Binary format for mpeg-7 samples

FIELD: technology for encoding and decoding, used for storing and transferring descriptive elements of document of XML-like structure.

SUBSTANCE: method includes using at least one table, received from XML structure, while table contains identification information for unambiguous identification of each descriptive element on hierarchic tree and structural information, browsing of hierarchic image of sample stored in memory from parent descriptive element to children descriptive elements for reaching encoded descriptive element, and extraction of identification information of each browsed descriptive element, encoding of aforementioned descriptive element in form of fragment, containing aforementioned information content and series of extracted identification information.

EFFECT: provision of efficient sample encoding plan and possible expansion of binary format for further plans, determined within limits of MPEG-7.

7 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The present invention relates to a method of encoding for encoding descriptive element schema instance of XML type that defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements, with the specified hierarchical structure contains hierarchical levels, parental descriptive elements and child descriptive elements, with descriptive element, which must be encoded contains informative content.

The invention also relates to a method of decoding to decode the slice that contains the content and consistency of the data identification information.

The invention also relates to the encoder, designed to implement the specified encoding, the decoder is designed for the implementation of this method decoding, and transmission system containing such an encoder and/or decoder.

The invention also relates to a table that is designed for use in this method of encoding or decoding, and signal transmitting coded descriptive elements generated using this method of encoding.

The invention can be applied to instances of the type XML schema type XML. In particular, it is applicable for documents of MPEG-7.

XML (extensible markup language 1.0, dated October 6, 2000) - this is a recommendation to the of sortium (W3C Consortium global hypertext system, the Internet). XML schema - this is also a recommendation of the W3C. An XML schema defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements (called an element or attribute in the W3C recommendation). An instance of the XML schema contains descriptive elements, structured as defined in the specified XML schema.

The purpose of the invention is to provide a method of encoding and decoding for transmission and storage of one or more descriptive elements(TA) XML document type, which represents an instance of an XML schema type.

The encoding method according to the invention, as described in the introductory paragraph, characterized by the fact that it includes:

- use at least one table, derived (derived) from the specified schema, with the specified table contains the identification information to uniquely identify each descriptive element (entry) in the hierarchical level and structural information to search for any child descriptive element from its parent descriptive element,

- view an in-memory hierarchical representation of the specified instance from the parent of descriptive elements to the child descriptive elements until, until you reach the descriptive element, which must be encoded, and extracting the identification information is rmacie for each viewed the descriptive element,

- the encoding specified descriptive element, which must be encoded in the form of a fragment containing the specified content and consistency of the data extracted identification information.

When descriptive element is defined in the schema as an element may have multiple occurrences (presence), the table also contains information about the occurrences of this descriptive element to indicate that the specified descriptive element can have multiple instances in the instance, and when the entry with the specified rank, seen during encoding, the corresponding extracted identification information indexed by this rank.

And the method of decoding according to the invention, as described in the introductory paragraph, characterized by the fact that it includes:

- use at least one table, derived from the XML schema type, the schema defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements (elements of the description), with the hierarchical levels of parental descriptive elements and child descriptive elements, the table contains the identification information to uniquely identify each descriptive element in a hierarchical level and structural information to retrieve any child opiat is a high element of its parent descriptive element,

- view sequence data identification information, a step by step one after the other,

at each step, the search is performed in the specified table of the descriptive element belongs to the current identification information, and adding this descriptive element to the in-memory hierarchical representation of an instance of the scheme, if it is not already contained in this in-memory hierarchical view,

- mentioned adding content to the narrative element of the above-mentioned hierarchical representations stored in memory, to which the (element) is the latest identification information of the above-mentioned sequence.

When descriptive element defined in the schema as an element may have multiple occurrences, then the table further comprises for this descriptive element data on the occurrence (presence) to indicate that the descriptive element can have multiple instances in the instance, and when the said sequence contains indexed identification information, then this index is interpreted as the rank of the entry for the related descriptive element, and the same descriptive element(s) of lower rank(s) are added to the above iera is hierarchical representation, stored in memory, if he(they) not already contained in it.

