Printing base and printing method

FIELD: polygraphy.

SUBSTANCE: one invention from a group is related to printing base, being a substrate with oleophilic surface, having Gurley-Hill porosity value greater than 5000s/100ml, while printing paint, imprinted on such base, has offset value of printing paint IGT with delay time 30s, equal to more than 0,60 printing density units. Another invention is related to printing method, which is performed in at least one printing section with use of substrate, having oleophilic surface and being not porous with Gurley-Hill porosity value over 5000s/100ml, and carrier of pigment of printing paint, having value of offset of printing paint IGT with delay time 30s, equal to more than 0,60 printing density units.

EFFECT: improved quality of printing, improved quality of folding, decreased static electricity.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to a printed base, which is a paper with a treated surface that is used in offset printing with a heat setting. The invention also relates to a method of printing in which the printing substrate with treated surface is subjected to offset printing with heat setting.

The level of technology

The paper with the appropriate properties of the surface subjected to printing using the offset printing method with heat setting. In this printing method print element is transferred from the printing plate via offset blade on the paper, which is served in the offset printing machine with heat setting in the form of a continuous tape. The transfer element printing inks, consisting of various proportions of pigment, binder, solvent, and additives, the offset method is based on the transfer of printing ink with a smooth blanket. Printing ink is transferred to the canvas with printed forms, where the paint adheres to the oleophilic areas after wetting the hydrophilic areas of the printing form a wetting solution. Wetting solution contains processed tap water, spray, wetting agent and other additives. You can also use the printed form, operating on the principle of dry offset printing (also known as waterless offset printing). In the dry offset printing printed on the Orme has a layer of silicon, which prevents printing ink stick in the areas of printing plates that do not contain images. After the transfer of printing ink on the paper the ink is dried with hot air to evaporate the greater part of the contained solvent. Simultaneously evaporating wetting solution carried over from the blanket, and a large part of the moisture of the paper. After drying, the paper tape is cooled in the cooling rollers after curing the film of printing ink to provide further processing of printed paper.

Requires certain properties of the paper used in offset printing with a heat setting. Paper with appropriate properties for such a printing method is known for example from EP 539271 and publish GB 2047568. In these sources disclosed the use of pigment calcium carbonate, caso3to optimize the porosity of the paper.

The printing method is described, for example, in published German patent DE 3207463.

In known technologies have been developed printing paper taking into account the fact that the paper must be porous to some extent, so that she could absorb the wetting solution, a portable with a blanket to the paper, and to facilitate the removal of moisture from the paper during paper drying in the dryer.

1. The invention

The purpose of this invention is the creating of a new type of printing basics which has a surface structure suitable for offset printing with heat setting. To meet the requirements for printing the basis of the printed substrate has the features presented in the claims.

The purpose of this invention is also a method of offset printing with a heat setting in which the paper is submitted in the form of a continuous tape in one or more printing units of the printing machine for transferring printing ink to the paper, after which the greater part of the solvent of the ink is evaporated in the dryer using hot air for the purpose of drying paint, and the creation of printing ink, which is easy to dry in the dryer.

The surface of the substrate is not porous and oleophilic. This definition means that the oil displaces the wetting solution on the surface of the paper. The required properties of the paper are provided by means of a suitable processing of paper, in particular, by using coating and subsequent finishing. To avoid problems associated with the transfer of printing ink and drying, the printed substrate is different from the print paper, currently used in offset printing with a heat setting, in which the surface is porous and absorbs water. The printed substrate according to the invention, makes possible the drying of printing ink in the quality of surface I is ing. The printing ink used is also different from conventional printing inks used in the present method of offset printing with a heat setting, as the solvent of the ink evaporates faster at a lower temperature in the dryer (less content and/or boiling oil at low temperature and weak retention of solvent binder paint that provides fast removal of the solvent), which facilitates the drying of the printed ink. Non-porous surface of the paper allows you to use easy drying and quickly fixed printing ink (no problems with the rapid fixation of printing ink, see definition of fixation of the printed ink section 3.1). The combination of non-porous paper surface and easy-drying ink makes possible the use of lower temperatures in the dryer, while the moisture content in the paper remains high, and the solvent of printing ink evaporates. In addition, surface properties reduce the amount of the wetting solution, transferred to paper (oleophilic non-porous surface to repel wetting solution and prevents its penetration into the structure of the paper).

The printed substrate according to the invention, makes it possible to optimize the wetting solution used in offset PE the Athi with heat setting, so its the wetting agent is preferably not alcohol.

The invention provides a significant improvement in print quality, which is based on the fact that the drying can be performed at finite temperature tape below 100°measured on the tape immediately after the dryer. Using such a low temperature drying, on the one hand, prevents the rapid removal of moisture, and on the other hand, the moisture content after drying is higher than in the known solutions. This is an advantage, because the rapid removal of moisture leads to the roughness and waviness of fibers that reduces the gloss and uniformity of the print. The advantages of a higher moisture content after drying are improving print quality and parameters in the block folding after drying. In addition, the parameters folding improve, because the paper better carries fold higher moisture content, and reduces the likelihood of cracking. Higher moisture content also reduces static electricity, which is an advantage for the process of finishing. For the printer is also easier to apply with printed paper because there is no need for wrapping paper, as the moisture content in the paper is close to equilibrium with the moisture content in the air.

