Method of manufacture of cutting tool blade, device for realization of this method and striker used in this device

FIELD: metal working by ultrasonic forging; manufacture of blades at enhanced technical and service characteristics.

SUBSTANCE: edge of plate is placed between taper surfaces of strikers located opposite each other for forming wedge-shaped blade and is subjected to deformation by ultrasonic forging. Plate is moved relative to longitudinal axes of strikers in transversal direction. Strikers connected with ultrasonic oscillation source are rotated about their longitudinal axes with the aid of drive. Taper working surface of each striker has recess whose generatrix corresponds to shape of surface of wedge-shaped blade.

EFFECT: improved quality of tool cutting edge; increased productivity; enhanced wear resistance of fittings.

19 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely to the processing of metals ultrasonic forging, and can be used for the manufacture of blades with high technical performance and for the formation of the cutting edges with small thickness.

Usually for the manufacture of cutting edges with small thickness, such as razor blades, used grinding method (Patent USSR No. 318205, 24 In 3/48, publ. 1971).

Limitations of the method of grinding is not as high as the surface of the blade, due to the presence of large grains of metal in the region of the cutting edge, the difficulty and complexity for many successive grinding operations caused by the necessity to use high-precision processing equipment and special tooling, the use of hardening before the formation of the cutting edge of the blade, which complicates the process, moreover, obtained by grinding the blade is subject to corrosion during storage. This is because in the process of forming the cutting edge by grinding develop very high local temperature acting on the metal after quenching his vacation, after which there is a decrease in corrosion resistance and reduced wear of the blade.

Known methods of rolling with the longitudinal ultrasonic stake is the be of the rolls, namely, that under normal rolling rolls plate excite ultrasonic vibrations in the rolls by means attached to the ends of the magnetostrictive transducers (Wpierdol, VLB, Avistamiento "Rolling and drawing with ultrasound", publishing house "Science and technology"Minsk, 1970, str-181).

When rolling with ultrasound on the processed material shall be imposed oscillations of varying amplitude, which is connected with the parallel arrangement of the rolls relative to the plate, and a considerable extent of the region of deformation. Moreover, ultrasonic vibrations during rolling are only auxiliary means for reducing the frictional forces and some increase in the plasticity of the processed material. In the forging process using ultrasound vibrations are directed along the longitudinal axis Boykov, i.e. orthogonal to the plate. Deformation of the edges of the plate by ultrasonic forging is mainly directly due to the acoustic energy. Thus, the processes during the deformation of the processed material forging with ultrasound and rolling with ultrasound is completely different, and unlike forging occur during the rolling process with ultrasound of the friction force is directed strictly along the longitudinal axis of the plate.

Methods using ultrasonic forging DL the formation of a cutting edge of the blade, make high quality cutting edge due to crushing of the grains of metal directly in the area of the cutting edge. However, in most cases, for a high-quality cutting edge of the blade known methods require many passes of the plate between the strikers ultrasound device, usually from three to ten passes, but also to obtain high-quality surface, these methods require additional finishing operations, for example, elektroistok in the electrolyte solution (Patent of Russian Federation №2025189, 21 To 11/00, publ. 1994).

The need for finishing operations to obtain very high quality blades after ultrasonic treatment of the end plate is not due to the processes of tempering metal, as by grinding, and the fact that the metal in the nose of the cutting edge when exposed to ultrasound susceptible to flow in different directions, so that the forward part of the cutting edge is formed Burr.

Removal of the surface layers of metal have to resort to additional improvements, for example, to incline the axis of the heads to each other so as to form a slit that allows you to expire the outer layers of metal (USSR Author's certificate No. 1827904, 21 J 5/00, publ. 1991).

A known method of manufacturing a blade for cutting the tools, including the formation of plate deformation ultrasonic forging of the end plate, located between the conical surfaces of the heads, with simultaneous movement of the plate relative to the axes of the heads in the transverse direction to form the plate is wedge-shaped blade (USSR Author's certificate No. 1720779, 21 To 11/00, 21 J 5/00, publ. 1991).

In a known way in the process of deformation of the workpiece she reported moving in the transverse application of statistical efforts backwater direction, and the magnitude of the gap between the strikers kept on during the entire cycle of deformation on the double amplitude of ultrasonic vibrations.

The advantage of this method is the possibility of obtaining products with cutting edge 1-3 microns without Burr or with minimal Burr.

Limitations of the method are the complexity of the process of ultrasonic forging due to the necessity of selecting values for static mechanical efforts fluctuations in the size of the plate and the variance of the true trajectory of the moving plate from the target in the mechanism for moving the workpiece, the complexity of maintaining the gap between the strikers during the whole cycle of deformation, the need for multiple cross aisles plate between the strikers to obtain the minimum thickness regusername.

The main limitation of the method, which allows you to get the seemingly high-quality cutting edges with the presence of small grains of metal with a minimum thickness, as shown by studies, is the presence of latent defects in the form of narrow through with crack-like microrecovery located in the plane of symmetry of the cutting edge.

To correct this defect in the known technical solution, the edge of the round plate (Patent RF №2211742, 21 To 11/00, publ. 2003).

The limitation of this method is the necessity of using additional operations for manufacturing the preform, which give preliminary bevels rolling, grinding, swaging in the stamp or advanced ultrasonic forging of the end plate.

The main disadvantage of this process, which is also peculiar to the previously mentioned known methods of ultrasonic forging, is a small area of the working surface of strikers involved in the deformation, which leads to rapid wear of the working surfaces of the heads, the process stops, repair tools and equipment changeover.