According to the invention each descriptive element (item description) is independent of the fragment in the stream, providing, in addition to random access to elements and attributes, also a high level of flexibility with regard to step-by-step navigation. This fragmented approach also takes into account the fundamental flexible and extensible nature of MPEG-7 through the use of schemes for the computation sequence data identification information related to the specified descriptive element. Fragmented approach leads to the fact that the proposed binary format satisfies the following properties:

- random access to elements and attributes of the instance.

- step-by-step disordered and volatile movement;

- compactness: encoded only the elements and attributes that have information content of a simple type;

- easy integration with enhanced Protocol instance.

- easy interpretation and partial implementation of binary descriptions MPEG-7.

Other advantages of the invention are identified using the intermediate representation of the schema. Indeed, the table that is directly and unambiguously created from the schema, allows you to share General information about possible school is lnyh instances between the server and the client in the form, specially designed for binary encoding and decoding of these instances. This General information, combining information such as structure, type and name of the characteristic elements and attributes that are not needed for forwarding to the client, which leads to an efficient encoding scheme of instances. It also provides an opportunity for binary format to achieve a means of ensuring full extensibility for future schemes defined within MPEG-7 or not.

Additional features and advantages of the invention will become clearer from the subsequent detailed description, which describes and illustrates preferred embodiments of the invention, in which:

figure 1 - schematic representation of the transmission system according to the invention;

2 is a diagram describing the steps of the encoding method according to the invention;

figure 3 - diagram describing the steps of the method of decoding according to the invention;

4 is a fragment that is implemented in the signal, according to the invention;

figure 5 is an example of the binary encoding of the compact instance key;

6 is an example of a binary encoding of the values of the descriptive element.

Below the invention will be described with reference to the XML instances XML schema. But this invention is not limited. It can be used for all instances and schemas, recorded on M is ciravegna Language of the same type.

The XML schema type defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements (or element or attribute in the XML terminology)that contains the parent descriptive descriptive elements and nested elements. An instance of an XML schema type is an XML document type that contains descriptive elements, structured as defined in the XML schema type. Some of the descriptive elements of the instance have information content. Others are only structural containers.

As shown in figure 1, the transmission system according to the invention contains the encoder BiM-C, located on the transmission side, and the decoder BiM-D, located on the receiving side. The BiM encoder-decoder BiM-D have access to the XML schema XML S XML schema either has in place or is loaded).

They also have access at least one table EDT, called description Table of elements (toe), directly and unambiguously generated from an XML schema. Description table of elements, first and foremost, is to ensure that it contained all the information required for encoding and decoding of any instance that is valid from the point of view of a given schema definition. Description table of elements is generated once and is available for encoding and decoding instance, which is about what is worn to this scheme. She should not be sent to the client.

The encoder scans the hierarchical view DM-C stored in the memory, the XML instance-C (DOM representation, as defined in the specification in the W3C Document Object Model document object), specification level 1, version 1.0, dated October 1, 1998, or any other in-memory hierarchical representation of the instance) and uses the information contained in the description Table of the elements, to form one or more binary fragments BiM-F (BF), and each binary fragment refers to the descriptive element instance.

According to the invention descriptive elements that have information content of a simple type (for example, a predefined type, simple type, the handle with its own binary representation), are encoded in the form of independent fragment consisting of the sequence data identification information (also called structuring instance key) and information values. Descriptive elements in the XML hierarchy, which are the only structural containers (i.e. not having information values), are not transmitted, and logically displayed on the side of the decoder from the description Table of the elements.

Binary fragments BiM-F are transmitted over the transmission network from the Internet and received by a decoder BiM-D (DB). The decoder used is the duty to regulate the Table description of items to search for:

- all of the parent structural descriptive elements

- entity (element or attribute) descriptive element,

- descriptive name of the element

type a descriptive element to decode the information value.