Advantages of the invention for the manufacturing of paper is ostat in increased moisture content, lower strength requirements and increased efficiency of production. The moisture content may be higher, because the moisture of the paper evaporates during drying and does not occur the problem of pozerania paper, the inherent offset printing with heat setting. Since there is no danger of pozerania paper, the strength of paper can be reduced, which allows the use of cheaper composition for paper-base and eliminates the need for sizing. The decrease in sizing makes it possible to increase the speed of production due to improved removal of water. The use of a printed substrate according to the invention, a composition suitable for the method of gravure printing, allows you to trim the finished rolls of paper machines for both methods, gravure printing and offset printing with heat setting for high quality printing, which reduces paper waste and increase production efficiency.

Non-porous paper improves permeability and suitability of the paper for printing. Because the paper does not absorb the wetting solution of printing units, do not change the paper size and not have problems, for example, with mismatched case or a discrepancy in the form of a fan. There is no fixing printing inks, since there is no long in print substrate. Therefore, there are no problems associated with C is mounted printing ink, such as mottling, pollution liter or uneven distribution. This improves the print result and allows longer printing, because you have less to wash printed canvas.

A new concept of printing more environmentally friendly, because the use of the wetting solution is not alcohol reduces VOC emissions and require less energy due to lower air temperature in the drying process. The content of the solvent in the printing ink when printing is low.

The printed substrate according to the invention meets the following conditions:

1) the magnitude of otmerivanija ink IGT when the delay time 30 sec is more than 0.60 and

2) the value of tests of Gurley hill on the air permeability is more than 5000/100 ml Value otmerivanija is a measure of capillary suction surface of the paper. The measurement result IGT gives the value of the speed of fixing ink, which correlated with the porosity of the surface of the paper;

3) the time of bonding capacity when measuring ISIT more preferably 100 with printing ink, which has a resistance in the time dimension of the fastening of the printed ink type Tack-0-Scope Tmax=270-300 C. This result sustainability can be achieved, for example, using a known printing inks Sun Challenge. The measurement result ISI gives the value of the speed of fixing ink, which correlated with the porosity of the surface of the paper.

The value of resistance of the printed ink when measuring bonding using devices Tack-0-Scope provide less 200 C. the Printed substrate is preferably a coated paper or a paper or cardboard with a machined surface which contains lamellar pigments such as pigment coating. Surface properties of paper can be further adjusted by selecting the type of pigment coating and latex (binder material) and their number. The shape factor of particles of lamellar pigment, which is the ratio of the diameter of pigment particles to the thickness of the pigment particles is more than 2, preferably more than 4. The aspect ratio is preferably more than 4 to ensure non-porous surface. The pigment used in the paint coating, therefore, is preferably talc as the sole pigment, or a combination of kaolin and talc. Great shape factor lamellar talc is preferably greater than 25 and has a positive effect on reducing the porosity of the surface of the paper. Similarly, the softer used latex (low value of Tgwhere Tgis the glass transition temperature) and the more you use latex compared to the amount of pigment, the b is more closed (non-porous) is the surface. The crosslinking of the binder latex also improves the closeness of the surface.

Below is a detailed description of the invention with reference to certain examples, which do not limit the invention to be used.

2. Paper

The paper base paper, according to the invention, is a conventional paper-based LWC with an ash content of 12% and a fiber blend of 40% chemical pulp and 60% of mechanical pulp (TSR). The basis weight is about 36 g/m2and the density is approximately 660 kg/m3. The paper is coated with the following components:

/table>

The solid content in the paint coverage is 58% at a pH of 7.5. The value of TgRhodopas 388 is 0°S, which is the lowest value of Tg compared to latex, commonly used in coating ink for offset printing with heat setting. Closed surface can be improved when the value of Tgless than 5°C.

Various formulations of coating paint for paper, according to the invention, are presented in table 1 (wt.%).

Talc (H or 15)Pigment
Kaolin (Supragloss 95)Pigment
Latex rubber with a copolymer of butadiene and styreneBinder latex
(Rhodopas 388)
Starch (Raisamyl 302)Binder
Latex rubber with a copolymer of maleic anhydride and styrene (Raisaprint D100 or D200)Regulation of chemical surface properties
Calcium stearate (Raisacoat 50)Extension agent for calendering
Optiblank NFOptical Brightener
GlyoxalThe stapler
Table 1

Recipe coating paint
Coating paint1234568
With H7070407070
C1570100
Supragloss303030603030
Rhodopas 38810151010101010
Raisamyl 302 2333333
D20033333
D1001
Raisacoat 500,50,50,50.50,50,50,5
Optiblank0,20,20,20,20,20,20,2
Glyoxal0,20,20,20,20,20,20,2
* D100 boiled together with starch.

The paper was coated using a doctor blade coating (Opticoat-Jet). The top (rough) side of the base paper with a weight of 36 g/m2covered first. The target amount of weight coating was 12 g/m on both sides (floor 12+12 g/m2). The target final moisture content was 5.3% before calandrinia.

The tape was dried after coating with infrared dryers and air belt drier.

Coated paper wound into rolls. olony were subjected to supercalendering, so the top side is rested on the first cooled platen.

Conditions supercalendering was as follows:

Temperature

top:120°
in the middle:110°
bottom:90°
Load contact areas320 kN/m
Speed500 m/min
The number of contact areas9

The properties of the final paper with double-sided coating are shown in table 2.

