, time information, ephemeris parameters for the introduction of amendments about the components of the velocity vector satellites, etc. and Navigation equipment users (NAP) carry out the simultaneous reception of navigation signals from the four NICS, measure the pseudorange between novogireyevo users and NESS and make the calculations necessary to solve the navigation task.

The formation of arrays of navigational information, as well as loading them into the memory of the computing means corresponding NICS produce ground control stations (CS)controlling the orbit NESS, diverging time scales NESS with the system time and prediction ephemeris of each NISS.

Using information from the navigation message, the received voltage, and the pseudorange measurement of up to four selected NISS, establish functional relationships between the known coordinate values NISS and unknown coordinate values of SNS users. The coordinates of users is reduced to solving systems of four navigation equations with four unknowns.

The solution of the navigation equations to determine the four unknowns: the three coordinates of the user's location (X_{P}, Y_{P}, Z_{P}and an amendment to its scalabroni (amendment to its schedule).

The geometric equivalent of the final algorithm to solve the navigation problem of this known process is the construction of NISS four surfaces provisions, the intersection point which is the desired position of the user.

Similarly, using the measurement results, but quasiquote determine the three components of the velocity vector of the user (,,and a correction to the frequency of the local frequency standard.

The disadvantages of this method are:

- the need to stay within the footprint of novogireyevo user simultaneously four NICS;

- the necessity of detention in GPSr 24 and more NISS;

- the presence of the ground network KS, performing localization NESS (ephemeris);

- forecasting and bookmark onboard ephemeris of each NISS;

- low accuracy of navigation definitions.

There is also known a method of determining location coordinates, the components of the velocity vector of the phase centers of the antennas satellite sources navigation signals and the phase centers of the antennas NAB GPSr (RF Patent No. 2210788) [2], in which the navigation apparatus (ON)installed on each satellite, take continuously emitted from the e ground-based navigation beacons (NRM) navigation radio modulated navigation information, the ranging codes and contain the coordinates of the location of the phase centers of the antennas NRM, time and information for adjustment of frequency, time, measured on a measuring intervals of distance, difference of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas NRM and the phase centers of the antennas ON NIST to measure the rate of change of range in the middle and at the edges of the measuring intervals, the velocity difference of the navigation signals, and then modulate the measured information bearing received navigation signals, amplify them and relay in the direction of the Earth who take NAP installed on the users GPSr, measured at the edges and in the middle of the measuring intervals range, the difference of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas NESS and phase EmOC centres, the rate of change of range, the difference of the speed change ranges, allocate the coordinate information of the location of the phase centers of the antennas NRM, on amendments to the frequencies and delays, time and measured, the selected information to determine:

modules of the vector position of the phase center of the receiving antenna ON NISS;

modules of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna source navigation radio (Ann) NESS;

- the value of the cosine of the angle between vectors databases, connecting the beginning of the La and the ends of the measuring intervals, and vectors of distances that connects the position of the phase center of the antenna NRM and position of the phase center of the receiving antenna ON NISS;

the value of the cosine of the angle between vectors databases, connecting the beginning and end of the measuring intervals, and vectors of distances that connects the position of the phase center of the antenna voltage and the position of the phase center of the antenna ANT NESS;

modules of vector databases;

modules of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna NRM;

modules of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna voltage GPSr;

- the angle between the vector range, the connecting position of the phase center of the antenna NRM and position of the phase center of the antenna ON NESS, and the vector position of the phase center of the antenna NRM;

- the angle between the vector range, the connecting position of the phase center of the antenna voltage GPSr and position of the phase center of the antenna ANT NESS, and the vector position of the phase center of the antenna voltage, then set the system functional dependencies between the known coordinate values of the phase centers of the antennas NRM and unknown coordinate values of the phase centers of the antennas ON NISS determine coordinate values and the components of the velocity vector of the phase centers of the antennas ON, Ann NESS, and then establish a system of functional dependencies between the known values of the coordinates in Chora speed of the phase centers of the antennas ANT NESS and unknown coordinate values, the components of the velocity vector of the phase centers of the antennas NAB, and determine location coordinates, the components of the velocity vector of the phase center of the antenna voltage SNS users by solving the navigation equations.

The disadvantages of this method, taken as a prototype, are:

- low accuracy of navigational measurements and definitions, validity and reliability, due to the relay satellites navigation and ranging codes, ground-based navigation beacons (NRM);

it is impossible to navigirovatsya users using the carrier frequencies of the radio signals of other satellite systems;

it is impossible to identify users of our orientation in space, bearing upon reception of satellite radio signals on one sabnapravlenii antenna;

- it is difficult to carry out the integration of satellite systems narrowly targeted destination in multipurpose.

The known method (prototype) is characterized by the following set of actions:

navigation radio carriers are modulated ranging codes and navigation information, as well as information for adjustment of frequency and time, emit NRM;

navigation equipment installed on satellites, take emitted NRM radio signals, measured with the use of Yes is nomernyh codes range the difference of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas NRM and the phase centers of the antennas of the navigation equipment installed on the satellites, and is measured by the tracking system carrier (CLO) increments ranges, due to Doppler shift frequencies, the values of the Doppler frequency shift, the rate of change of range, the difference of the speed change ranges, modulate the measured information bearing relayed radio signals, amplify them and radiate in the direction of the Earth;

- NAB GPSr accept relayed satellite navigation sources of signals (EVERY) navigation radio signals, measured with the use of codes ranging range, the difference of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas and EVERY phase centers of the antenna voltage, and is measured by CLO increments of ranges, due to Doppler shift frequencies, the values of the Doppler frequency shift, the rate of change of range, the difference of the speed change ranges produce navigation information about the coordinates of the location of the phase centers of the antennas NRM, information about frequency-time corrections to the frequencies, delays, and time information measured SLEEP, then measured and the selected voltage GPSr information define:

modules of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna SLEEP as otnosheniyaznakomstvo gravitational constant to the product of the square of the speed of light on the difference between unity and the ratio of the square of the frequency navigation signal, take the DREAM to the square of the frequency navigation signal emitted NRM multiplied by the square of the sum of the units and relations radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna SLEEP in the middle of the measuring intervals relative to the phase center of the antenna NRM to the speed of light;

modules of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the satellite navigation source signal as the ratio of the geocentric gravitational constant to the product of the square of the speed of light on the difference between unity and the ratio of the square of the frequency navigation signal, the received voltage to the square of the frequency navigation signal emitted EVERY multiplied by the squared difference between unity and the ratio of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna in EVERY means of the measuring intervals relative to the phase center of the antenna voltage to the speed of light;

the value of the cosine of the angle between vectors databases, connecting the beginning and end of the measuring intervals, and vectors of distances that connects the position of the phase center of the antenna NRM and position of the phase center of the antenna of SLEEP, as well as the values of the angle as the ratio of the product of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna SLEEP, in the middle of the measuring intervals relative to the phase center of the antenna NRM at a frequency navigation R is biosignal, radiated NRM, to the product of the speed of light by the square root of difference of squares frequency navigation signal emitted NRM, and squares frequency navigation signal received SLEEP, multiplied by the square of the sum of the unit and the relationship of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna SLEEP, in the middle of the measuring intervals, relative to the phase center of the antenna NRM to the speed of light and as the arcsine of relations, respectively;

the value of the cosine of the angle between vectors databases, connecting the beginning and end of the measuring intervals, and vectors of distances that connects the position of the phase center of the antenna voltage and the position of the phase center of the antenna EVERY, as well as the values of its angle as the ratio of the product of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna EVERY being in the middle of the measuring intervals relative to the phase center of the antenna voltage, frequency navigation signal emitted EVERY, to the product of the speed of light by the square root of the difference of the squares of the values of the frequency navigation signal emitted EVERY, and the squares of the values of the frequency navigation signal received voltage multiplied by the squared difference between the unit and the ratio of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antennas is EVERY, located in the middle of the measuring intervals, relative to the phase centers of the antennas voltage to the speed of light and as the arc cosine relations, respectively;

modules of vector base as the product of relations of difference distance between the phase center of the antenna NRM and the phase center of the antenna SLEEP on measuring the interval multiplied by the speed of light to the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna SLEEP, relative to the phase center of the antenna NRM multiplied by the frequency navigation signal emitted NRM, the square root of the difference of the square of the frequency navigation signal emitted NRM, and square frequency navigation signal received SLEEP, and multiplied by the square of the sum of the unit and the relationship of the values of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna SLEEP, in the middle of the measuring intervals, relative to the phase antenna centre NRM to the speed of light;

modules of vector base as the product of relations of difference distance between the phase center of the antenna and EVERY phase center of the antenna voltage measured intervals, multiplied by the speed of light to the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna EVERY, relative to the phase center of the antenna voltage, multiplied by a frequency navigation signal re-radiated EVERY, the square root of RA is property of square values of the frequency navigation signal, pereizlucheniya satellites, and the square of the frequency values of the navigation signal, the received voltage multiplied by the squared difference of the unit and the relationship of the values of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna EVERY being in the middle of the measuring intervals, relative to the phase center of the antenna voltage to the speed of light;