Thus, the closest one is a method of manufacturing a blade of the cutting tool, including the deformation of ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate located between the conical surfaces of the heads, with the completion of the m movement of the plate relative to the longitudinal axes of the strikers in the transverse direction to form the plate is wedge-shaped blade (Patent RF №2211742, 21 To 11/00, publ. 2003).

A device for manufacturing a blade of the cutting tool containing jaunty associated with a source of ultrasonic vibrations, located opposite one another and working surfaces are conical, the mechanism performed which provides the movement of the plate between the working surfaces of the heads in the transverse direction relative to their longitudinal axes and mounted with the possibility of deformation of the edges of the plate (RF Patent No. 2211742, 21 To 11/00, publ. 2003).

Known also head for ultrasonic manufacturing the blade of the cutting tool containing the working surface, is made conical and designed to deform ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate for receiving the wedge-shaped blade (Patent RF №2211742, 21 To 11/00, publ. 2003).

Solved by the invention to improve product quality, ensuring improved manufacturability, reducing complexity, increasing the period of operation of the equipment without the need to readjust and improve the automation of the process by reducing the number of passes for forming a cutting edge.

The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the claimed process, improving the quality of the cutting edge when providing a given thickness) the distribution of processing time, improving the surface finish of the cutting edge, reducing the number of processing operations of the workpiece in the process of conducting ultrasonic forging, increase the length of wear of the tool, improving the controllability of the process and its automation.

The technical result that can be obtained when performing the claimed device, the increase of the period of wear of the working surfaces of the heads, the improvement of the quality of the cutting edge when the number of passes for the manufacture of products, improve the manageability of the process and its automation.

The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the stated striker - less wear to its surface, improving the quality of the cutting edge of product, increase the time period health striker, as well as reducing stress deformation to obtain a wedge-shaped blade.

To solve the problem with the achievement of the technical result in a known method of manufacturing a blade of the cutting tool, including the deformation of ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate located between the conical surfaces of the heads, with simultaneous movement of the plate relative to the longitudinal axes of the strikers in the transverse direction to form the wedge-shaped plate Le is imposed according to the invention the strikers during the deformation of ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate gives the rotation around their longitudinal axes.

Possible additional embodiments of the method in which it is advisable to

the strikers gave the rotation in the direction of movement of the plate;

the strikers gave the rotation in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the plate;

- one striker gave the rotation in the direction of movement of the plate, and another firing in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the plate;

- circumferential velocity of rotation of the heads was in the range of VOCD=±χVnwhere Vn- the speed of the moving plate, and χ value in the range from 0.1 to 1.5;

when the deformation of ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate, her face was zagubieni in the direction of the working surfaces of strikers on the distance l, which is chosen equal to t/4tgα or in the interval t/4tgα<l<1,1t/4tgα, where t is the plate thickness, α - the angle between the generatrix of the conical surface of the firing pin and the transverse axis of the plate;

at each of the strikers did the depression with a curvilinear generatrix on its conical surface, and mentioned curved forming conforms to the shape of the surface of the resulting wedge-shaped blades;

after deformation of the plate was subjected to is whether heat treatment and subsequent finishing editing the edge of the wedge-shaped blade to a depth of 0.01 to 0.05 mm

To solve the problem with the achievement of the technical result in the known device for the manufacture of blades of the cutting tool containing jaunty associated with the source of ultrasonic vibrations, located opposite one another and working surfaces are conical, the mechanism performed which provides the movement of the plate between the working surfaces of the heads in the transverse direction relative to their longitudinal axes and mounted with the possibility of deformation of the edges of the plate according to the invention introduced the actuator is made with the possibility of rotation of the heads around their longitudinal axes.

Possible additional embodiments of the device in which it is advisable to

- the drive was made with the possibility of rotation of the heads in the direction of movement of the plate;

- the drive was made with the possibility of rotation of the heads in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the plate;

- the drive was made with the possibility of rotation of one striker in the direction of movement of the plate, and the other striker in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the plate;

- working surfaces of the heads were made with hollow curvilinear generatrix;

- curved forming depressions described a quadratic polynomial Y=±AX2 ±BX±C, where Y is the direction along the transverse axis of the firing pin, and X along the longitudinal;

- curvilinear forms were described by the quadratic polynomial Y=-0,H2-0,H+0,05;

the length l of penetration of the end plate in the direction of the working surfaces of the heads was chosen equal to t/4tgα or in the interval t/4tgα<l<1,1t/4tgα, where t is the plate thickness, and α - the angle between the generatrix of the conical surface of the firing pin and the transverse axis of the plate.

To solve the problem in the known firing for ultrasonic manufacturing the blade of the cutting tool containing the working surface, is made conical and designed to deform ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate for receiving the wedge-shaped blade, according to the invention on the cone-shaped working surface is made hollow, forming which is made corresponding to the shape of the surface of the wedge-shaped blade.

Possible additional embodiments of the striker, where appropriate, to

the cavity was made with a curvilinear generatrix described by a quadratic polynomial Y=±AX2±BX±C, where Y is the direction along the transverse axis of the firing pin, and X along the longitudinal;

- curvilinear forms were described by the quadratic polynomial Y=-0,H2-0,H+0,05.

These advantages, as well as about what bennoti of the present invention are explained the best options for its implementation with reference to figures.

1 schematically depicts a device for implementing the inventive method, where the arrows show the direction of influence of ultrasonic vibrations, the application of the static load and the rotation of the transducers of ultrasonic oscillations with fixed thereto strikers.