The numbers refer to the numbers coating paints and corresponding numbers of samples.

tr>
Table 2

The properties of the final coated paper
The uniform. measuring range.Coating paint/sample
1/25/86/103/128/184/22
Physical properties: basis Weightg/m259,861,761,762,762,763,7
The amount of coating paintg/m2the 9.7to 12.013,1 12,612,8a 12.7
Thicknessmcm484949484848
Densitykg/m3123912621265129813021319
VolumeDM3/ kg0,810,790,780,770,770,76
Surface properties: surface Roughness PPS 10ts*)mcm0,961,051,041,070,931,10
Roughness PPS 10ws**)mcm0,991,010,910,910,731,10
Gloss ts*)%63,065,763,3to 59.465,249,1
Gloss ws**)%58,667,264,559,365,048,6
Optical properties: the Degree of whiteness Eirepho ws**)%74,573,373,4 73,672,9
Brightness ws**)%78,077,677,276,277,176,4
Opacity ws**)%for 91.391,091,090,291,589,6
Dominant wavelength ws**)nm573574573574573573
The purity of excitation ws**)%3,2a 3.93,54,43,43,4
Properties of porosity and absorption

Paint absorption NP ws**)
27,317,418,418,120,127,3
Paint absorption K&N ws**)2,71,31,31,51,53,4
Properties suitability of printing: surface hardness IGT ws**)m/s0,500,600,660,650,650,58
The strength of the surface IGT wsrd**)m/s0,530,630,750,780,780,68
The strength of the surface IGTwsard****)m/s0,480,580,580,530,530,48
*ts=the upper side.

**ws=the reverse side.

***wsrd=reverse side when measured in the direction of motion.

****wsard=reverse side when measured against the direction of movement.

A small value for testing the absorption of printing ink K&N (in each case less than 4%) already shows that the surface of the papers are very closed and not absorbing.

In comparative trials used the following commercial and well-known paper for offset printing with heat setting:

SCOUPM Max 56 g/m2
LWCOUPM Cote 60 g/m2
LWCOUPM Ultra 70 g/m2
LWCOUPM Ultra M 70 g/m2
MWCUPM Star 100 g/m2
WF UPM Art 100 g/m2

SCO is supercalendering paper for offset printing with heat setting, LWCO is covered with paper light weight for offset printing with heat setting, MWC is covered by a paper medium weight for offset printing with heat setting and WFC is covered with paper without wood for use in offset printing with a heat setting. Properties known securities were investigated using the methods described below.

A closed surface is also suitable for offset printing with heat setting and for a method of gravure printing for different types of paper and cardboard.

3. Methods

Value test method lies in its ability to characterize the porosity of the surface of the paper regardless of the amount of paper or thickness or surface roughness. Absorption techniques the best way to characterize the surface of the paper, since absorption and porosity depend on each other. The magnitude of otmerivanija when the time delay of 30 s, measured by the testing device suitability for printing IGT is more than 0.60, the measuring method of increasing the bonding ISIT and testing on the absorption of printing ink K&N based on capillary absorption and therefore there is no impact on the EMA paper. The surface roughness affects the test result K&N and therefore these results are fundamental. Value tests of Gurley hill on air permeability used in conjunction with values of otmerivanija when the delay time 30 s to separate the porous securities without cover from the papers coated with a closed surface, according to the invention.

3.1. Time otmerivanija when the time delay of 30 s, the need for paint and gloss print when testing the suitability for printing using the IGT tester

The magnitude of otmerivanija is a measure of the speed of fixing ink on paper. When the fastening of the printed ink film of ink on the paper hardens because of capillary forces lead to absorption into the pores of the surface of the paper solvent component of the ink for offset printing. The speed of consolidation of printing ink is high for microporous surface coating of paper and low for closed, non-porous surfaces of paper and uncoated paper, which contains pores of large size, which may not create large capillary forces.

Need to paint is a measure of the amount of ink required for specific optical density printing. The print density is the ability of a printed image to absorb and OTP in order to reap the light, and it correlates with the brightness of the color or degree of dark color, distinguished by the human eye. Low consumption of paint is preferred for good quality printing.

The gloss of the printed ink is a measure of print quality. High print density can be ensured only with a high gloss printing.

3.1.1. Introduction

This method describes the procedures to be applied when using the IGT tester suitability for printing in the preparation of printing on paper. Testers IGT suitability for printing are made by the company IGT Testers Systems b.v., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This approach measures the following properties print paper:

(a) the amount of otmerivanija when the time delay of 30 s, which is correlated with the rate of fixation of ink and porosity of the surface,

b) the need to paint, which means the amount of ink needed for a particular print densities (see paragraph 3.1);

c) gloss print, which is a gloss of the printed ink, measured at a certain amount of printing ink.

Caution - careful consideration should be given to the comparison of the results of printing performed in different laboratories and using different testers suitability for printing, see item 10.

3.1.2. Links

In this method refer to the following Scandinavian methods SCAN, issue Lennie the Secretariat of the Nordic test:

SCAN-G1 Pulp, paper and cardboard - refractive Index - Total measurement procedure (ISO 2469),

SCAN-P2 Paper and cardboard - Preparation of samples for testing (EN 20187, ISO 187),

SCAN-P8 Paper and cardboard - Opacity-and Y-values, coefficients of light scattering and light absorption (/2°) (ISO 2471),

SCAN-P9 Paper and cardboard - Identification of machine and cross directions (EN 20187, ISO 187),

SCAN-P 10 Paper and cardboard - Identification back

SCAN-P36 Paper and cardboard - Assessment test print.

3.1.3. Definition

For the purposes of this method uses the following definitions:

3.1.3.1. The print density, D. Decimal logarithm of the relationship of the Y-values are not printed paper to the indicator light reflection print, when placed over a stack is not printed paper.