- difference of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas NRM and the phase centers of the antennas of SLEEP, as well as the difference of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas and EVERY phase centers of the antennas NAP by highlighting the information on the growth phases of supporting navigation radio signals caused by Doppler shifts of frequencies in order to control the frequency generator controlled by the voltage CLO in SLEEP and NAP;

- the distance between the phase center of the antenna and EVERY phase center of the antenna voltage as the ratio of the product of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna in EVERY means of the measuring intervals relative to the phase center of the antenna voltage measured by the voltage and the square of the module of the vector base defined by a measuring interval, the product of the difference of radial velocities at the edges of the measuring intervals on the difference of the distances multiplied by the square of the sine inverse cosine of the ratio values of the differences between the distances measured by the allocation information about the increments of phases carrying navigatio the data signals, due to Doppler shifts of the frequencies in the control circuit of the generator, voltage controlled CLO voltage, to the values of the module of the vector base;

- the distance between the phase center of the antenna NRM and the phase center of the antenna SLEEP as the ratio of the product of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna SLEEP in the middle of the measuring intervals relative to the phase center of the antenna NRM measured CLO SLEEP, and the square of the module of the vector base defined by a measuring interval, the product of the difference of radial velocities at the edges of the measuring intervals on the difference of the distances multiplied by the square of the sine inverse cosine of the ratio values of the differences between the distances measured by the allocation information on the growth phases of supporting navigation radio signals due to Doppler shifts of the frequencies in the control circuits of the generators is controlled by the voltage CLO SLEEP, to the values of the module of the vector base;

- the distance between the phase center of the antenna NRM and the phase center of the antenna SLEEP as the ratio of the difference of the distance between the phase center of the antenna NRM and the phase center of the antenna of SLEEP, measured by CLO as the increment range for measuring the interval multiplied by the square of the speed of light, the difference between the rate of change of the distances measured interval, multiplied by the square of the frequency navigational the radio signal, radiated NRM, and the difference of the distances multiplied by the difference of the squares of the values of the frequency navigation signal emitted NRM, and the squares of the values of the frequency navigation signal received SLEEP, multiplied by the square of the sum of the unit and the relationship of the values of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna SLEEP to the speed of light, again multiplied by the sine arc cosine relationship of the product of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna SLEEP on a frequency navigation signal emitted NRM, to the works of the difference of the distances and the speed of light multiplied by the square root of the difference of the square of the frequency navigation signal emitted NRM, and square frequency navigation signal taken SLEEP, multiplied by the square of the sum of the unit and the relationship of the values of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna SLEEP to the speed of light;

- the distance between the phase center of the antenna and EVERY phase center of the antenna voltage as the ratio of the difference of the distance between the phase center of the antenna and EVERY phase center of the antenna voltage, measured using CLOS, as the increment range for measuring the interval multiplied by the square of the speed of light, the difference between the rate of change of the distances measured interval, multiplied by the square of the frequency values is aviacionnogo signal, emitted EVERY, and the difference of the distances multiplied by the difference of the square of the frequency navigation signal emitted EVERY, and the squares of the values of the frequency navigation signal received voltage multiplied by the squared difference of the unit and the relationship of the values of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna EVERY to the speed of light, again multiplied by the sine arc cosine relations work values of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna on EVERY frequency navigation signal emitted EVERY, for the works of the difference of the distances and the speed of light multiplied by the square root of the difference of the square of the frequency navigation signal emitted EVERY and square frequency navigation signal accepted voltage multiplied by the squared difference of the unit and the relationship of the values of the radial velocity of the phase center of the antenna EVERY to the speed of light;

- establish a system of functional dependencies between the known coordinate values of the phase centers of the antennas NRM and known coordinates of the placement beginning of the geocentric rectangular coordinate system and unknown coordinate values of the phase centers of the antennas EVERY determine coordinate values and the components of the velocity vector of the phase centers of the antennas EVERY p is the solution of the navigation systems of equations, then establish a system of functional dependencies between the known values of the coordinates of the velocity vector of the phase centers of the antennas EVERY known coordinates of the placement beginning of the geocentric rectangular coordinate system and unknown values of the coordinates of the velocity vector of the phase centers of the antennas NAB, and determine location coordinates, the components of the velocity vector of the phase center of the antenna voltage GPSr by solving the corresponding systems of equations.

Technical objective (purpose) of the present invention is offline instant identification users-subscribers to the coordinates of its location components of the velocity vector, angular orientation in space and bearing phase of the carrier signal ground radio beacons that are relayed by satellites.

This goal is achieved through a new set of actions and application of new algorithms for solving navigation tasks.

The geometric interpretation of the essence of the proposed method is illustrated in figures 1, 2, 3.

The figure 1 shows a geometric diagram illustrating the navigation measurements and coordinates of the phase center of the antennas of satellites phase carrier signals emitted from two ground-based radio beacons.

The figure 2 shows the geometrical what Kai scheme, illustrating the navigation measurements and coordinates of the phase center of the antennas on the phase of the carrier signal ground beacon relayed two companions.

The figure 3 shows a geometric diagram illustrating the relationship of the measured values of the azimuth using the compass satellites and adjusted kurokaze in the coordinate system associated with the vessel,

where DP - directional bearing;

N - true North;

N_{to}- the North direction, measured by the compass;

X^{T}, Y^{T}, Z^{T}- axis topocentric coordinate system.

The essence of the method consists in the following.

Network simplest automatic beacon placed on the surface of the Earth so that in the footprint of each satellite continuously two beacon, continuously emitting bearing radio signals. As radio beacons can be used, for example, existing existing, stationary terminals connected satellite systems or the beacon continuously emitting bearing radio signals.

Basic requirements: continuously radiated radio beacon radiated sufficient bearing capacity for good reception receivers satellite relays; relay signal malinformation about supplies signals to the respective beacon and were known location coordinates of beacons (phase centers of the antennas) with sufficient accuracy, which in the production of equipment users (AP) is written to their storage device.

Receivers satellite repeaters (PUSR) are accepted continuously carrying radio signals from two radio beacons and more, located within the footprint of, and information about the change of the received carrier frequencies available in the control circuits of the frequency generator controlled by the voltage circuits of the track bearing (CLO) at the edges and in the middle of the same dimensional intervals in the timing satellites, modulated carrier signals, amplified and then radiate (relayed) in the direction of the Earth. The signals beacons can be transmitted in one frequency range, as relayed by satellites in the other.

To determine the coordinates and velocities of novogireyevo users are simultaneous, but already retransmitted beacon signals from two satellites outstanding membership information signals corresponding to radio beacons and information about CLO changes received carrier signals PUSR, and recorded information about changing values bearing on the edges and in the middle of the measuring intervals, existing in the circuit boards is possible generators voltage-controlled (VCO) CLO AP.

Selected and recorded information in the AP allows you to calculate the navigation options, which in turn allow you to set the navigation dependencies between known values of the guides of the cosines of the vectors of the position of the beacons and unknown values of the guides of the cosines of the vector position of the satellites. The solution of the navigation equations in the apparatus of subscribers determined values and the guides of the cosines of the position vectors of the satellites. Then installed a functional dependency between the known values of the guides of the cosines of the vector position of the satellites and unknown values of the guides of the cosines of the vectors of the position of users. Next you determine the location coordinates of users without knowledge of the satellite's coordinates using only the known coordinates of the beacon recorded in the storage device AP in the manufacture of equipment.

When applying the proposed method, an Autonomous definition subscribers to its location there is no need to pass each satellite has its own message, on the basis of which the current NAP is the solution of the navigation problem.

The basis of the proposed method, an Autonomous positioning satellites and p is lovatelli on differential radial-velocity measurement technique increments of phases, due to Doppler frequency shift. Modern radial-velocity differential method is based on measurements of the Doppler frequency offset, which are emitted by the fluctuations in the nominal frequency on the route distribution between the termination points located in relative motion using satellite-linear interferometers, and tracking systems for carrier frequencies of signals received by receiving devices, satellites and users of satellite systems.

In measurements using differential radial velocity techniques measuring interval is relatively small (few seconds) and for time T_{M}measurement increments of phases (increments of ranges)due to Doppler frequency shift can be considered linear. Dividing the measured increments of phases at T_{M}get the value of the Doppler frequency (radial velocity)is proportional to the instantaneous value and dividing by the wave numberget the difference between the ranges during the measuring interval T_{M}.