Figure 2 - cross section a-a in figure 1, where arrows indicate the direction of movement of the plate, the rotation of the striker and the zone of deformation E of the plate.

Figure 3 - cross section C-C in figure 2, which shows the positioning plate relative to the heads, and the top sheet on the leaders the position of the plate at the exit from the zone of deformation of the Iandwith excessive displaced volume of the plate, i.e. its end at a distance of l>l* in the direction of the working surfaces of the heads, Iin- in case of insufficient offset amount l<l* and Ic- ideal case l=l*.

4 is a diagram of changes of the cross section of the rectangular plate in the zone of deformation E in Fig.:

a - before deformation (cross-section through the points In figure 2);

b - subsequent deformation (section I-I, figure 2);

in the middle of deformation (section II-II, figure 2);

g - at the exit from the zone of deformation E (section C-C, figure 2).

5 is a diagram of changes in the components of the frictional forces between deformable plate and strikers during their rotation.

6 - two curves corresponding to the curved forming depression on working bonusour the EIT surfaces of the heads.

7 is a cross section of a wedge-shaped razor blade obtained by traditional technology multiple passes of grinding with the formation of planes conjugate to each other under the corners, the size of which gradually decreases in the direction from the edge of the blade.

Fig - working striker surface with a curvilinear generatrix approximating polygonal line 7.

Fig.9 is a schematic finishing the edit of the tip of the blade of the cutting tool after the heat treatment.

A method of manufacturing a blade of the cutting tool (1, 2) includes the deformation of ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate 1 located between the conical surfaces of the heads 2 and 3, with simultaneous movement of the plate 1 relative to the longitudinal axes of the strikers 2 and 3 in the transverse direction to form on the plate 1 is wedge-shaped blade. When the deformation of ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate to the strikers 2 and 3 gives the rotation around their longitudinal axes.

Professionals understand that the drive for imparting rotation to the strikers 2 and 3 can be performed in different ways. To enable rotation of the heads 2 and 3 in different directions, for example to Boiky 2 and 3 are rotated in the direction of movement of the plate 1, or to Boiky 2 and 3 are rotated in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the Plaza is ins 1, or to die 2 is rotated in the direction of movement of the plate 1 and the head 3 is rotated in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the plate 1. Can be used independent drive for rotation of each of the heads 2 and 3 separately, consisting of two electric motors 4 and 5. On each of the waveguides 6 and 7 of the heads 2 and 3 respectively installed bushings 8 and 9 with the gear wheels, which are connected by gears with toothed wheels planted on the shafts of the motors 4 and 5.

Figure 1 also schematically illustrates the guide 10 to move the plate 1 in the transverse direction relative to the longitudinal axes of the strikers 2 and 3; the brackets 11 and 12 for installation of the heads 2 and 3 with the possibility to offset their longitudinal axes on 20; converters 13 and 14 of the electrical pulses in the ultrasonic oscillations are related through the waveguides 6 and 7 with the strikers 2 and 3, respectively; cover 15 and 16, mounted on the bushings 8 and 9 for fixing them from falling out. Straight arrows in figure 1 along the longitudinal axes of the strikers 2 and 3 show the direction of ultrasonic vibrations, the circular arrows show possible directions of rotation of the heads 2 and 3, and the arrow P is the static load. The bracket 12 is fixed on the vertical post, and a bracket 11 has the possibility of vertical travel for application to the power P on the plate 1.

A device (1) as follows.

Boiky 2 and 3 through the waveguides 6 and 7 are connected respectively to the inverters 13 and 14. The waveguides 6 and 7 rigidly attached inside to hollow sleeves 8 and 9, which are precision placed in the brackets 11 and 12. Sleeve 8 and 9 with the gear wheels provided with a retainer from the drop caps 15 and 16 and respectively rotate independently from the electric motors 4 and 5 by means of gears.

Guide 10 with a mechanism for moving the plate 1 provides its movement transversely relative to the longitudinal axes of the strikers 2 and 3 for the manufacture of straight cutting edges. For the manufacture of curved cutting edges, such as scalpels, transverse movement of the plate 1 carried out on a given path.

Studies have shown, the circumferential velocity of rotation of the heads 2 and 3 you can choose within a wide range, and it depends on the material of the plate 1, its hardness, the material of the heads 2 and 3 and their hardness. For example, the higher the speed of rotation of the heads 2 and 3 in the direction of movement of the plate 1 (figure 2), the less wear on their working surfaces, but slightly degrades the quality of the surface of the wedge-shaped blade, and increases the size of the asperities. The higher the speed of rotation of the heads 2 and 3 in the direction opposite to the movement of the plate 1, the more rapid deterioration of their working surfaces, but at the same time improving the quality of the surface of the wedge-shaped blade, decreases the size of the asperities.

Microscopic irregularities in the process of ultrasonic forging tapered sides 2 and 3 there is almost always that is associated with the frequency of ultrasonic vibrations. The higher the frequency of ultrasonic vibrations, the smaller the size of the asperities. When exposed to ultrasonic vibrations (see the direction of the straight arrows in figure 1) when the deformation of the plate 1 and its moving with velocity Vn(2) it is as if the reorganization of the conical surfaces of the heads 2 and 3 in the General case, the flat surface of the wedge-shaped blade. The line of junction of the conical surfaces of the heads 2 and 3 with the end plate 1 oscillates directly related to the frequency of the ultrasound Because this line varies with the frequency of the ultrasound, and there are microscopic irregularities, which of course considerably smaller than conventional grinding, and are unlike grinding is not radial and longitudinal direction.