3.1.3.2. The magnitude of otmerivanija when the time delay of 30 C.

The ability of the ink to the transfer of newly printed surface to another surface with which the seal is brought into contact, under the influence of the perpendicular directional gain without shift. The magnitude of otmerivanija is estimated as the decimal logarithm of the relationship of the Y-values of the receiving surface indicator light reflection region, dirtied due to the transfer of printing ink, when dirtied paper is placed over the stack of the receiving paper. The time delay for the measurement of ve who icine otmerivanija 30 from the transfer of ink to contact otmerivanija. The magnitude of otmerivanija when time delay 30 is in units of the print density.

Note: reception of the paper may be of standard paper or a sheet of paper that you want to test. Other definitions print quality are given in SCAN-R36.

3.1.4. The principle of operation

Cylindrical printing form, consisting of a disk coated with plastic coating rubber, cover printed ink section coating of printing ink. Paper or cardboard, to be printed, mounted on a cylindrical sector. Printing is performed under standard conditions.

The amount of ink transferred to the paper, is calculated by weighting the printed disk before and after printing.

When determining the value of otmerivanija fresh print is brought into contact with a clear admission paper in the second stripe print contact under normal pressure without shift through 30 after printing.

3.1.5. Device

3.1.5.1. Tester suitability for printing, comprising printing unit with two adjustable bands printed contact.

3 1.5.1.1 Printing unit includes driven in rotation by the motor sector, which rotates at a constant and adjustable speed clamp the printed disk, and when the measurement of otmerivanija also clamp the second disk. The force between the printed disk and sector about specials with adjustable springs. You can also adjust the delay time used to measure otmerivanija.

Note 1: it is Important that the instrument was properly calibrated. The device manufacturer supplies accessories for calibration of both speed and effort.

3.1.5.1.2. Cylindrical printing disc, aluminium, with a diameter of 68 mm and a width of 32 or 50 mm, covered with plastic rubber (to avoid absorption media ink), which has a hardness And shore about 85°. Rim width should match the width of the sector. The drive should be easy enough for weighing on an analytical balance with accuracy of 0.1 mg

Note 2: the rubber is aging over time with use, and the disks should be stored in the dark at room temperature.

3.1.5.2. Section for applying printing ink for formation of a uniform film of printing ink printed on the disk.

3.1.5.3. Analytical balance with an accuracy of at least 0,1 mg

3.1.5.3. Pipette for printing ink or other suitable device to transfer a suitable quantity of ink in a device for applying printing ink.

3.1.5.5. Printing ink. Using standard lithographic ink for offset printing, produced by Michael Huber, Munich, Germany. Trade name ink in German "Wegschlagtestfarbe" and on an the English language "Setting Test Ink", the number of printing ink 520068, the batch number used in the tests, 00122615.

Note 3: due to the fact that printing ink is made from natural raw materials, it is impossible to have exactly the persistent properties of color from batch to batch. So you can change the test results, so that appropriate correction of test conditions, see paragraph 10.2.

3.1.5.6. Solvent for cleaning purposes. Suitable are one petroleum ether or white spirit followed by purification with petroleum ether.

Note 4: do Not use cleaning fluids containing surfactants or no volatile components.

3.1.5.7. Paper for otmerivanija. In the method used is covered by the spill paper "New Ojo", manufactured by the company Oji Paper, Japan.

3.1.6. Sampling and preparation of test

The procedure of sampling is not fixed in this method. You must ensure that segments taken for testing was obtained. The samples prepared in accordance with SCAN-P2 and held in the prepared atmosphere during testing.

Note 1: Because the viscosity of the ink depends on the temperature, the temperature control for this test is as important as humidity control.

Test samples are cut to size, p is ghadami for tester suitability for printing. Typically, you should cut strip test pieces in the machine direction (see SCAN-P9) to simulate belt offset printing. Print direction must be specified in the report. Segments should not have creases and wrinkles. Side to be printed, it is necessary to mark.

Note 2: For further assessment required in accordance with SCAN-P36, at least five lanes.

3.1.7. Procedure

3.1.7.1. Test conditions

3.1.7.1.1. Temperature. If the equipment has a controller internal temperature, it is necessary to ensure that the test equipment section the application of the printing ink and the printing disc and the test material was kept at the correct temperature (23±0,5°).

3.1.7.1.2. The printed disc. Choose the disk with plastic-coated rubber surface, which corresponds to the width of the sector (see p). For contact in order to otmerivanija you should use a disk of the same type for printing.

3.1.7.1.3. The application of printing ink on the printed disc. Enter the printing ink in the block to paint and apply paint to print the disk in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

3.1.7.1.4. Pressure printing. Force print set on 650 N for printed disc width of 50 mm and 415 N. for printed disc 32 mm wide to provide a linear load 13±1 kN/m If necessary, and in order to measure the amount of otmerivanija, you must use the same linear load in the second stripe print contact.

3.1.7.1.5. Print speed. Print speed is set to 1.0 m/s note: If there is a danger of plucking the paper, use the following procedure. To areas on the paper where the cylinder stops in front of the printing disc into printing time, attach a piece of plastic tape, because the danger of plucking in these places is maximum. It should be noted in the report.