The decoder BiM-D updates (modifies) properly stored in a hierarchical memory representation of the DM-D. Then from the updated hierarchical representations stored in memory, is formed XML XML instance.

The description table of the elements can be thought of as a comprehensive definition of possible valid instances created isolated and unambiguously from the scheme through the development of structures descriptions of elements and attributes. Indeed, XML schema provides mainly two types of information: on the one hand, the position of all possible elements and attributes in an XML instance hierarchy accurately determined using the definitions (named or unnamed) complex type and element descriptions, on the other hand, the type of their values is specified through the use of predefined data types and definitions of simple type. For each element or attribute that is specified in this scheme, and which can be found in instance, in the description Table of the elements are their name (for example, the tag name for the element, type, substance (element or attribute) and the key (called the table the major structuring key) accurately and uniquely determine its position in the hierarchical XML structure. If the schema defines how the instance should "look"that it meets the requirements for validity and interoperability, the table item description sets how the instance will "appear"on the basis of structural types for the purpose of encoding.

The basis of the description Table of the elements and its use in the processes of encoding and decoding is a tabular structure the key that is designed to uniquely identify:

type and name of the transmitted descriptive element;

- its position in the XML hierarchy of the instance.

The syntax of this structuring key represents the entry point, where the dots represent the levels of the hierarchy, and numbering at each level is performed by "expansion" all descriptions of elements and attributes from the schema. The last digit of the account represents the identification information uniquely identifying a descriptive element to its hierarchical level. The previous figures are index information used to search for the child descriptive element from its parent descriptive element.

When descriptive element defined in the schema as having or potentially having multiple occurrences, then the information in the entry is added at the end point of entry (in the following description, information about the occurrence is represented by brackets).

The formation process description Table of elements is comparable to the view of all descriptions of the elements in the schema, in order to achieve the in-memory tree-view the largest instance (one that implements all the possible elements and attributes)corresponding to the specified schema. However, this "greatest instance is unlimited, because the schema defines clostridiosis patterns commonly used in MPEG-7. Therefore, there is a clear need to fix snowclone in the description Table of the elements. This is done by precise definition, in the case samovlenna descriptive element, the tabular structure of the previous key element in the tree structure, which has the same complex type. Therefore, such an element is not expanded further in the description Table of the elements. Table structure the key of the preceding element, called a key snowclone. It is also used to search for the child descriptive element from its parent descriptive element.

Specifying information together with key snowclone amount of structural information used to search for any child descriptive element from its parent descriptive element. When the parent descriptive elementales samovlenna descriptive element, then his "children" are descriptive elements, which indicates information identical samovlenna the key of the specified parent descriptive element. When the "parent" is not samovlenna descriptive element, its subsidiaries descriptive elements are descriptive elements that indicate information which is identical table structure key specified "parent".

Description table of elements allows you to set a single and unambiguous numbering of all the possible instances of the schema. Now we will present examples of schemes and the corresponding description Table of elements.

EXAMPLE 1

Scheme 1:

It is evident that the description table of the elements as the development of the descriptions of all of the circuit elements, may contain, among other information, the following item names with their corresponding tabular structure keys:

Table 1:
NameTable structure key (...)
Global0
Element 10.0
Element 20.1[]
Element 30.2
Item 40.2.0
Element 10.2.1
Attribute 10.3
The underlined digits of the identification information.

EXAMPLE 2

Scheme 2:

The description table of the elements contains, among other information, information such as the name and the key elements, field snowclone, when appropriate:

The underlined figures tabular structure of the key is identification information. Not underlined figures tabular structure of the key and key snowclone is structural information used to search for any child descriptive element from its parent descriptive element.

Note that the parentheses in the table structuring the key Element indicate the presence of a plurality of elements occurrence. Moreover, Token2 and Element taken into account when numbering, even though they are optional elements. Note also that the element 1 appears twice in the table because it can be implemented in different places in the tree structure.