The classical representation of the working principle of the interferometer is a measurement of the phase difference of the vibrations received by two antennas separated in space (direction finder). However, the technique can be performed on one antenna, but t is when the radiation received signal should be spaced antennas (phase non-directional beacon). Demonstration of the interferometer on the basis of the second principle is the acceptance by users of satellite systems for measuring the intervals of the signals radiating moving satellites. Distance traveled satellite antenna phase center) during a measuring interval, referred to as the base (the base distance (d). Users of satellite systems removed from the centers of the bases in the distance many times greater than d. In this case, the direction of arrival of signals from satellites for measuring intervals can be considered parallel, and you can record the difference between the distances in the form [3]:

i=1,2,...,

where α_{t*}- the angle between the direction of the user (the phase center of the antenna up) and normal to the base, passing through its center; π=3,1415....

The direction of the user - satellite" is defined guiding angle θ_{t*}measured relative to the base. The direction is often characterized by the value of cosθ_{t*}that is called the directional cosine[4], [5].

Knowing the value base and measuring in some way the difference ΔR, you can determine the direction of processed satellite (radiation source).

During phase method measures the phase difference Δϕ fluctuations. If the wavelength of the received oscillations is equal to λ,

whereis called the slope of DF characteristics or sensitivity [3].

Since the phase difference Δϕ proportional to the guiding cosine of the angle of arrival of the waves, the determination of the direction of the phase method is reduced to measuring the phase difference (the difference of the distances).

Thus, sensitivity of satellite interferometer, and hence the accuracy of direction finding, the accuracy of measurement of radio navigation parameters grow with the increase of the ratio d/λ (increase of the measuring interval).

To reduce errors caused by fluctuation of the phase due to the environment in which propagated radio waves, and also due to the timing phase it is necessary that the database size has exceeded the effective radius of correlation of inhomogeneities in the medium.

Geometric interpretation of measurements of radio navigation parameters using satellite-linear interferometers and radial-velocity differential methods the proposed method is illustrated in figures 1, 2.

The surface position for radial velocity are cones, equations are [5]

where,, ,radial velocity and the linear velocity of the circular motion of satellites, measured with the use of information GONG CLO of PASR and VCO CLO AP about changing the carrier frequencies of the received signals, respectively.

The axes of these cones is directed along the velocity vector of the satellites, and peaks at the time of measuring radial velocity are in phase centers of the antennas of satellites. Approaching satellites to the user radial velocity, while remaining negative, decreases in value, the angle θ increases (cone "unfolding"). At the time of maximum approach of the satellites to the user angle θ=90° the cone degenerates into a plane. Then the radial velocity becomes positive, θ>90° (cone "turned inside out").

Spatial sight using satellite phase beacons (linear interferometers allows you to indicate the angular position of the line connecting the phase center of the antennas of radio beacons and the phase center of the antennas of satellites, as well as the phase center of the antennas of satellites and the phase center of the antenna users. The process of spatial direction finding answers many of the surfaces with which it is possible to combine the line of sight. Surfaces of the situation in this case can only be those that have a linear image is either - ruled surfaces, for example a conical surface.

Line of sight is convenient to set the guide corners α, β, γsigned between the lines and coordinate axes. Instead of angles is possible to use the values of their cosines (cosα, cosβ cosγ), which is useful for finding through these direction cosines of the corresponding component of the coordinate axes. Of the guide angles only two are independent, and the third is defined through them.

One of the types of navigation measurement is a method of measuring increments of phases bearing navigation signals using radial-velocity differential methods.

For the measurement of radio navigation option (RAID phases of the oscillations of the carrier frequencies of the radio signals due to Doppler frequency shift) using radial-velocity differential processing techniques of phase measurement, use of CLO USR and CLO AP.

CLOS are designed for tracking the phase of the carrier selection information and the measurement of Doppler frequency shifts. To provide fast synchronization of the carrier ring is used the digital phase of the automatic frequency control (CPAPC). The ring phase lock frequency tracks the frequency changes of the input signal. Information about changing the frequency of the input si is Nala is in the circuit the frequency control adjust the VCO, with the help of which the frequency of the generated signal is equal to the frequency of the input signal.

Ring CPAPC relatively simply and with high precision allows to measure in a measuring interval RAID acyclic phase of the output oscillations (i.e. phase, changing within, not limited to a length of 2π). This gives you the opportunity to apply relatively simple quasi-optimal algorithms for the measurement of the increments of the phase signal, zamaskirovannom noise [6].

The measured values of the RAID phases using CLO of POSRand CLO APinclude both primary (working) component phasedue to the Doppler effect, so that the additional component phase,caused by a mismatch of time scales in the radio "beacon satellites, satellites - users, respectively

When the radial-velocity differential mode measurements can be assumed that the unknown increments of phases, due to the instability of the frequency reference generator terminal points of the measuring tracks are stored during the measurement session, the constant is passed and in the process of measuring the difference of the phases they are mutually kompensiruetsja. Therefore, in the expression that defines the value of the measured phase difference (growth phases), they are missing.

For a more substantial reduction of the variance of the phase measurement technology measuring phases using the considered methods is also secondary averaging close to optimal. Secondary averaging measurements are made by measuring the average values ofRAID phases in the first and second halves of the measuring interval and education then their difference (double difference phase).

In this case, the measured values of the differences between the RAID phases, given that unknown differences timelines are stored during the measurement session is permanent, mutually kompensiruetsja and also in the final measured values radionavigation option will be missing.

Thus, the considered differential radial-velocity measurement technique the difference between RAID phases of the oscillations of the carrier frequencies of the navigation radio with dual averaging dimensional intervals allows you to almost instantly make an accurate measurement of the current values of the navigation options, which is the basis of the first DL the definition of navigation parameters, and then establish a functional navigation dependencies (algorithms) to solve the navigation task.

The main advantage of high-speed differential radial measurement method of navigation parameters - the lack of systematic measurement errors, errors caused by the difference of time scales and frequency generators beacons, satellites, satellites - users (subscribers).

The algorithm estimates the Doppler shift frequency (the phase difference of the carrier frequencies due to Doppler frequency shift) in the measurement of navigation parameters used twice. First times are measuredin radio "beacon satellite" and the second time measuredin radio Sputnik"

The real measured values of the increments of ranges ΔR^{PRS}that ΔR^{PRP}radial velocitiessatellite equipment and equipment of users, respectively, will be determined by the expression

where f_{0i}- frequency Coleman the second radio signal,
emitted by beacons; f_{i}the oscillation frequency of the radio signals relayed by satellites; C is the speed of light.

For measured values radionavigation parameters using satellite navigation equipment and equipment users, the computation of themselves navigation parameters that determine how the algorithms of navigation definitions and the proposed method in General.

The way offline instant determination by users-subscribers of coordinates, the components of the velocity vector, angular orientation in space and bearing phase of the carrier signal ground radio beacons that are relayed by the satellites, based on consistent measurement and navigation parameters, expressing the distance between the phase centers of the antennas of radio beacons and phase centers of the antennas of satellites and the distance between the phase centers of the antennas of satellites - fazovymi centers antenna users, as well as on the dimension of modules of the position vectors of the satellites and users (distances from the location point of the beginning of the geocentric coordinate system to the phase centers of the antennas of satellites and the phase centers of the antennas of users) and the definition of the respective measurement values of the guides of the cosines of the. They may be implemented in a variant, when the zone is alivetimothy each satellite are two beacon, and within the footprint of each user - two satellites, the distance to which is measured simultaneously with a corresponding account in measuring the interval of their relative movement.

The proposed method allows to implement two algorithms to solve the navigation task: ranging and angular.

The initial data for solving the navigation task of the proposed method are the coordinates of the beacons (the phase centers of the antennas), whose values are not changed and written to the storage device, each set up in the process of their manufacture and the change information of the received carrier frequencies of the radio beacons and satellite repeaters available in the control circuits VCO CLO of PASR and AP. Calculated and then the corresponding navigation options allow you in turn to install the navigation system of equations between the known values of the guides of the cosines of the local geocentric radius-vectors and unknown values of the guides of the cosines of the geocentric radius-vectors. In the process of solving systems of equations are directly determined by the values of the guides of the cosines of the radius-vectors of the position of the satellites or coordinate values of the phase centers of the antennas of satellites. Next, you will set the navigation system of equations between the already known values of healthy lifestyles the actual operation of the cosines of the geocentric radius-vectors (vectors provisions satellites) and unknown values are the guides of the cosines of the radius-vector of the location of the user.