3.1.7.1.6. The time delay. The time delay between the transfer of printing ink and otmachivaniem is 30 C.

3.1.7.2. The test procedure. The front end of the test segment is attached to the sector. Set the test piece so that it is flat against the sector, and fix the other end of the specimen. Fix a strip of paper for otmerivanija on the second printed disc and install the drive on the second shaft. Weigh printed disc coated with printing ink and mounted on the shaft. Print the disk is brought into contact with the sector and type test sample. Remove printed disc and immediately weighed. After the transfer of printing ink printing after a delay of over 30 press covered the spill paper for otmerivanija. Printed test sample and covered with a spill of paper otmerivanija preserves the t for the optical measurement via 24± 2 hours. Strips should be stored for subsequent measurement in accordance with SCAN-P 36.

You have to print a total of four test sample with four different quantities of printing ink. First print with the least amount of printing ink, and then stepped increase the amount of printing ink, so that the new printing ink is continuously fed into the section for applying printing ink. After each test series, i.e. after four times printing section for applying printing ink should be clean.

Note 2: After cleaning the print disk solvent should dry to wipe the surface and withstand sufficient for solvent evaporation time.

Four printing colors should be chosen so as to cover the range for the number of printing inks on paper from 0.7 g/m2to at least 2.0 g/m2. Print properties determined by evaluating the print density in the tool that meets the requirements of SCAN-G1 (see SCAN-P 36).

3.1.8. Calculations

3.1.8.1. Determination of the quantity of printing ink on paper

Mass transfer printing ink per unit area for each of the test sample is calculated by the formula:

where W denotes the transferred printing ink in grams per square meter;

G1 - weight printed the claim before printing in grams to the nearest 0.1 g;

G2 - weight printed disc after printing in grams to the nearest 0.1 g;

And print area in square metres, with a printable area equal to the area of the printed surface of the disk.

3.1.8.2. Determine whether you need printing ink

The results display on the chart where the X axis is the delay quantity of printing ink on paper and on the Y-axis is the print density of the printed paper. The curve is built for the four quantities of printing ink and the respective densities of the print. The need for printing ink interpolate from the curve at the point where the number of ink on paper is 1.50 g/m2.

3.1.8.3. Determining the value of otmerivanija when the delay time 30 sec

The results display on the chart where the X axis is the delay quantity of printing ink on paper and on the Y-axis is the print density by otmerivanija coated spill the paper otmerivanija. The curve is built for the four quantities of printing ink and the respective densities of the print by otmerivanija. The amount of otmerivanija when the time delay of 30 to interpolate from the curve at the point where the number of ink on paper is 1.50 g/m2.

3.1.8.4. The definition of gloss print

The results display on the chart where the X axis is the delay quantity of printing ink on paper and on the Y-axis - gloss print sample. Curve Li is t to the four quantities of printing ink and the corresponding values of gloss print. Gloss print interpolate from the curve at the point where the number of ink on paper is 1.50 g/m

3.1.9. Report

The test report must contain a reference to this test method SCAN, as well as the following information:

(a) the time and place of testing;

(b) identification of the test material;

(c) the design and type of the printing form;

(d) the type and name used in printing inks, including the manufacturer and the batch number;

(e) the amount of ink transferred per unit area, for each of the test sample with an accuracy of 0.1 g/m2;

(f) the type and weight of paper used for otmerivanija;

(g) time delay before otmachivaniem;

(h) the time at which it was printed, for each test sample;

(i) any deviation from this method, which can affect the results.

3. 1.10. Reproducibility

Properties are used for testing printing inks 520068 can vary from batch to batch. Order to obtain comparable results between laboratories and batch printing inks you can use the following correction test conditions.

You must use the same coated paper and used printing ink party 00122615 and used printing ink of the new party. To perform printing on the paper with the printed ink in accordance with the method of testing is using both colors. If the magnitude of otmerivanija for the two colors are different, it is necessary to change the delay time from the transfer of ink to contact otmerivanija, so that the magnitude of otmerivanija for time delay of 30 s was the same for both colors with precision ±0,03 units of the print density. If the value of otmerivanija for a new party more than the support of the party, you should increase the delay time from the transfer of ink to contact otmerivanija, and if the amount otmerivanija less, you should reduce the delay time.

Note: All changes in the conditions of the test print should be noted in the report.

3.2. Method ISIT build up fastening

3.2.1. The principle of operation

The paper is tested using the method of ISIT, which shows the time of increasing the bonding of printing ink, which is correlated with the rate of fixation of ink. The amount of time obtained using the test device ISIT to determine the impact of printing ink - surface ("device ISIT"), produced by the firm SeGam Ltd, UK. First, a controlled quantity of printing ink is transferred onto the test paper and after a specified time measured bond printing inks. The rate of increase bonding of printing ink after transfer printing ink is correlated with the speed of consolidation of printing ink, which is th depends on the structure of the surface of the pores. The speed of consolidation of printing ink is small for non-porous surfaces and great for microporous coating of paper.

For the preparation and transfer of printing ink used commercial unit IGT for applying printing ink and the printing disc IGT. Procedure of transfer printing inks similar to those used in the method IGT determine the magnitude of otmerivanija when the time delay of 30 s (see p). The fastening of the printed ink on the paper is measured using a special device, which consists of a solenoid, coil springs, the load cell and the contact disk. Contact the disc press to printing ink on paper using electromagnetic forces. Contact the disk is separated from the printing (ink on paper) by force of the tension coil springs. The sensor tension mounted between the contact disk and a spiral spring, generates depending on the load signal, which is detected as the measured force bonding. After measuring the contact disk and print rotated so that the next contact between the disk and the printed ink on the paper is clean contact between the disk and the pristine surface of the printed ink. Increasing the tensile strength necessary to separate the printing ink layer, is measured automatically, so that the contact disc POS is edutella is separated from the printing and recorded each individual division.