EXAMPLE 3

Scheme:

The underlined figures tabular structure of the key is identification information. Not underlined figures tabular structure of the key and key snowclone is structural information used to search for any child descriptive element from its parent descriptive element.

Below is described how to encode descriptive element schema instance with reference to figure 2. According to figure 2 for encoding descriptive element DE XML instance-C XML schema-S in-memory hierarchical view DM-C XML instance C is viewed from parent to child descriptive element to achieve descriptive element DE, which must be encoded (step 2-1). At each hierarchical level of the identification information IDirelating to viewed a descriptive element of Diextracted from the tables EDT, which is associated with the XML schema-S (step 2-2). Structuring the key TO(DE) instance for descriptive element DE is formed as a sequence (an ordered list of values) derived identification information IDi(step 2-3). In conclusion, the fragment BiM-F(DE) is formed by adding information(DE) descriptive element DE to the sequence derived identification information (step 2-4). The fragment is converted to binary is a format for transmission.

Below is an example of such a coding process with reference to the above EXAMPLE 3.

TABLE-MATRIX 1 below gives an example of a schema instance, described in EXAMPLE 3. Left shows a structure of a key of the instance element, and the element is defined in the corresponding table row-matrix. The right shows a structure of a key attribute of the instance attribute defined in the corresponding table row-matrix. These structuring instance keys obtained through the above-described encoding method.

Now will be described step by step to illustrate the encoding descriptive element <Media Time per unit time="PT1N30F">written in bold in the Table is the matrix 1.

Step 1-1: in-memory hierarchical view instance is viewed from a parent of a descriptive element to the child descriptive element as long as there is a descriptive element, which must be encoded (here the attribute "Unit of time" element "Media Time"); viewed descriptive elements as follows:

Step 1-2: the corresponding identification information (including the index, if present) is selected from Table 3:

Video segment0
Video is egment (the first descendant of Videoselena) 3[0]

Video segment (the second child of Videoselena)3[1]
Media Time2
The unit of time2

Step 2: forming a sequence of the selected identification information: 0.3 [0].3 [1].2.2. This sequence represents the structure of the instance key is related to the encoded descriptive element.

Other structural keys of the instance shown in the Table is the matrix 1 can be obtained in the same way.

Structuring the instance key can also be considered as an implementation of the tabular structure of the key. Indeed, the elements of multiple occurrences actually indexed (leading to the formation of structural keys of the instance, such as 0.3[0], 0.3[1],...) and creates cycles snowclone (leading to the formation of structural keys of the instance, such as 0.3[0].3[1].2.2, which does not appear in the table, but can be computed from it). Structuring the instance key is encoded as a descriptive identifier of an element in a binary fragment instance.

Below is described a method of decoding a slice with reference to figure 3. According to figure 3, the method of decoding, the corresponding izobreteny is, includes:

step 3-1: finding in table descriptive of the item related to the received sequence data identification information,

step 3-2: decoding the received content (information) of the said descriptive element (found in the table) in accordance with the simplest type,

step 3-3: updating the in-memory tree view by combining these elements with its content; adding the parent of a descriptive element, if they are omitted; and in the case of multiple occurrences of adding the same descriptive elements of lower rank, if they are skipped.