To determine the values of the guides of the cosines of the geocentric radius-vectors of the system of equations have the form

where

X_{M1}, Y_{M1}, Z_{M1},...X^{**} _{M3}, Y_{M3} ^{**}, Z^{**} _{M3}- coordinate values of the first and second and third (in the footprint of the satellite may be in other radiobeacons) reference ground-based radio beacons, respectively;

where cosA_{1}, cosA_{2}, cosA_{3} ^{**}, cosA_{4} ^{**}values of the cosines of the angles between the geocentric radius vector (R_{3}+H_{i})^{PRS}and local geocentric radius vector (R_{3}+h_{1}), (R_{3}+h_{2}), (R_{3}+h_{3})^{**}respectively; H_{1
H2- altitude satellites; h1h2h3 **- height of the phase centers of the antennas of radio beacons above the Earth's surface.}

By theorem of sines

To determine the values of the guides of the cosines of the local geocentric radius vector and location data when users receive user signals from two satellites using the known values of the guides of the cosines of the geocentric radius-vectors are installed navigation systems of equations

where cosB_{1}, cosB_{2}values of the cosines of the angles between the geocentric radius vector (R_{3}+H_{1})^{PRP}, (R_{3}+H_{2})^{PRP}and local geocentric vector R_{3}+h_{P}

The solution of systems of equations (5), (6) determine the values of the guides of the cosines of the vector location of the user and the location coordinates X_{P}, Y_{P}, Z_{P}.

Equation 1, 2 (6) represents separately the equation of a plane in space, and in the aggregate equations 1, 2 represent a straight line. Therefore, the geometric equivalent to solving a system of equations in General is the point of intersection of the line with a spherical surface of radius R_{3}+h_{P}), whose coordinates are the location coordinates of the phase center of the antenna user.

The system of equations (6) is an implementation of the algorithm distance measuring method for solving navigation tasks, and the system of equations (5) - goniometric method.

In accordance with the algorithm goniometric method of solving the navigation task values X_{P}, Y_{P}, Z_{P}you can define, using known values of the guides of the cosines of the local geocentric radius vector (R_{3}+h_{P}).

Similarly, using the known values of the guides of the cosines of the position vector of the satellite coordinates can be determined satellites

Components of the vector of linear speed, as well as components of the vectors of angular velocity and angular acceleration of the satellites Rel is relative axes geocentric coordinate system are determined from expressions

The values of the guides of the cosines of the topocentric vector are determined from the expressions

The values of the components of the velocity vector of the users are determined from the solution of the system of equations obtained after differentiation of the equations of system (6).

As can be seen from the solution of the navigation problem by identifying coordinates of users for finding them enough to know the coordinate value of the phase centers of the antennas NRM. The coordinates of the satellites are not explicitly applied. They are indirectly present in the values of the guides of the cosines of the vector position of the satellites. Therefore, there is no need to determine not only land-based equipment and transfer them to users using satellite links, but also to identify them at all.

Thus the proposed method allows to determine the location of users-subscribers using both algorithm distance measuring method, the algorithm goniometric method without knowledge of the location coordinates of the centers of the antennas radiation sources radio satellites.

The differential radial velocity measurement mode navigation options with dual averaging measurements of the unknown increments of phases, due to the instability of the frequency generator terminal points measuring slopes, as well as additional components of the phases caused by the mismatch of time scales in the radio "beacon satellites, satellites-users will remain throughout the measurement session duration on the order of several seconds constant and the measurement process of the double difference phase they are almost mutually kompensiruetsja. Therefore, in the phase measurement of the carrier frequency mutual temporal reference satellite radio orbital grouping is not required. Synchronize clock (time scale) satellites. The navigation problem is solved in the timeline users.

The determination of the values of the guides of the cosines of the position vectors of the satellites and values guides of the cosines of the position vectors of the users are separated by time on the timeline, users no more than a few seconds. To bring them to a common time (the time to solve the navigation task) direction cosines of satellites projected in the AP, i.e. calculate their current value at the time of determining the coordinates of the user is. The law of motion of satellites in the time interval of a few seconds can be considered linear.

At the same time the navigation measurements and definitions using goniometric methods allow you to define the components of the linear velocity, the components of the vectors of angular velocity and angular acceleration of the satellites relative to the axis of the geocentric coordinate system (8).

Some users along with knowledge of the coordinates and vector components of velocity requires knowledge of the orientation of the axes in space. Determining the orientation of the longitudinal axis of the moving user relative to the direction to true North is reduced to measuring the true rate, the longitudinal axis relative to the horizon - to the measurement of pitch or tangent transverse axis relative to the horizon - to the dimension of the course. All these quantities are necessary for marine and air navigation, some for land surveying.

If the users gyroscopic or magnetic system kurokaze the measurement of the true orientation of the longitudinal axis according to the satellite systems and the comparison of these results with the data of the gyro or magnetic compass will help pave the route and check it out. Three-dimensional orientation in space is also needed satellites, missile systems, start the output devices missile systems.

For users ' navigation in space using satellite systems measured the navigation parameters are the angles between the axes of the users and the straight line connecting certain points users and satellites (the phase centers of the antennas of the AP and antenna sources of navigation satellites radio signals).

For information about users ' navigation satellite systems in space required finding satellites (users).

In the process of direction finding using the proposed algorithms are determined by the direction cosines of angles α, β and γ geocentric and local geocentric vectors whose values are associated with the movement of the user, the rotation of the Earth and the movement of the satellites.

Rectangular coordinates and components of the velocity vector, for example, a user in the geocentric Equatorial coordinate system associated with geographical ϕ, γ and angular coordinates of the known relations [3]:

where (R_{3}+h

Geocentric latitude is associated with the geographical latitude of the expression:

where e is the eccentricity of the earth ellipsoid.

Known values of the guides of the cosines of the vectors of the position of users in the geocentric coordinate system, in turn, allow us to find the values of angles ψ, λ solution of the system equations, and then the rate of change in the geocentric latitude and longitude by differentiation of expressions that define their values

where- the rate of change of angular settings of the local geocentric vector defined by the expressions (5) after their differentiation.

Using the formulas of transition from the geocentric coordinate system is inat in topocentric, recalculate the values of the guides of the cosines of the vectorsin the geocentric coordinate system in the values in the topocentric coordinate system in accordance with the expressions [7].

At the same time

The joint solution of the equations allow us to find the values of the angles of azimuth α_{P}and place β_{P}users in the topocentric coordinate system.

Condition bearing the user's mobile satellite requires continuous compensation in one way or another deflection plane direction finding. Violation of the terms of the direction finding is due to the perturbation of the rotational and translational movements of the user and the motion of satellites in the sky.

One option for continuous compensation of the conditions of the measurements (errors)due to the rotational and translational movements of the phase characteristics of the antennas used, the underlying surface are, for example, technical solutions, published in [8].

Knowledge of the values of the guides of the cosines of the vector location of the user in the geocentric system position the nut and in the coordinate system allows users to determine the angles between the vectors of the two systems. But knowledge of angles, for example, between the vectors of the ship coordinate system with origin at the center of mass, directed, respectively, on the starboard side, nose and up, and orts geocentric coordinate system with origin at the center of mass of the Earth, directed respectively along the Meridian to the North and vertically relative to the surface of the Earth is almost exhaustive information to determine the orientation of the user in space. The calculated values of the guides of the cosines of the vector position of the satellites and users at the same time allow us to determine not only the orientation but also the components of the angular velocities and accelerations by differentiation of expressions determine them, and to solve the problem of kurokabe.

In order to determine the rate of movement of the vessel with the required accuracy it is necessary to make the determination (validation) amendment of the compass. Say that under the amendment of the compass will understand the angle in the horizontal plane between the plane of the true Meridian and the axis of any (magnetic, gyroscopic and other) marine guardian of the direction.

Definition amendment kurokaze with the application of the algorithm goniometric method is performed by comparison referred to the same point of measurement measured values α_{P}using the-W,
for example, the navigation radio satellite system GPS frequency L1 or L2 and the measured values α_{to}with the help of the compass.

Amendment of the compass is determined from the expression

The geometric interpretation definitions amendment kurokaze navigation radio GPS satellites is illustrated in figure 3.

The resultant error navigation user definitions depends on many factors, a full account of which is hardly possible.

Much of the error is determined by the type of signal used in a navigation system, and mainly by the accuracy of the ephemeris, the environment in which the distributed navigation signals, and the measurement error of the navigation parameters directly apparatus of PASR and up.

The basis for calculation of the increments of the range, radial velocity, the linear velocity of the circular motion of satellites, modules topocentric, geocentric, and local geocentric vectors basic distances, the values of angular velocities of the base distances, the values of the cosines of the angles between the radial motion of the satellites and the vector of linear velocities are phase measurements, the measurement values of the Doppler frequency apparatus of PASR and up in increments of phases carrying the navigation is traditional radio beacons and satellites. Measurement increments of phases is performed using the radial-velocity differential techniques. Mode of measurements with the use of CLO instrument USR and AP increments of phases is equivalent to the measurement mode of the double differences of the turn of the radio signals between the phase centers of the antennas of radio beacons, AP and two positions of the phase centers of satellite antennas satellite linear interferometer that generates at the ends of the measuring intervals of two sources of radiation signals spaced in time and in space. Therefore, the estimation errors of the navigation measurements and definitions should be made of the calculation errors of the phase measurements of satellite interferometer.