3.2.2. Time building up fastening

The test results are a function of bonding the printed ink (Y - bond paper) depending on the time of fixing the ink (the X-axis is time, and time extension bonding is the time from the moment of transfer of the printing ink on the paper until the time when the maximum value of the bond, see chart in figure 1. In practice, the value of the bond is the force required to separate the contact disk from the layer of printing ink, which is printed on the base. You can use this method to separate the different surface properties of paper when you use the same printing ink, but different paper. The longer the time for maximum bonding to the same printing ink, especially non-porous (closed) is the surface, as shown in figure 1.

3.3.1. Test conditions for the method ISIT build up fastening

Test conditions for the method ISIT capacity fasteners are as follows:

The applied quantity of printing ink100 mm3
The quantity of paint1.4 g/m2for paint
Sun Challenge
1.5 g/m2paint Sicpa
Mediatech Ultra Fast
Time levelling paint5 in the rollers+5 with disc
Speed levelling paint0.7 m/s
One seal and the washing rollers
The pressure of the ink transfer15 kN/m
Printed disc20 mm, rubber surface
The time of contact with the disc0.5
Pressure contact with the disk8 (without dimension)
The speed of separation of the contact disk5 (without dimension)
The time intervals between print and1.9 C, 7,7, 13.3 s, 19,0, 39,6 C, 60,3, 80,9,
contactto 121.6, 162,3, 203,0, to 303.6 with, 404,2, 504,8

3.4. Test the absorption of printing ink K&N

The paper was tested using tests of absorption of printing ink K&N. the Following is a description of this method.

3.4.1. The principle of operation

Test printing ink distributed on paper within a specified period of time. The color density is a measure of the absorption capacity of the paper. Measured value of the reflection coefficient.

3.4.2. General information

First distributed on the boom of the e layer of the test printing ink on the paper surface. Part of the printing ink that is not absorbed into the paper, removed and measured the reflection coefficient of the paper coated with paint using the color measurement device company Elrepho. Adsorption properties of both sides of the paper were measured separately, it was performed two tests on each side. Test printing ink distributed on the side subjected to the test.

3.4.3. Printing ink K&N

Printing ink K&N used in most cases to the coated paper grades (time to absorb the printing ink 2 min).

The sample was cut into 4 pieces size 8×25 cm so that the long side was in the machine direction.

We have pieces of paper were placed on the glass plate, so that the two pieces were located upper side of the paper up, and two pieces - the bottom side of the paper up.

- Printing ink distributed on paper the size of about 5×8 cm, and the remainder of the test paper was left clean. It is recommended to use the protective paper over the net area of the test paper.

- Printing ink K&N thoroughly mixed in the Bank. The paint layer that covers the surface of the paper were distributed on paper and immediately included timer.

- The absorption of printing ink occurred within 2 minutes, after which excess paint prowess and from the surface of the paper with a spatula, and then fabric.

The destruction continued until there were no changes in lordship covered with printing ink area, usually 5-6 times.

- Quantity printing ink should be large enough, in order to avoid possible absorption of the entire ink in the paper.

- Tested pieces of paper was hung in a line, so that there are no obstacles for drying printing inks. Measurement of reflectance was carried out after 2 hours. The measurement time was registered.

3.4.4. Settings for color measurement

1. Included power supply.

2. Before starting the measurement waited for 5 minutes until lights a warning lamp.

3. Check the presence of the gray filter: should be visible mark on the damper. To measure the magnitude of the reflection coefficient:

1. Dumped by zero sensor

switch filter translated in position 12,

- adjust the indicator to zero potentiometer zero; clicked regulation and again applied to the zero point.

2. Included filter 10 through switch filters

- removed internal standard.

3. The sensor is regulated to a value of 100 on a clean area of the test print

- stack test paper was placed on the carrier plate, and the paper on top was a paper coated with a printing ink; paper and ispytav is administered paper were always on the same side;

- clean the area of the test paper was established under the orifice and on the measuring drum-set value : 100;

- the sensor is first regulated to zero only due to the rotation of the drum, and then again using the control buttons.

4. The measurement of the reflection coefficient of the region coated with the printing ink

the area coated with the printing ink of the test segment was moved under the measuring aperture;

the first indicator was adjusted to zero by means of the rotation of the measuring drum, and then again using the control buttons.

The reflection coefficient is directly indicated by the number on the measuring drum. The reading was performed with a precision of 0.1 units. In the same way measured the reflection coefficient for each test paper. Performed one measurement for the test paper.

3.4.5. The calculation result

K&N=100% - measured value of the reflection coefficient in %.

3.5. The test of Gurley hill on air permeability

The magnitude of Gurley hill measured in accordance with standard T-88. A large value means that the paper is not porous, if you want a long time to pass 100 ml of gas through the paper.

4. Printing ink

Printing ink can l is CSE to characterize the relative porosity of the paper using the values of sustainability, which is obtained from measurement of bonding with the use of the device Tack-0-Scope, which is a known method in the industry of printing inks. When measuring using Tack-0-Scope binding printing ink, which is a measure of the force necessary to break down the layer of printing ink increases, since the time when the solvent of printing ink starts to evaporate until it reaches the maximum level, after which the bond begins to decrease as the ink begins to dry out. For fast drying printing ink, which is preferred for offset printing with heat setting, according to the invention, the value of Tmaxit is small.