Based on the selected vector directions of movement of the plate 1 and the heads 2 and 3 circumferential velocity VOCDrotation of the heads 2 and 3 can be selected in the interval ±χVnwhere Vn- the speed of movement of the plate 1, and χ value in the range from 0.1 to 1.5.

So, for example, when V n=10 m/min peripheral speed VOCDrotation of the heads 2 and 3 may be in the range of VOCD=1 m/min to VOCD=15 m/min

The deformation of the plate 1 is illustrated with figures 2-5.

According to figure 2 and 3, during movement of the plate 1 in the direction with velocity Vnregardless of the direction of rotation of the heads 2 and 3, the zone of deformation E begins at the points located on the diameter d', and has a length of M-dependent angles α and β.

The beginning of the zone of plastic deformation depends on the thickness t of the plate 1. Figure 3 shows the transformation of a deformable zone of the rectangular plate 1 at the edge of the wedge-shaped blade, which you can determine the size l of the positioning plate 1 relative to the heads 2 and 3. According to figure 3 in the ideal case, the area S1two triangles on the edges of the plate 1 should be transformed in the area of S2one triangle in the field get the edge (i.e. located at the top of the mating conical surfaces of the heads 2 and 3 with their flat surfaces smallest diameter). When the depth l of the plate 1 in the area of forging will be l=t/(4tgα), where t is the plate thickness, and α - the angle between the generatrix of the conical surface of the striker (2 or 3) and the transverse axis of the plate 1. Chaqueno of figure 3, the depth at distance l - the value of the distance at which the end plate 1 in the transverse direction relative to the longitudinal axes of the strikers 2 and 3 is in the area of forging a conical surfaces of the heads 2 and 3.

Presented on figure 3 callouts to zone I, depicted by a circle, show the situationwhen inflated the value of l, Ibunderstated, Ic- ideal case. As shown, the preferred position issince the presence of Burr 0.01...0.05 mm is not an obstacle when performing finishing work, and neosupreme wedge (option Ibcan cause difficulties because of the significant amount amount of metal removed during finishing of precision grinding. The ideal case (Ic) practically unattainable due to deviations of the thickness t of the plate 1 and the errors of the other parameters that define the transformed quantities. Therefore, as the test showed, when the deformation of ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate 1 to its end, it is advisable to deepen in the direction of the working surfaces of the heads 2 and 3 at a distance l, which is the best way to choose is equal to t/4tgα or in the interval t/4tgα<l<1,1 t/4tgα. When this wedge-shaped blade can be obtained in a single pass plate 1.

Figure 3 shows an undesirable case, accordingly, the existing version of the I bin which area of the two triangles S1, located on the edges of the plate 1, can not completely be transformed when the deformation of the plate 1 in the area of one triangle S2 located in the area of the resulting edge. When the angle α for clarity, the ongoing process and readability of the drawing is equal to 45°though of cutting angles 90° there are no (real cutting corners from 10° to 30°), for the casethe value of l (shown left) should be slightly greater than l* (shown at right). For an ideal variant Icthe value of l (shown left) should be equal to the value of l* (shown at right).

Figure 4 presents a diagram of the formation of a wedge-shaped blade point of the rectangular plate 1 when the ultrasonic forging ideally, Ic:

a - before deformation (cross-section through the points In figure 2),

b - subsequent deformation (section I-I in figure 2),

in the middle of the deformation process (section II-II in figure 2),

Mr. at the output of finished products from the working surface of the heads 2 and 3 (section-2) obtained when the width of the wedge-shaped cutting edge of the blade is equal to k.

According to figure 2 and 3 shows the zone of deformation E shows that the displacement of the metal occurs in the transverse movement of the plate 1 direction, i.e. in the direction of education is the edge of the wedge-shaped blade, aided by the impact of the strikers 2 and 3 on the material being processed in the local area, while the rest of the plate 1 is in a "frozen" state.

The figure 5 shows practically the same as in Fig 2, but on an enlarged scale and with the demonstration of the friction forces arising in the process of ultrasonic forging during the rotation of the heads 2 and 3.

Consider the options when Boiky 2 and 3 can rotate with angular velocity +ω in the course of movement of the plate 1 and -ω progress against the moving plate 1.

The deformation of the plate 1 begins at the point In lying on a diameter d', which depends on the thickness of the plate 1 and the angle α cone-shaped working surface of the heads 2 or 3, and ends on a line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the plate 1 and passing through the longitudinal axis of the heads 2 and 3. Angle α - the angle between the generatrix of the cone the cone-shaped surface of one of the heads 2 or 3 and the transverse axis of the plate on a line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the plate 1 and passing through the longitudinal axis of the heads 2 and 3.

Consider the process that occurs at the point in time when the angular velocity +ω and VOCD≥Vnwhere VOCD- circumferential speed of rotation of the heads 2 and 3, a Vn- the linear speed of movement of the plate 1. Friction +FTrand, accordingly, the circumferential speed +VOCDgoes h is the cut point In the tangent to the diameter d'. Force +FTrrule vectors can be decomposed into two components, one of which is directed along the plate 1 and the other component +F1directed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the plate 1. As can be seen from figure 5, component friction +F1prevents the movement of the metal in the upper plate 1 in the direction of the heads of 2 or 3.

You can write:

The above mathematical expression shows that the force +F1decreases with increasing diameter d', the cone angle and cone-shaped working surface of the heads 2 or 3 and increases with increasing thickness of the plate t and the angle β.