Error phase measurements of satellite interferometer increments of phases in the General case due to the inaccuracy of the determination of the frequencies received by the apparatus of PASR and AP radio signals (Doppler frequency shifts), errors in resolving the ambiguity of the phase measurement, the instability of the received frequencies, megalocephaly distribution of signals, the influence of the ionosphere, troposphere and errors of the viewing angles of the satellites due to the computational process, as well as the characteristics of PASR and up.

Measurement increments phases satellite interferometer are implementing relative measurements, positively the th feature of which is that, what if the measurement errors have a systematic, mutually compensated. Essentially relative measurements are one of the types of differential mode using interferometric measurements for determination of the navigation parameters, the implementation of which by the compensation of systematic errors and ensures the high precision of the phase measurements.

The effectiveness of compensation depends on the output characteristics of digital tracking systems receivers satellites and AP, in particular the characteristics of digital CLO, because noise error limits the effect of compensation of strongly correlated errors.

Measurement of the Doppler shift frequency navigation signals in modern domestic and foreign satellite systems receiver-indicators based on measurements of the increments of the phase of the carrier frequencies using digital systems CLO, allowing a very simple and relatively accurately measure the RAID acyclic phase of the output oscillations (i.e. phase, changing within, and not limited to the interval 2π). Consequently, the problem of ambiguity resolution phase measurements of no. This gives you the opportunity to apply relatively simple quasi-optimal algorithms for phase measurement values on Perovskogo frequency shift signal, zamaskirovannom noise [6]. RMS error tracking tracking systems, for example, at frequencies of the American GPS with lane tracking 20 Hz due to the spectral density of phase noise is not more than 0.1 radian [9].

Instability receive frequency instability (growth phases) in the apparatus of PASR and AP can be represented as a sum of a constant during the session of the measurements (but unknown) and fluctation components. First in the formation of the second phase difference is practically eliminated, the second portion is reduced to approximately 0.1 radian [10].

The error due to megalocephaly, are reduced to negligible values, as through the use of directional antennas with right-circular polarization, in which the reflected signals at low elevation angles with less gain and basically have left polarization, and due to the compensation of systematic errors in the process of navigation measurements and processing of the measurements.

The influence of ionosphere and troposphere, as well as marked influence on the motion of satellite drag and anomalies of the gravitational field is negligible, since the phase increment due to radio propagation conditions on dimensional intervals, differ little in the measurement process different the values of the phases, most of them mutually compensated. The use of primary and secondary phase averaging of measurements allows the most part as a noise error, and the remaining part of the errors associated with the influence of the propagation conditions (ionosphere, troposphere, megalocephaly), with the effect of drag on the movement of the satellites, the instability of the phase shifts in the receiving device, the influence of accelerations and gravitational fields of the satellites and up to minimize.

On the origin causes of error can be very different, but the most significant is the error due to the energy capacity of the radio link, the relation- noise error.

To assess noise measurement error increments of range (σ_{ΔR}), values of Doppler frequency shifts (σ_{Ωd}), radial velocityyou can use the expression for the dispersion phase (ε^{2} _{f}) schemes CLOS [11].

The RMS measurement error of the increments of phases are determined by the expression

where_{CLO}- bandwidth tracking system carrier.

RMS error of measurement increments of ranges, for example, in GPSdbgc and B_{CCH}=20 Hz to chosen to replace the th frequency (λ
=19 cm) will be 0.079 radian. Measurement error increments of ranges as increments of the phase of the carrier within a certain time interval increasestime. Therefore, the standard error of measurement increments ranges phase of the carrier caused by the noise σ_{ΔR}=0,34 see

Measurement of the radial velocity based on measurements of the increments of the phase at the carrier frequency. If the time interval during which the measured increment the phase of the carrier is equal to one second, and the phase to Express through the wavelength, the measurement error of the radial velocity will becm/S.

The quantization error of the measured increments of distance in a digital implementation of the PRS in the assumption of uniform distribution (σ_{ΔR}) is 0.25 cm [11].

The sources of errors in the computational process in PASR and AP are limited bitness of the process, a mathematical approximation and the approximation of the commands with a time delay. Using solvers, capable of performing calculations with double-precision floating-point number, you can obtain the RMSE processing increments of distances of not more than (σ_{ΔR}) 0,3 see

Thus, in a first approximation, it can be argued that dominiruyushie the influence on the measurement accuracy of navigation parameters using phase measurements of satellite interferometer have interference noise type and intrinsic noise receivers, the error due to quantization and calculation process.

The resulting measurement error increments of ranges is determined by quadratic summation of components according to the formula

Consider the error of the navigation measurements considered in relation to differential radial velocity methods of measurement of radio navigation parameters of expression (2), (3) double-difference phase.

In accordance with the formula of the total differential measured value,,,,,expressions (1), (2) get to the end of the increments

Measurement errors of the double difference phase can be caused by tracking errors CLOS, and the errors of determination of the wavelengths of the measuring intervals.

Usually random measurement errors on the radio channel "radio satellites and satellites-users" are independent, and their RMS values are the same Therefore, the RMS errors of measurement of radio navigation options using radial velocity techniques can be found by formulas

In accordance with the formula of the total differential expressions defined values[3] taking into account (1) the RMSE of the viewing angles θ_{t*}is estimated as

Thus, the accuracy of direction finding satellite interferometer decreases with increase of the ratio of signal to noise, the duration of the measuring interval and with reduced bandwidth tracking CLO.

Taking into account the above information on standard errors of the phase measurement, equal to 0.079 in radians in one second measuring interval, the RMSE of the viewing anglessatellite phase interferometer, for example, at frequencies of GPS will be no more than 0,123 coal. C. (at one-second measuring interval d≈4 km). Accordingly, by measuring the interval of 10 seconds, the error will be 0,0123 coal. C.

Consider the error of measurement ranges and accuracy of navigation definitions satellites, Paul is obatala, for example, the GPS signal using the radial-velocity differential method of phase measurement navigation parameters.

The values of desired ranges,calculated for increments,and,,that, in turn, indirectly measured by the same phase measurements, carrier frequencies. Therefore a random error independent and equal.

Applying the principles of equal influence of errors in the phase measurement of the RMS value of the error in the measurement of distances, the errors of the past can be determined using the expression [12]

The measurement error ranges as the error due to the phase increments of the carrier frequency for certain dimensional intervals also increasetime. To account for all outstanding and residual phase error measurement, will increase the standard error of measurement ranges in two times.

Then

In case of equal wavelengths bearing λ^{the RS}
=λ^{PRP}=19 cm RMS error range determination between the phase centers of the antennas of radio beacons, satellites, satellites-users is 1.2, see, Respectively, the limit of error of measuring range (3 σ_{R}) is equal to 3.6 see

The RMSE of navigation definitions when using ranging techniques is defined as the product of the marginal values of standard error of measurement navigation parameter (range) to the corresponding value of the geometric factor (GF). Taking the nominal value of GF, equal 3-5, limiting the RMSE navigation user definitions in the application of distance measuring methods, respectively, will be (10,8-18) cm (without taking into account the errors of determining coordinates of the location of the phase centers of the antennas of satellites).

In the case of the use of this distance measuring techniques to determine the coordinates of the satellites limit the error to determine the location of users, respectively, will be (15,23÷25,4) cm, an increase intime.

Measurement increments of phases (increment ranges) in the AP using digital CLO is performed using the differential (radial velocity) method clicks the processing of the measurements. Therefore, in the navigation systems of equations there is no error due to the difference of time scales users and satellites. Therefore, to determine the location coordinates, the components of the velocity vector of the GPS users using the algorithms of Autonomous functioning enough for the footprint of each user were at least one to three satellites, and within the footprint of each satellite was located not less than one-three beacons.

To reduce the random component errors of navigation definitions and errors caused by noise, it is necessary to increase the size of the base of the distances d (dimensional intervals) and the ratio of(the ratio of signal power to noise power) and reduce the lane tracking systems tracking bearing navigation radio_{CLO}.

Global defect increase the vertical component of the error of the positioning of users in the algorithm goniometric method (26) is eliminated by using the system of equations of the measured values of the local geocentric radius vector (R_{3}+h_{P}).

Consider the question about the sources of errors and uncertainties of navigation definitions algorithms goniometric method.

Differentiating in the expression (5), (6), (7) and passing to a finite increments, we get the expressions that define the error to determine the location of users and satellites, as well as errors in the determination of the components of the angular velocity vector and the components of the angular acceleration of the satellites relative to the axis of the geocentric coordinate system.