The measurement conditions when performing a test using the Test device-0-Scope:

The quantity of printing ink0.4 g
Stabilization time30,
Speed stabilization100 m/min
Speed test200 m/min
Temperature25°

5. Results

The results refer to the color coating and the paper samples specified in clause 2.

5.1. The magnitude of otmerivanija when the time delay of 30 s, the need for printed Kras is e and gloss print measured by using a tester suitability for printing type IGT

The results of the measurement of otmerivanija when the delay time 30 s are shown in table 3.

Printing ink: printing ink for testing bonding company Michael Huber, Munich, No. 520068, batch No. 00122615

Time and place: UPM-Kymmene Rauma Mills, 15.3.2002

Value otmerivanija when the delay time 30 sec for securities, according to the invention comprise more than 0.80, known not covered securities 0,79 and known for securities with floor less than 0.40. The magnitude of the needs in printing ink (in table 3, the Quantity of ink on paper") for securities, according to the invention, and known paper coating are more than 1.50, and for the well-known papers uncoated - more than 2.0. The amount of gloss printing paper, according to the invention, and securities MWC and WFC constitute more than 70%for a major securities without coverage is less than 60%, for securities LWCO - more than 65%. Change of gloss print (gloss printing - gloss paper in table 3) is more than 5% for securities, according to the invention, 7.6 percent for well-known securities without coverage for less than 3% for securities LWCO and 0% for securities MWC and FWC.

5.2. The permeability to air of Gurley-hill

The results of the measurement of the permeability to air of Gurley hill (G-H):

Paper according to the invention:-H, in/100 ml
Top 3 color/pattern 1231690
Top 5 color/pattern 813990
Opaque color 6/sample 1040260
Famous paper:G-H, C/100 ml
UPM Cote 60 g/m2(LWCO)3140
UPM Max 56 g/m2(SCO)360
UPM Star 100 g/m2(MWC)3430
UPM Ultra 70 g/m2(LWCO)2370
UPM Cote 100 g/m2(WFC)2240

The paper, according to the invention has a much lower permeability to air.

5.3. Capacity fasteners ISIT

Curves of increasing the bonding ISIT and time value of increasing the bonding ISIT for three well-known papers and one paper (coating color 3/sample 12), according to the invention, for printing inks Sun Challenge is shown in figure 2. The amount of time increasing bonding ISIT the paper, according to the invention, is more than 400, while the amount of time for a well-known securities account for less than 50 C.

Curves of increasing the bonding ISIT and time value of increasing the bonding ISIT for two well-known papers and two papers (covering 5 color/pattern 8 and opaque color 6/sample 10), according to the invention, for printing inks Sun Challenge is shown in figure 3. The amount is and the time of increasing the bonding ISIT for paper, according to the invention, is more than 300, while the amount of time for the famous uncoated paper is less than 136, and known for coated paper is less than 25 C.

Curves of increasing the bonding ISIT and time value of increasing the bonding ISIT for three well-known papers and one paper (coating color 3/sample 12), according to the invention, for printing inks SICPA Mediatech Ultra Fast shown in figure 4. The amount of time increasing bonding ISIT the paper, according to the invention, is more than 200, while the amount of time for the well-known papers are clearly less than 10 C.

Curves of increasing the bonding ISIT and time value of increasing the bonding ISIT for two well-known papers and two papers (covering 5 color/pattern 8 and opaque color 6/sample 10), according to the invention, for printing inks SICPA Mediatech Ultra Fast shown in figure 5. The amount of time increasing bonding ISIT the paper, according to the invention, is more than 150 s, while the amount of time for a well-known securities account for less than 25 C.

Curves of increasing the bonding ISIT and time value of increasing the bonding ISIT for a well-known paper for printing inks Sun Challenge and paint SICPA Mediatech Ultra Fast is shown in Fig.6. The amount of time for a well-known paper is less than 10 C.

5.4. Test absorption printed cu the ski K& N and porosity of Gurley-hill

For four securities, according to the invention, and for two well-known securities were obtained following the test results on the absorption of printing ink K&N.

K&N
Coating color 3/sample12 1,5
Top 5 color/sample8 1,3
Opaque color 6/sample10 1,3
UPM Cote 60 g/m2(LWCO)7,7
UPM Ultra 70 g/m2(LWCO)15,5

Paper, according to the invention, have a much lower absorption of printing ink.

5.5. Printing ink

1. Sun Challenge

The value of Tmaxfor printing inks Sun Challenge was 286, and to paint SICPA Mediatech Ultra Fast values were between 100 and 150 C.

Printing ink

Color Tone

Party
SICPA Mediatech Ultra FastSun Challenge

Cyan 3925-02

95364
Yellow

C

183480
Magenta

5000K

183481
Cyan

C

183482
Black

C

183483
Bond (100 m/min)128120112120169
Resistance(200 m/min)
Early.153128118130176
Max164132121138196
The stability of Tmax(C)150108101145286

5.6. Conclusions

Paper, according to the invention are clearly more closed surface than the well-known paper. Printing ink SICPA Mediatech Ultra Fast losing the solvent is much faster than printing ink Sun Challenge, and is therefore preferred for low temperature drying in offset printing with a heat setting.