From figure 5 also shows that when the plate 1 from the zone of deformation component +F1reduced to 0.

If Boiky 2 and 3 to rotate against the course of movement of the plate 1, respectively, a component force is F1aimed in the direction of the heads 2 and 3, which facilitates the movement of metal in the upper plate 1 in the direction of the heads 2 and 3.

This implies that the deformation of the plate 1 ultrasonic hammering during rotation of the heads 2 and 3 in the direction of movement of the plate 3 friction forces created conditions braking current metal layers adjacent to the forming cone-shaped surfaces of the heads 2 and 3. This significantly increases the IPMS is sostonol of the heads 2 and 3, especially critical are the most vulnerable to wear region, namely in the formation of the edge of the wedge-shaped blade, and also to eliminate latent defect in the form of narrow through with crack-like microrecovery located in the plane of symmetry of the cutting edge due to the slower flow of the outer layers of the plate 1. You can use a plate with a rectangular end.

While giving the strikers 2 and 3 rotate in the opposite direction during movement of the plate 1 in the outer layers forming the edge of the wedge-shaped blades are the shear stress, contributing to the flow of metal, the acceleration of the process of ultrasonic forging and getting the most subtle and sharp end of the wedge-shaped blade. It is reasonable to use the blank - plate 1 with a rounded end.

From the above examples, the possibility of a compromise in which one of the heads, such as head 2, rotate in the direction of movement of the plate 1, and the other of the heads, such as head 3 in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the plate 1. This option is useful to obtain the minimum thickness of the cutting edge by creating friction forces directed in opposite directions.

Conducted a sufficiently large number of experiments in the experiment is linoma manufacturing razor blades blanks. For this purpose, we used plate 1 - strip with thickness t=0,1 mm ULTRASONIC vibrations were applied with a frequency of 20 kHz. Used parameters: α=9,5°, β=14°, d'=15 mm, D=18 mm, Vn=10 m/min ≅ 17 mm/sec, the rotational speed of Boykov ≅ 22 rpm Component of the friction force +F1(F1) is 24% +FTr(FTr).

First Boiky 2 and 3 rotate in the direction along the plate 1, made with a rectangular end. Managed to get about 19% of workpieces with virtually no Burr, 58% of workpieces with overflow 0,01÷0.03 mm, 23% of workpieces with overflow 0,03÷0,05 mm

Then Boiky 2 and 3 are rotated in the opposite direction along the plate 1, made with a rounded end. Managed to get about 28% of workpieces with virtually no Burr, 61% of workpieces with overflow 0,01÷0.03 mm, 11% of workpieces with overflow 0,03÷0,05 mm

Then Boiky 2 and 3 rotate in opposite directions. For plate 1, made with a rounded end, managed to get the sharpness of the cutting edge 1÷1.5 μm. Turned out to be about 32% blanks with virtually no Burr, 64% of workpieces with overflow 0,01÷0.03 mm, 4% blanks with the overflow of 0.03÷0,05 mm

For plate 1, made with a rectangular end, managed to get the edge sharpness of 1.3÷1.6 ám. Got about 30% of workpieces with virtually no Burr, 62% of workpieces with overflow 0,01÷0.03 mm, 8% blanks with the overflow of 0.03÷ 0,05 mm

The inventive method is uniformly moved in the rotation of the deformable face plate 1 conical working surface of the heads 2 and 3 is subjected to wear not on the local area and the periphery, which results in a huge increase in wear resistance of the heads 2 and 3 and, accordingly, to the more rare stops the process and production equipment.

Additionally, to speed up the process of ultrasonic forging, more high-quality surface of the wedge-shaped blade of the plate 1, as well as to reduce wear of the working surfaces of the heads 2 and 3 on each of the heads 2 and 3 (6) perform a trough with a curved generatrix. This depression perform throughout the periphery of the working surface of the firing pin. This depression allows you to reduce the force of deformation, to ensure the flow in the direction of the strikers 2 and 3 of the smaller volume of the outer layers of the metal and, consequently, to improve the quality of the wedge surface of the blade and its pointed end. Moreover, the aforementioned curvilinear forming a hollow cone-shaped heads may correspond to the shape of the surface of the resulting wedge-shaped blades to obtain this blade in one pass of the moving plate 1.

With a small Burr (option Iafigure 3), the plate 1 is subjected to heat treatment (hardening) the subsequent finishing editing (processing leather circles) the edge of the wedge-shaped blade to a depth of 0.01÷ 0,05 mm figure 9 shows the typical finish editing the tip edge of the blade with leather circles 20. This option is useful in the manufacture of, for example, razor blades, various medical instruments, scalpels, tools microsurgery, etc. In the ideal case (variant Icfigure 3), or if offered enough non-rigid technical requirements to the quality of the edge of the blade, for example, in the manufacture of knives, scissors, etc. plate 1 is subjected only to heat treatment, and if necessary, subsequent ordinary debugging tool grinding.

It should also be noted that the ultrasonic forging allows to make the tip of the blade up to the hardening of the material, and then to produce its heat treatment and finishing of the edge. Conventional methods of grinding for the manufacture of the instrument require the use of already thermally hardened material. Therefore, experts it is clear that compared with the traditional methods of grinding significantly reduced the complexity of the manufacturing tool of ultrasonic forging.