Error establishing a functional dependency of the equations of system (3), (4) are determined by measurement errors satellite linear interferometers nodes sightthe expression (9) and are measured intervals of 1 s and 10 s 5,975·10^{-7}and 5,975·10^{-8}radian respectively. Assuming that the computational process values of the guides of the cosines of the geocentric radius vector (R_{3}+N) and the radius-vector of the position of users (R_{3}+h_{P}) introduces additional error, equal. The average RMS errors of the angle detectionand,,for measuring intervals of 1 s and 10 s respectively will be 8,42·10^{-7}, 8,42·10^{-8}and 1,19·10^{-6}, 1,19·10^{-7}the radian. This means that with an average error bound corresponding to the radius of vecto the and axes in the geocentric coordinate system,
including the Meridian towards the North. I.e. RMS error of determining the direction of the true Meridian using satellite linear interferometers will be 1,19·10^{-6}radian (0,258 coal. (C) on 1 with a measuring interval and 1,19·10^{-7}radian (0,0258 coal. C) for 10 s measuring interval. Therefore, the maximum error in the determination of the amendments kurokaze satellite interferometers using reception plementation satellite radio signal on one antenna at a measuring interval of 1 will be 1 coal. C., Respectively, for measuring the interval of 10 with the utmost accuracy amendment kurokaze is 0.1 coal. C.

As can be seen from equations(3), (4), (5), in order to determine the location coordinates of users using goniometric method of solving the navigation task, the definition (meaning) of the coordinates of the satellites is not required.

The average values of the limiting errors of navigation definitions using algorithm goniometric method in- the ratio of signal power to the spectral power density of noise is given in the table.

Table. The average values of the limiting errors of navigation definitions using the developed algorithm goniometric method in which Oseni

.

Values of the measuring intervals | ||||

Features | (t_{i+1}-t_{i}) [p] and the width of the stripes tracking CLO (_{CLO}) [Hz], respectively | |||

1; 20 | 1; 2 | 10; 20 | 10; 2 | |

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

Errors in the determination of the coordinates of the location of users (3σ) X_{P}, Y_{P}, Z_{P}and the components of the velocity vector (3σ)using the ranging method (6): | ||||

coordinate, m | 0,25 | 0,025 | 0,025 | 0,0025 |

speed, m/s | 0,01 | 0,001 | 0,001 | 0,0001 |

Errors in the determination of the coordinates of the location of users (3σ) X_{P}, Y_{P}, Z_{P}and the components of the velocity vector (3σ)with the application and is of Goritsa goniometric method (5): |
||||

coordinate, m | 16 | 1,6 | 1,6 | 0,16 |

speed, m/s | 0,01 | 0,001 | 0,001 | 0,0001 |

The error of determining the angular velocity and acceleration of the satellites relative to the geocentric coordinate system (3σ): | ||||

speed | 10^{-4} | 10^{-5} | 10^{-5} | 10^{-6} |

acceleration | 10^{-8} | 10^{-9} | 10^{-9} | 10^{-10} |

Errors in the determination of the angular velocity users (3σ) relative to the geocentric coordinate system, | 10^{-2} | 10^{-3} | 10^{-3} | 10^{-4} |

Errors in the determination amendments of kurokabe users (3σ),. | 1 | 0,1 | 0,1 | 0,01 |

Technical objective (goal) is achieved due to the new sequence is eljnosti and group actions on the emitted signals NRM, over taken by the signal receivers satellite repeaters, relayed over and over received EmOC relayed by satellites radio signals, by applying new algorithms navigational measurements and navigation tasks, which are hallmarks of the proposed method:

navigation information comprising location coordinates of the phase centers of the antennas NRM, time and information for adjustment of frequency, time, and information belonging to a specific NRM not passed in the composition of the emitted NRM signals and relay satellites receiver, and recorded in the storage device voltage to the factories in its manufacture;

- determine the value of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas NRM and the phase centers of satellite dish receivers, satellites, repeaters (USR) as the product of relations of the squared values of the radial velocity of the phase centers of satellites receiving antennas to the acceleration radial velocity on the squares of the values of the tangents of the angles between the radial motion and the velocity vector of the satellites;

- determine the value of the distance between the phase centers of satellite antennas, relay signals NRM, and the phase centers of the antennas NAP as PR is the product of relations of the squared values of the radial velocity of the phase centers of satellite antennas, relay signals NRM, the acceleration radial velocity on the squares of the values of the tangents of the angles between the radial motion and the velocity vector of the satellites;

- determine the values of the cosines of the angles between the geocentric radius vector (vector position satellites (R_{3}+H_{i})^{PRS}and local geocentric radius-vectors (vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas NRM (R_{3}+h_{i})) as arctinus relationship of the product of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas NRM and the phase centers of the antennas of PASR and values of the cosines of the anglesbetween the radial movement of the phase center of the antenna POSR and the velocity vector of the satellites to the values of the modules of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas NRM;

- determine the values of the cosines of the angles between the vectors of the position of the satellites and the vector position of the phase center of the antenna voltage as arctinus relationship of the product of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas of satellites through which relay signals NRM, and the phase centers of the antenna voltage and the values of the cosines of the anglesbetween radial movement and velocity vectors of the satellites to the values of the module of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna EmOC;

- establish a system of functional dependencies navigation system of equations) between the known values of the guides of the cosines of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas NRM and unknown values of the guides of the cosines of the geocentric radius-vectors (3), (4);

- determine the values of the guides of the cosines of the geocentric radius vector (R_{3}+H_{i})^{PRS}by solving systems of equations(3), (4);

- establish a system of functional dependencies (system navigation equations) between the known values of the guides of the cosines of the geocentric radius-vectors and unknown values of the guides of the cosines of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna EmOC;

- determine the values of the guides of the cosines of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna voltage by solving the system of equations (5);

using the expression relating the known values of the guides of the cosines of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna DADS with geographic longitude λ and with latitude ψ define values λ and ψand then determine the values of the sines, cosines of angles λ as sines, cosines of arc-tangents relationship of the values of the projections of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas NAP on the OY axis to the values of the projections of the vectors of the position of the phase center of the antenna voltage on the OX axis in the same measuring interval, and the sines, cosines of the angles ψ on the same measuring interval as sines, cosines of arccosine square root of the sum of squares of the relationship of the projections of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas NAP on the axis OX, OY geocentric system coord. is t to their modules;

- using the formulas of transition from the geocentric coordinate system in topocentric, recalculate the values of the guides of the cosines of the vector distance between the phase centers of the antennas of the satellite radio sources and the phase centers of the antennas voltage values in the guides of the cosines in the topocentric coordinate system, determine the values of the angles of azimuth and elevation angles of the direction of the true Meridian as arctinus square root of their sum of squares of the relationship of the projections of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas NAP on the axis OH^{T}, OY^{T}topocentric coordinate system to their modules and as the arc-tangents relationship of the values of the projections of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas NAP on the axis OY^{T}the values of the projections of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas NAP on the axis OH^{T}and then determine the correction values of kurokabe in the topocentric coordinate system by comparison referred to the same time of the measurements, the measured values of the angles of azimuth using radio signals of the satellites and the measured values of the angles of azimuth using the compass by mutual subtraction.

The positive effect of using the proposed technical solution is as follows.

The strategy of positioning satellites (ephemeris) is a key issue with the Denmark any satellite navigation system. Therefore, the ability to navigirovatsya users with high accuracy using the navigation measurements based on the phase of the carrier signal ground radio beacons that are relayed by satellites and coordinates of the location of the phase centers of the antennas NRM without knowledge of the ephemeris, as well as to determine with high accuracy the angular parameters by receiving satellites radio signals on a single antenna voltage, are great advantages of the proposed method.

Besides accuracy, the important output parameters of the proposed method are validity and reliability.

Under reliability refers to the ability of a system to detect its incorrect operation and to notify users in order to exclude the use of this system in cases when its operating parameters are outside of established tolerances.

Reliability is understood as the probability that during a certain time interval in any point of space navigation system provides users with information sufficient to identify the location with the required precision.

Reliability is ensured by the fact that the navigation information is not defined and is not laying ground measuring stations (EIS) on Board each satellite, not [retr] nsoromma companions users and the ranging codes are not used, and reliability is ensured by control of the levels take NAP satellite radio directly during the navigation session.

The proposed technical solutions offer real opportunities for integration of currently operating satellite systems narrowly targeted destination in multipurpose GISS navigation, surveying, communication, monitoring and control and effective use of satellite systems irreplaceable global resource, what are the radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits.

At the same time, the proposed method allows us to simplify ground and solve the problem of the Autonomous operation of satellite systems.

The high cost of satellite systems, especially due to the high cost of the ground segment, its high operating costs. Autonomous systems will reduce the economic costs of the management of satellite systems. Thus, the economic effect of the application of the proposed method is achieved by reducing operating costs.

The needs of life and human activities, and competition are forcing mobile operators aggressively fight for the expansion of the range of services, including setting using sputnikmusic.com.