Based on the test results it can be argued that well-known supercalendered coated paper UPM Max 56 g/m2(SCO) has for a long time building up fastening ISIT in excess of 100, and a greater value of otmerivanija IGT when the delay time 30 sec 0.50 units of the print density, because the capillary suction of paper UPM Max is small due to the large pore uncoated paper, which follows from the values of permeability to air of Gurley hill, which is clearly less than 1000 C. it is Possible to identify the difference between the East supercalendered papers uncoated and non-porous papers coated using the method of measuring the permeability to air of Gurley hill.

6. Printing method

Following are the parameters of the offset printing method with heat setting intended for papers, according to the invention:

Printing machine:Albert Frankenthal A 101-S
Print speed:6.2 m/s
Printing ink:ICPA Mediatech Ultra Fast
Wetting solution:3% alcohol-free additive SICPA Sol, 97% of the water
Drying:The final temperature of the tape 95°
The length of the dryer:8 m

Final temperature of the tape after drying of the printing machine is maintained at a level of less than 115°and preferably 100°C.

The printed product can be printed with the same printing ink and other printing conditions and using other raw materials in the printing process.

Below is data other paper, according to the invention, which can be used in addition to offset printing with heat setting also in the method of gravure printing. Stage of the manufacture of paper are the same as those described above, but the coating composition is as follows:

Talc (H)60 parts
Kaolin (Supragloss 95)40 cha the TEI
CMC (FinnFix 10)0.8 part
The copolymer of maleic anhydride and
styrene (Raisaprint D100)1 piece
Calcium stearate (Raisacoat 50)0.5 parts
Optical brighteners (Optiblank NF)0.2 parts

The content of solids in the coating color is 59% at pH 8.0. The target coating weight is 10+10 g/m2. The target moisture content is equal to 5.5%. Securities-fundamentals were base paper LWC, containing 40% of chemical pulp and 60% of mechanical pulp (groundwood), and the weight of the paper-the basics was 43 and 41 g/m2. First was covered with smooth side (the upper side). Temperature calendering (upper, middle, lower) was 100°S, 90°s and 80°C.

Paper that meets the requirements of the paper for offset printing with heat setting, but additionally requirements to paper for gravure printing relative smoothness and compressibility given coating composition. For this purpose, the starch was removed from the composition, and the latex is replaced by softer (Tg-20°).

Below is data of the third paper, according to the invention, which is more like supercalendering paper SC. Stage of the manufacture of paper are the same as those described above, but the coating composition is the following:/p>

The SB latex (Rhodopas SB3 88)100 pieces
Talc (H)100 pieces

The content of solids in the coating color is 20% at pH of 7.8, and the method of coating is a two-way method Sym Sizer. The target coating weight is 2+2 g/m2. The target moisture content is equal to 5.3%. Paper-based was a typical paper SC with an ash content of 30% and a fiber blend of 20% chemical pulp and 80% mechanical pulp. Weight of base paper was 56 g/m2. Temperature calendering (upper, middle, lower) was 100°S, 90°s and 80°C.

The paper can be coated by various coating and you can use various methods calendering, and the paper base may consist of different materials. The coating formulations can be used to cover the cardboard by making use of offset printing with heat setting. The drawings and accompanying description are used only to illustrate the inventive concept. Details of the invention, such as pigments, composition, binder coatings, methods of coating and calendering, uncoated paper, such as paper SC or cardboard, may vary within the scope of the claims.

1. Print basis, which is a substrate with OLE the faceted surface, with the value of the permeability of Gurley hill more than 5000 sec/100 ml, and the amount of IGT otmerivanija printing ink printed on the substrate when the time delay of 30 s, the component of more than 0.60 units density printing.

2. Printed base according to claim 1, characterized in that the time extension bonding ISIT is more than 100 for the paint which sustainability in the measurement of bonding with your device Tack-0-Scope is between 270 and 300 C.

3. Printed base according to claim 1, characterized in that the time of bonding capacity is more than 200, more preferably 250, printed with the specified paint, the value of otmerivanija IGT with time delay 30 is preferably more than 0.70 units density printing.

4. Print basis according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that it is a paper or paperboard, coated or surface treated.

5. Printed base according to claim 4, characterized in that the coating is made of pigmented material.

6. Printed base according to claim 5, characterized in that the pigment is a plate.

7. Printed base according to claim 6, characterized in that the shape factor of the pigment, represents the ratio of diameter to thickness of more than 2 and preferably more than 4.

8. Printed base according to claim 7, characterized in that the pigment is a pure talc or a mixture of talc and kaolin.

9. Printed base according to claim 1, characterized in that it made use of to offset printing with heat setting.

10. Printing method, consisting in the fact that it is carried out, at least one printing unit using a substrate having an oleophilic surface and which is non-porous, characterized by the value of the permeability of Gurley hill more than 5000 sec/100 ml, and media pigment or ink, which has a value of otmerivanija ink IGT when the exposure time 30 s in excess of 0.60 units density printing.

11. The method according to claim 10, wherein the substrate is a ribbon of paper or cardboard with the processed surface, and it serves at least through one printing unit.

12. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the time extension bonding ISIT printed substrate is more than 100 for the paint which sustainability in the measurement of bonding with your device Tack-0-Scope is between 270 and 300 C.

13. The method according to any of PP-12, characterized in that it is carried out by offset printing with heat setting.

14. The method according to any of PP-12, characterized in that the final temperature of the tape after drying of the printing machine is maintained at a level of less than 115°and preferably less than 100°C.

15. The method according to any of PP and 11, characterized in that the values of the stability of the printing ink in the measurement of bonding with your device Tack-0-Scope provide less 200 C.



 

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