Thus, the device for carrying out the method of manufacturing a blade of the cutting tool (figure 1) contains Boiky 2 and 3, associated with a source of ultrasonic vibrations - converters 13 and 14. Boiky 2 and 3 are one naproti the other and work surface is made cone-shaped, not strictly conical, i.e. with decreasing diameter of the cross section in one direction, so that the diameter of the cross section in part of the striker, forming the tip of the blade is less than the diameter of the cross section in part of the striker, forming the periphery of the wedge-shaped blade. The device has a mechanism (not shown in figure 1), providing the movement of the plate 1 between the working surfaces of the heads 2, 3 in the transverse direction relative to their longitudinal axes. This mechanism is executed on the basis of the guide 10, the spatial is installed with the possibility of deformation of the edges of the plate 1. A feature of the claimed device is the introduction of the drive is made with the possibility of rotation of the heads 2 and 3 around their longitudinal axes. The actuator, for example, can be made on the basis of the two motors 4 and 5, the shafts are connected by gears with the sleeves 8 and 9. Sleeve 8 and 9 attached to the waveguides 6 and 7.

The operation of the claimed device described in detail above in the section describing the inventive method.

A feature of the claimed device, in addition, is that its jaunty on the working surface have depression. Forming this cavity can be performed corresponding to the shape of the surface of the wedge-shaped blade.

Traditional grinding several passes, you can get the ü product similar to that which can produce the claimed busy in one pass, i.e. busy, working surface which has a trough with a curved generatrix. For example, at the Moscow plant "Metaclasses" made razor blade, and a wedge-shaped cross-section of the blade has the form shown in Fig.7. Due to the use of multipass process of grinding the surface of a wedge-shaped blade consists of several planes in cross section form a polyline angles, the value of which gradually decreases in the direction from the pointed end of the blade. As a result, always when using grinding receive product with a rough textured surface.

However, this product while applying ultrasonic forging can be made with a smooth surface.

Curve line, in particular, can be mathematically expressed by a quadratic polynomial. Setting a characteristic inflection point broken line in section 7 and substituting their coordinate values in a quadratic polynomial of the form Y=±AX2±BX±C, where Y is the direction along the transverse axis of the firing pin 2 or 3, and X is along the longitudinal, is the approximation of a broken line curve in (6). Thus, the cavity with a curved generatrix is determined by the specified quadratic polynomial. Thus, for a particular wedge climbed the Oia, obtained by grinding (Fig.7), curvilinear forms a depression is represented by a quadratic polynomial Y=-0,H2-0,H+0,05 (Fig). Properly on the working surface of the heads 2 and 3 create a trough with a curved generatrix described by this equation. As a result of ultrasonic forging receive a similar product, but with a smooth surface and with improved strength characteristics. In addition, as previously noted, the production on the working surface striker depression with a curvilinear generatrix improves the conditions of flowing layers of metal by ultrasonic forging.

Most successfully claimed a method of manufacturing a blade of a cutting tool, a device for its implementation and the die part of this device is industrially applicable in the manufacture of various tools with superior technical performance, with high levels of wear resistance and cutting edges of small thickness.

1. A method of manufacturing a blade of the cutting tool, including the deformation of ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate located between the conical surfaces of the heads, with simultaneous movement of the plate relative to the longitudinal axes of the strikers in the transverse direction to form the plate is wedge-shaped blade, wherein when d is the formation of ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate to the strikers gives the rotation around their longitudinal axes.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the strikers gives the rotation in the direction of movement of the plate.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the strikers gives the rotation in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the plate.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that one firing gives the rotation in the direction of movement of the plate, and another firing in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the plate.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the circumferential speed of the heads is chosen in the interval VOCD=±χVnwhere Vn- the speed of the moving plate, and χ value in the range from 0.1 to 1.5.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the deformation of ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate, her face deepened in the direction of the working surfaces of strikers on the distance l, which is chosen equal to t/4tgα or in the interval t/4tgα<l<1,1 t/4tgα, where t is the plate thickness, and α - the angle between the generatrix of the conical surface of the firing pin and the transverse axis of the plate.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that each of Boykov perform a trough with a curvilinear generatrix on its conical surface, and mentioned curved forming conforms to the shape of the surface of the resulting wedge-shaped blade.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the deformed after the I plate subjected to heat treatment and then finish editing the edge of the wedge-shaped blade to a depth of 0.01 to 0.05 mm

9. Device for the manufacture of blades of the cutting tool containing jaunty associated with the source of ultrasonic vibrations, located opposite one another and working surfaces are conical, the mechanism performed which provides the movement of the plate between the working surfaces of the heads in the transverse direction relative to their longitudinal axes and mounted with the possibility of deformation of the edges of the plate, characterized in that it is provided with a drive made with the possibility of rotation of the heads around their longitudinal axes.

10. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the actuator is made with the possibility of rotation of the heads in the direction of movement of the plate.

11. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the actuator is made with the possibility of rotation of the heads in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the plate.

12. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the actuator is arranged to rotate one striker in the direction of movement of the plate, and the other striker in the direction opposite to the direction of movement of the plate.

13. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the cone-shaped working surface of the striker is made hollow with a curved generatrix.

14. The device according to item 13, wherein the curved forming a depression describes a quadratic p is linoma Y=± AX2±I±where Y is the direction along the transverse axis of the firing pin, and X along the longitudinal.

15. The device according to 14, characterized in that the curved forming is represented by a quadratic polynomial Y=-0,H2-0,H+0,05.

16. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the length l of penetration of the end plate in the direction of the working surfaces of the heads is chosen equal to t/4tgα or in the interval t/4tgα<l<1,1 t/4tgα, where t is the plate thickness, and α - the angle between the generatrix of the conical surface of the firing pin and the transverse axis of the plate.