Moreover, the relevance of providing navigation services using satellite systems increases every year. For example, 19.02.2003, Moscow authorities have found a means of tackling transport congestion. In the capital launched the first phase of the program on introduction of satellite navigation systems. So far, we are talking about 140 regular buses and 20 ambulances". The city authorities also intend to offer services of satellite navigation for all Muscovites. Therefore, not only abroad, but in Russia practically formed order to provide users with navigation services using satellite systems. Therefore, the proposed method meets the requirements of "industrial applicability".

Thus, the proposed method is an Autonomous instant determination by users-subscribers to the coordinates of its location, the components of the velocity vector, angular orientation in space and bearing phase of the carrier signal ground radio beacons that are relayed by satellites, meets the criteria of novelty, inventive step, industrial applicability and gives a positive effect, which consists in improving the accuracy of navigational measurements and definitions, validity, reliability, efficiency glad customlogo spectrum and satellite orbits, and also in reducing the operational costs of satellite systems.

LITERATURE

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8. Nearbynow, Achkasov. The phase characteristic and the phase centers of the antennas navigation equipment users of satellite navigation systems. // Radiotekhnika. - 2000. No. 5.

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The way offline instant determination by users-subscribers to the coordinates of its location, the components of the velocity vector, angular orientation in space and bearing phase of the carrier signal ground radio beacons that are relayed by the satellites, according to which ground-based navigation beacons (NRM) continuously emit navigation signals, and navigation equipment (ON)installed on each satellite, take emitted NRM navigation radio signals, information about the frequency change is accepted bearing modulate carriers emitted radio signals, amplify them and relay in the direction of the Earth, accept relayed signals and navigation equipment users (EmOC) determine the values of the distances between the phase centers of the antennas and NRM the phase centers of the antennas of satellites, the values of the distances between the phase centers of the antennas of satellites and the phase center of the antenna voltage, then set the system functional dependencies, characterized in that the navigation information on the location of the phase centers of the antennas is NRM, information for adjustment of frequency, time recorded in the storage device voltage in its manufacture; mounted ON satellites, receive navigation signals from two or more NRM and NAB accept relayed signals from two satellites and determine:

the values of the distances between the phase centers of the antennas NRM and the phase centers of the antennas of satellites as works of relations of the squared values of the radial velocity of the phase centers of satellite receiving antennas to the acceleration radial velocity on the squares of the values of the tangents of the angles between the radial motion and the velocity vector of the satellites;

the values of the distances between the phase centers of the antennas of satellites and the phase center of the antenna voltage as works of relations of the squared values of the radial velocity of the phase centers of satellite antennas, relay signals NRM to the acceleration radial velocity on the squares of the values of the tangents of the angles between the radial motion and the velocity vector of the satellites;

the values of the cosines of the angles between the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas of satellites and the position vectors of the phase centers of the antennas NRM as arctinus relationship of the product of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas NRM and the phase centers of the antennas of satellites and values is of sinosol angles between the radial movement of the phase centers of the antennas of satellites and the velocity vector of the satellites to the values of the modules of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas NRM;

the values of the cosines of the angles between the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas of satellites and the vector position of the phase center of the antenna voltage as arctinus relationship of the product of the distance between the phase centers of the antennas of satellites through which relay signals NRM and the phase centers of the antenna voltage and the values of the cosines of the anglesbetween the radial movement of the phase centers of the satellite antenna emitting radio signals, and the vector of linear speed of the satellites to the values of the module of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna EmOC;

install two systems of functional dependencies between the unknown values of the guides of the cosines of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas of the two satellites and the known values of the guides of the cosines of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the two antennas NRM as the sum of the multiplied values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the first satellite and the values of the guides of the cosines of the corresponding sites of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the first NRM equal to the value of the cosine of the angle between them, as a sum of products of values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the first satellite and the values of the guides of the cosines of the corresponding angles of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the second NRM equal to the value of the cosine of the angle between them, as the sum of the squares of the values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the first satellite, equal to the unit, first as a sum of products of values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the second satellite and the values of the guides of the cosines of the corresponding angles of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the first NRM equal to the value of the cosine of the angle between them, as the sum of the multiplied values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the second satellite and the values of the guides of the cosines of the corresponding angles of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the second NRM equal to the value of the cosine of the angle between them, as the sum of the squares of the values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the second satellite, equal to one second and by solving the first and second systems to determine the values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector positions of the phase centers of the antennas of the first and second satellites;

establish a system of functional dependencies between the known values of the guides of the cosines of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas of the first and second satellites and unknown values of the guides of the cosines of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna user as a sum of products of values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector position of the phase center of the antenna of the first satellite and the values of the guides of the cosines of the corresponding angles of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna user, is equal to the value of the cosine of the angle between them, as the sum of the multiplied values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector position the phase center of the antenna of the second satellite and the values of the guides of the cosines of the corresponding angles of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna user, is equal to the value of the cosine of the angle between them, and as the sum of the squares of the values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector position of the phase center of the antenna user, is equal to one, and by solving the system determines the values of the guides of the cosines of the angles α, β, γ vector position of the center of the antenna user,

using the known values napravlyayus the cosines of the vectors of positions of the phase centers of the antennas NAB define:

location coordinates of the user;

components of the velocity vector of the user;

longitudes λ latitude ψ the location of the phase center of the antenna voltage, convert the known values of the guides of the cosines of the vector position of the phase center of the antenna voltage values of the guides of the cosines of the vectors in the topocentric coordinate system and define

values of angles of azimuth and elevation angles of the user in the topocentric coordinate system;

the angular orientation of the user in space, calculating correction values of kurokabe by mutual subtraction referred to the same time of the measurements in the topocentric coordinate system values of the angles of azimuth, measured using radio signals of satellite radio navigation systems, and values of the angles of azimuth, as measured by the compass.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: the invention refers to navigational technique and may be used at designing complex navigational systems.

SUBSTANCE: an integrated satellite inertial-navigational system has a radioset connected through an amplifier with an antenna whose outputs are connected to a computer of the position of navigational satellites and whose inputs are connected with the block of initial installation of the almanac of data about satellites' orbits. The outputs of this computer are connected with the inputs of the block of separation of radio transmitting satellites. The outputs of this block are connected with the first group of inputs of the block of separation of a working constellation of satellites whose outputs are connected with inputs of the block of computation of a user's position. The system has also a meter of projections of absolute angle speed and a meter of projections of the vector of seeming acceleration which are correspondingly connected through a corrector of an angle speed and a corrector of seeming acceleration with the first group of inputs of the computer of navigational parameters whose outputs are connected with the first group of the outputs of the system. The system also includes a computer of initial data which is connected with three groups of inputs correspondingly to the outputs of the meter of projections of absolute angle speed and the meter of projections of a vector of seeming acceleration and to the outputs of a block of integration of information and also to the outputs of the block of computation of a user's position. At that part of the outputs of the computer of initial data are connected to the inputs of the computer of navigational parameters and all outputs are connected to the first group of the inputs of the block of integration of information whose second group of inputs is connected with the outputs of the corrector of an angle speed and the corrector of seeming acceleration, and the third group of inputs is connected to the outputs of the block of computation of a user's position. One group of the outputs of the block of integration of information is connected to the second group of the inputs of the block of selection of a working constellation of satellites, the other group of the outputs are directly connected to the second group of the outputs of the system, the third group of the outputs are connected to the inputs of the corrector of seeming acceleration and the fourth group of the outputs are connected with the inputs of the corrector of an angle speed and the second group of the inputs of the computer of initial data.

EFFECT: increases autonomous of the system, expands composition of forming signals, increases accuracy.

4 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed repair team warning device contains "n" navigational satellites, dispatcher station consisting of receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver, computing unit to determine corrections to radio navigational parameter for signals from each navigational satellite, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna and computer of standard values of radio navigational parameters, movable object installed on locomotive and consisting of satellite signals receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver, computing unit for determining location of movable object, first receiving antenna, first receiver, first demodulator, matching unit, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna, second receiving antenna, second receiver and second demodulator, and warming device consisting of receiving antenna, receiver, demodulator, computing unit for determining distance between movable object, warning device, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna, satellite signals receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver and control unit.

EFFECT: improved safety of track maintenance and repair teams in wide zone of operation.

6 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable in receivers of signals of satellite radio navigational systems.

SUBSTANCE: the micromodule has a group of elements of the channel of the first frequency conversion signals, group of elements of the first channel of the second frequency conversion of signals, group of elements of signal condition of clock and heterodyne frequencies and a group of elements of the second channel of the second frequency conversion signals.

EFFECT: produced returned micromodule, providing simultaneous conversion of signals of standard accuracy of two systems within frequency ranges.

4 dwg

FIELD: aeronautical engineering; determination of aircraft-to-aircraft distance.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft-to-aircraft distance is determined by the following formula: where position of first of first aircraft is defined by azimuth α_{1}, slant range d_{1}, altitude h_{1} and position of second aircraft is determined by azimuth α_{2}, slant range d_{2} and altitude h_{2}. Proposed device includes aircraft azimuth indicators (1,4), flying altitude indicators (2,5), indicator of slant range to aircraft (3,6), adders (7, 14, 15, 19), multiplication units (8-12, 16, 18), cosine calculation unit 913), square root calculation units (17-20) and indicator (21).