17. Die for manufacturing the blade of the cutting tool containing the working surface, is made conical and designed to deform ultrasonic forging the edge of the plate for receiving the wedge-shaped blade, characterized in that the cone-shaped working surface is made hollow, forming a which corresponds to the shape of the surface of the wedge-shaped blade.

18. Head through 17, characterized in that the depression is made with a curvilinear generatrix described by a quadratic polynomial Y=±OH2±I±where Y is the direction along the transverse axis of the firing pin, and X along the longitudinal.

19. Head on p, characterized in that the curved forming is represented by a quadratic polynomial Y=-0,H2-0,H+0,05.



 

Same patents:

The invention relates to a pressure treatment of metals, in particular, to methods for producing cutting edges on flat workpieces, and can be used in the manufacture of surgical blades scalpels

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used for the manufacture of blades on the edges of the flat cutting tools

FIELD: metallurgy; production of semi-finished products from high-temperature high-alloy wrought nickel-based alloys for manufacture of disks for gas-turbine engines working at temperatures higher than 600°C.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preliminary deformation of blank by upsetting by two or more times, final deformation and heat treatment; first upsetting is performed in closed container; during next upsetting, technological metal ring at temperature of (0.02-0.5)Tdef. is placed on blank heated to deformation temperature Tdef. and free upsetting is performed in stamp tool heated to deformation temperature. Geometric parameters of ring are selected from given relationships. Preliminary deformation of blank is performed at intermediate annealing. Height-to-diameter ratio of starting blanks is no less than 3:1. Proposed method ensures forming of homogeneous fine-grain structure over entire volume of blank due to work in end zones.

EFFECT: simplified procedure; reduced labor consumption.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: plastic working of materials, possibly cold plastic deforming of parts with predetermined level of operational characteristics.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing cylindrical blank in cavity of lower die on sphere-dynamic fluctuation module and resting part by means of pusher; deforming part by rolling-around punch; imparting to said punch and to pusher motion along curves in the form of logarithmic helixes rising in the same direction. It provides realization of wave structure of plastic deformation and obtaining in blank of material zones of "artificial intellect".

EFFECT: possibility for producing parts with desired level of operational characteristics.

1 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of materials, possibly cold plastic deforming of parts with predetermined level of operational characteristics.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing blank onto support; end upsetting of blank and then deforming it with punch; subjecting punch to complex motion in the form of circular rolling out at simultaneous cyclic axial rocking; subjecting blank at side of its support to cyclic striking pulses acting along helical path. Due to such complex motion of punch blank is deformed by value consisting of 5 - 7 % of predetermined deformation degree. Then motion of cyclic axial rocking of punch is interrupted and pulse effort is applied to punch at frequency equal to that of forced oscillations of support. Blank is subjected to finish shaping by rolling it out with use of punch without pulse efforts. Invention provides wave nature of plastic deformation, penetration of rotor to nano-level of blank material for forming in it massifs of material of "artificial intellect".

EFFECT: possibility for forming desired operational properties in material of blank.

1 dwg

FIELD: plastic metal working.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at plastic shaping of parts by orbital deformation method. Blank is made previously profiled in form of cylinder with ring flange. Dimensions of blank are defined by mathematical expression given in invention. Blank is placed between die and spherodynamic fluctuating deforming module and then is spinned. Ring flange of blank is made for providing its arrangement between die and said deforming module with clearance. Size of clearance between ring flange and die exceeds clearance between ring flange and deforming module by a factor of 10.

EFFECT: provision of deformation resonance in material in process of machining for realizing wave plasticity character in form of rotary modes of plasticity.

2 dwg

FIELD: plastic metal working, possibly forging variable cross section parts by extrusion in hydraulic presses with movable container.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of feeding heated blank to container; pressing out blank in container by means of pressure pad and extruding part of blank to die of die set; forming forging having constant cross section part and thickened part that is formed after upsetting remaining portion of blank; placing part of die set in container according to condition of joining their planes. Upsetting of remaining portion of blank for forming thickened part of forging is realized in cavity between joined planes of die set unit and container. Said cavity is formed due to moving die set unit relative to container before forming thickened part of forging. Upsetting operation is realized due to simultaneous motion of pressure pad and container.

EFFECT: possibility for making forging with complex outer and inner configurations, simplified assortment of technological tools, enhanced quality of forging.

2 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of metals in different branches of industry.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes supporting plate and housing with openings and duct. Punch, upper and lower stops are mounted in housing. Said stops may be in contact with blank by their flat notched surface. Movable lower stop is arranged in openings of housing and on supporting plate; it engages with said plate by its smooth surface. Hydraulic cylinder joined by its rod with lower stop is mounted on supporting plate. Upper stop is in the form of cylinder mounted in housing in such a way that it restricts together with punch inner cylindrical cavity of hydraulic system providing motion of lower stop. Said hydraulic system also includes duct of housing and hydraulic cylinder.

EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities of apparatus due to increased range of changing relation of shear deformation to compression deformation of blank.

2 dwg

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used to produce hollow parts by forging

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used for the manufacture of parts with a tapered cavity backward extrusion

The invention relates to the field of metallurgy and can be used for pipes of aluminium alloys of the system Al-Zn-Mg-Cu used in the production of the corresponding destination, in particular in the reactor gas centrifuges

FIELD: hot plastic working of metals, namely technological fittings for crank hot forging presses and steam-air hammers mounted in forging-forming shops.