EFFECT: avoidance of collision of aircraft; enhanced safety of flight due to determination of true aircraft-to-aircraft distance with altitude taken into account.

2 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to radio technique means of determination of a direction, location, measuring of distance and speed with using of spaced antennas and measuring of a phase shift or time lag of taking from them signals.

SUBSTANCE: the proposed mode of determination of coordinates of an unknown transmitter is based on the transmitter's emitting of a tracing signal to the satellite, on receiving of signals of an unknown transmitter and legimite transmitters which coordinates are known, on forming a file of clusters, on selection of the best clusters out of which virtual bases are formed for calculating coordinates of legimite and unknown transmitters according to the coordinates of legimite transmitters and the results of calculation of their coordinates one can calculate mistakes of measuring which are taken into account at calculating the coordinates of the unknown transmitter.

EFFECT: increases accuracy of determination of coordinates of an unknown transmitter in the system of a satellite communication with a relay station on a geostationary satellite.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: the invention refers to radio technique means of determination of a direction, location, measuring of distance and speed with using of spaced antennas and measuring of a phase shift or time lag of taking from them signals.

SUBSTANCE: the proposed mode of determination of coordinates of an unknown transmitter is based on the transmitter's emitting of a tracing signal to the satellite, on receiving of signals of an unknown transmitter and legimite transmitters which coordinates are known, on forming a file of clusters, on selection of the best clusters out of which virtual bases are formed for calculating coordinates of legimite and unknown transmitters according to the coordinates of legimite transmitters and the results of calculation of their coordinates one can calculate mistakes of measuring which are taken into account at calculating the coordinates of the unknown transmitter.

EFFECT: increases accuracy of determination of coordinates of an unknown transmitter in the system of a satellite communication with a relay station on a geostationary satellite.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: aeronautical engineering; determination of aircraft-to-aircraft distance.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft-to-aircraft distance is determined by the following formula: where position of first of first aircraft is defined by azimuth α_{1}, slant range d_{1}, altitude h_{1} and position of second aircraft is determined by azimuth α_{2}, slant range d_{2} and altitude h_{2}. Proposed device includes aircraft azimuth indicators (1,4), flying altitude indicators (2,5), indicator of slant range to aircraft (3,6), adders (7, 14, 15, 19), multiplication units (8-12, 16, 18), cosine calculation unit 913), square root calculation units (17-20) and indicator (21).

EFFECT: avoidance of collision of aircraft; enhanced safety of flight due to determination of true aircraft-to-aircraft distance with altitude taken into account.

2 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable in receivers of signals of satellite radio navigational systems.

SUBSTANCE: the micromodule has a group of elements of the channel of the first frequency conversion signals, group of elements of the first channel of the second frequency conversion of signals, group of elements of signal condition of clock and heterodyne frequencies and a group of elements of the second channel of the second frequency conversion signals.

EFFECT: produced returned micromodule, providing simultaneous conversion of signals of standard accuracy of two systems within frequency ranges.

4 dwg

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed repair team warning device contains "n" navigational satellites, dispatcher station consisting of receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver, computing unit to determine corrections to radio navigational parameter for signals from each navigational satellite, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna and computer of standard values of radio navigational parameters, movable object installed on locomotive and consisting of satellite signals receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver, computing unit for determining location of movable object, first receiving antenna, first receiver, first demodulator, matching unit, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna, second receiving antenna, second receiver and second demodulator, and warming device consisting of receiving antenna, receiver, demodulator, computing unit for determining distance between movable object, warning device, modulator, transmitter, transmitting antenna, satellite signals receiving antenna, satellite signals receiver and control unit.

EFFECT: improved safety of track maintenance and repair teams in wide zone of operation.

6 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to navigational technique and may be used at designing complex navigational systems.

SUBSTANCE: an integrated satellite inertial-navigational system has a radioset connected through an amplifier with an antenna whose outputs are connected to a computer of the position of navigational satellites and whose inputs are connected with the block of initial installation of the almanac of data about satellites' orbits. The outputs of this computer are connected with the inputs of the block of separation of radio transmitting satellites. The outputs of this block are connected with the first group of inputs of the block of separation of a working constellation of satellites whose outputs are connected with inputs of the block of computation of a user's position. The system has also a meter of projections of absolute angle speed and a meter of projections of the vector of seeming acceleration which are correspondingly connected through a corrector of an angle speed and a corrector of seeming acceleration with the first group of inputs of the computer of navigational parameters whose outputs are connected with the first group of the outputs of the system. The system also includes a computer of initial data which is connected with three groups of inputs correspondingly to the outputs of the meter of projections of absolute angle speed and the meter of projections of a vector of seeming acceleration and to the outputs of a block of integration of information and also to the outputs of the block of computation of a user's position. At that part of the outputs of the computer of initial data are connected to the inputs of the computer of navigational parameters and all outputs are connected to the first group of the inputs of the block of integration of information whose second group of inputs is connected with the outputs of the corrector of an angle speed and the corrector of seeming acceleration, and the third group of inputs is connected to the outputs of the block of computation of a user's position. One group of the outputs of the block of integration of information is connected to the second group of the inputs of the block of selection of a working constellation of satellites, the other group of the outputs are directly connected to the second group of the outputs of the system, the third group of the outputs are connected to the inputs of the corrector of seeming acceleration and the fourth group of the outputs are connected with the inputs of the corrector of an angle speed and the second group of the inputs of the computer of initial data.

EFFECT: increases autonomous of the system, expands composition of forming signals, increases accuracy.

4 dwg

FIELD: satellite radio navigation, geodesy, communication, applicable for independent instantaneous determination by users of the values of location co-ordinates, velocity vector components of the antenna phase centers of the user equipment, angular orientation in space and bearing.

SUBSTANCE: the method differs from the known one by the fact that the navigational information on the position of the antenna phase centers of ground radio beacons, information for introduction of frequency and time corrections are recorded in storages of the user navigational equipment at its manufacture, that the navigational equipment installed on satellites receives navigational radio signals from two and more ground radio beacons, and the user navigational equipment receives retransmitted signals from two satellites.

EFFECT: high precision of navigational determinations is determined by the use of phase measurements of the range increments according to the carrier frequencies of radio signals retransmitted by satellites.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: radio communication.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance with the invention, the device for radio communication provides for getting of first time base (for example, getting of the code time shift) from the signal received from the transmitter on the ground. The predetermined shift based at least on the delay of propagation of received signal is applied to the first time base for obtaining of the second time base. For example, the second time base may be equalized with the time base of the satellite system of position finding (for example, GPS NAVSTAR).

EFFECT: synchronizing signal is generated, with has a time code shift based on the second time base.

6 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: aviation engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has on-ground automated system for controlling air traffic made in a special way, interrogation unit and re-translator mounted on air vehicles and made in a special manner as well. Autonomous duplication is used for measuring distance between flying vehicles.

EFFECT: widened functional abilities.

6 dwg

FIELD: radio navigation aids, applicable in digital correlators of receivers of satellite radio navigation system (SPNS) signals, in particular, in digital correlators of receivers of the SPNS GLONASS (Russia) and GPS (USA) signals.

SUBSTANCE: the legitimate signal in the digital correlator is detected by the hardware, which makes it possible to relieve the load of the processor and use its released resources for solution of additional problems. The digital correlator has a commutator of the SPNS signals, processor, digital mixers, digital controllable carrier-frequency oscillator, units of digital demodulators, accumulating units, programmed delay line, control register, digital controllable code generator, reference code generator and a signal detector. The signal detector is made in the form of a square-law detector realizing the algorithm of computation of five points of the Fourier sixteen point discrete transformation with additional zeroes in the interval of one period of the, c/a code with a subsequent computation of the modules of the transformation results and their incoherent summation and comparison with a variable threshold, whose value is set up depending on the noise power and the number of the incoherent readout. The signal detector has a controller, multiplexer, complex mixer, coherent summation unit, module computation unit, incoherent summation unit, noise power estimation unit, signal presence estimation unit and a unit for determination of the frequency-time coordinates of the global maximum.

EFFECT: provided acceleration of the search and detection of signals.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: submarine, marine terrestrial and close-to-ground navigation, in particular type GPS and GLONASS systems.

SUBSTANCE: at a time instant, that is unknown for the receiver, a signal is synchronously radiated by several radiators with known co-ordinates. The radiated signals are received by the receiver, the signal speed square is measured in the current navigation session, the Cartesian co-ordinates of the receiver are computed according to the moments of reception of the radiated signal and the measured signal speed square.

EFFECT: enhanced precision of location of the signal receiver.

2 dwg