SUBSTANCE: closed die set includes upper and lower halves and lower knocking out member. In lower half of die set there are compensators in the form of vertical slits having holes in their end portions and uniformly arranged around die set configuration. Knocking out member may be in the form of pushing core.

EFFECT: simplified design of die set, possibility for using low-waste forging processes realized in widely used standard equipment.

2 dwg

FIELD: plastic metal working, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for making motor vehicle wheels and similar products.

SUBSTANCE: tool includes die, punch mounted in slide of press and shape part of knocking out member, both movable along die; annular pressure yoke and annular stop. Yoke has stepped cylindrical outer surface and through opening whose diameter corresponds to that of punch. Annular stop has through stepped opening. Upper step of die opening is cylindrical one and it has diameter corresponding to outer diameter of lower step of pressure yoke. Stepped opening of annular stop has lower step with diameter less than diameter of upper step of said opening and less than outer diameter of upper step of pressure yoke. Height of said step is less than depth of upper step of opening of annular stop.

EFFECT: enhanced geometry accuracy of semi-finished products of wheels.

2 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for making automobile wheels and similar products.

SUBSTANCE: tool includes die with through round stepped hole having upper large-diameter step; punch mounted on slide of press and shaped part of knocking out member, both mounted with possibility of motion along axis of die. Tool also includes unit for stepwise regulation of bottom thickness and height of cup. Said unit includes clamping round stepped yoke secured to slide and embracing upper part of punch and also upper and lower spacing rings. Upper spacing ring is arranged between upper end of large-diameter step of yoke and press slide, lower spacing ring is arranged under shaped part of knocking out member. Upper step of die hole is cylindrical one, its diameter corresponds to outer diameter of yoke step turned downwards. Shaped part of knocking out member, upper and lower spacing rings are changeable ones.

EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities of tool due to possibility for making semi-finished products of wheels of different types and dimensions.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely production of nano-crystalline materials with improved degree of mechanical properties.

SUBSTANCE: die set includes deforming unit with inlet and outlet ducts of the same rectangular cross section and ram. In first variant of invention deforming unit is in the form of two parts with crossing planes. Crossing planes of first part having grooves are connected with crossing planes of second part. Inlet and outlet ducts are restricted by said grooves and partially by crossing planes of second part. In second variant of invention deforming unit is in the form of two plates and two other parts. Thickness of each plate is equal to dimension of side of rectangular cross section of inlet and outlet ducts; each plate has two crossing planes. Said plates are mutually joined by means of two other parts according to condition of arrangement of two crossing planes of first plate opposite to two crossing planes of second plate. Inlet and outlet ducts are restricted by means of two crossing planes of first plate, two crossing planes of second plate and partially by planes of other parts.

EFFECT: enhanced operational reliability of die set, improved quality of formed product.

5 cl, 9 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of parts with shaped contour, for example polyhedral parts.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forming round cross section semi-finished product; embossing its surface for forming relief in the form of alternating protrusions and recesses and shaping curvilinear contour of said relief. Size of shaped contour corresponds to size of profile of ready part. Diameter of described circle passing through apexes of curvilinear protrusions is selected in range consisting of (1.15 - 1.35) of diameter of inscribed circle passing through apexes of recesses of part. Curvilinear contour of protrusions and recesses is shaped due to acting upon semi-finished product by means of shaping tool having profile of working surface in the form of curvilinear protrusions. The last have curvature radius with curvature centers spaced from part symmetry center by distance exceeding by 1.65-1.8 times distance from said symmetry center till curvature centers of curvilinear protrusions of part. Curvilinear recesses are alternated with curvilinear protrusions on working surface of shaping tool. Diameter of described circle passing through apexes of said recesses consists (1.15 - 1.35) of diameter of inscribed circle passing through apexes of curvilinear protrusions.

EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities of method and apparatus.

8 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: plastic metal working with use of plastic deformation, namely manufacture of nano-crystalline materials with improved mechanical properties.

SUBSTANCE: die set includes bandage to which cone insert having four parts is pressed -in; lower support; inlet and outlet ducts of the same rectangular cross section; and ram. Parts of cone insert are made in such a way that they are defined by two mutually crossing planes and by portion of cone surface cut off by said planes. Rib formed by means of two mutually crossing planes in each part of cone insert is cut off by such a way that assembled parts of insert define inlet duct with three portions. Two portions have rectilinear walls; one portion has helical walls. The last portion is arranged between said portions with rectilinear walls. Outlet duct is restricted by lower support and by two adjacent parts of cone insert having grooves in its lower end.

EFFECT: enhanced intensity of plastic deformation of metallic blank, simplified design and increased useful life period of die set.

7 dwg

FIELD: plastic metal working with use of intensive plastic deformation, namely manufacture of nano-crystalline materials with improved degree of mechanical properties.

SUBSTANCE: die set includes slider and plate restricting inlet duct; stationary stop closing inlet duct and restricting together with plate outlet duct; ram and member for knocking out blank. Said member is joined with motion drive unit and it is mounted with possibility of introducing into additional through duct formed in slider. According to first variant of invention at initial position of slider its through duct is arranged in front of outlet duct. Slider may be shifter before starting pressing process by value exceeding size of through duct. According to second variant of invention through duct of slider is arranged in front of outlet duct in lower limit position of slider. Said cone-shape through duct of slider is closed by means of plug pressed-in to it.

EFFECT: improved design providing possibility for extracting last blank out of outlet duct before starting pressing of next lot of blanks.

2 cl, 5 dwg

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