TABLE-MATRIX 1
Structuring the key element instanceAcemlerStructuring the key attribute of the instance
<?xml version="1.0" encoding= " UTF-8"?>
0<Videoshot id="VS1">0.4
0.0[0]<a Keyframe>./../video/Scotland.jpg</a Keyframe>
0.1<annotation>My trip to Scotland</annotation>
0.2<Media Lying to the time unit="PT1N30F"> 0.2.2
0.2.0<Start>0</Start>
0.2.1<Stop>1500</Stop>
</Media>
0.3[0]<video segment id="VS2">0.3[0].4
0.3[0].0.[0]<a Keyframe>./../video /_1.jpg</a Keyframe>
0.3[0].0[1]<a Keyframe>./../video /video _2.jpg</a Keyframe>
0.3[0].0[2]<a Keyframe>./../video /video _2.jpg</a Keyframe>
0.3[0].3[0]<video segment id="VS3">0.3[0].3[0].4
0.3[0].3[0].0[0]
0.3[0].3[0].1<a Keyframe>./../video /video peyzaj/.jpg</a Keyframe>
0.3[0].3[0].2<annotation>l grove</annotation>
0.3[0].3[0]2.0<Media Time per unit time="PT1N30F">0.3[0].3[0].2.2
0.3[0].3[0].2.1<Start>0</Start>
<Stop>200</Stop>
</Media>
0.3[0].3[1]</video segment>
0.3[0].3[1].0[0]<video segment id="VS4">
0.3[0].3[1].10.3[0].3[1].4
0.3[0].3[1].2<a Keyframe>./../video /video peyzaj/.jpg</a Keyframe>
0.3[0].3[1].2.0<annotation>North beach</annotation>
0.3[0].3[1]2.1<Media Time per unit time="PT1N30F">0.3[0].3[1].2.2
<Start>200</Start>
<Stop>450</Stop>
</Media>
</video segment>
</video segment>
</video segment>

In practice adopted a sequence of data identification information is viewed incrementally each other, identification information for the identification information, and to update granaderos the in-memory tree view applies the following algorithm:

Algorithm (1):

step 4-1:

the current token = first identification information from the sequence;

current node = root stored in the memory of the hierarchical representation;

step 4-2:

previous descriptive element = descriptive element that corresponds to the current node.

the current descriptive element = descendant of the previous descriptive element having the current token as the identification information;

step 4-3: the current node has a child node corresponding to the current descriptive element?

step 4-4: if the current node has a child node corresponding to the current descriptive element, then go to step 4-8:

step 4-5: if the current node has no child node corresponding to the current descriptive element, then create a child node;

step 4-6: in case of multiple occurrences to create a "brotherly" node(nodes) of lower rank, if they do not already exist;

step 4-7: if the current token = last identification information from the received sequence, then add content to the site that you created in step 4-5, and go to step 4-8;

step 4-8:

the current token = next identification information;

current node = child node;

transition to step 4-2.

For example, in step 4-2 current descriptive element can be you in the den using the following algorithm, the specified encoding type of the C language:

Algorithm (2):

Let instance_key - ordered list of the values of the tokens from the first identification information in the received sequence for the current identification of the received sequence.

Let edt_key appropriate table structure the key, as it is found in the table.

Let prefix(key) - the largest prefix (first n tokens) key (key), which actually exists in the table.

Let suffix(key) - the last token key such that the key = prefix(key) + suffix(key).

Let self_cont(key) - key snowclone,

when (prefix(instance_key)! = instance_key)

{

instance_key = self_cont(prefix(instance_key)) + suffix(intence_key);

}

edt_key = instance_key.

Use the step-by-step algorithm (2) to the sequence 0.0.1.1.0 in the above EXAMPLE 2, gives:

instance_key = 0.0.1.1.0

prefix(instance_key) = 0.0.1

instance_key = self_cont(prefix(instance_key)) + suffix(intence_key) = 0.0+1.0=0.0.1.0

prefix(instance_key) = 0.0.1

instance_key = self_cont(prefix(instance_key)) + suffix(intence_key) = 0.0+0=0.0.0

Which leads, finally, to:

edt_key = 0.0.0,

that means that the current descriptive element is Item 4.

In the case of hierarchies without snowclone correspondence between tabular structuring key structuring key instance directly. Really, you just have to delete the indexes found in the structure of the instance key to display the appropriate table structure code. In you is opisnom EXAMPLE 1 descriptive element, presents structuring instance key, 0.1 [5], is the fifth Element 2, available in the global Element.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention the tabular structuring key structuring key instance compressed, as will be described later. Experiments have shown that this compression structuring key leads to significant gains in key size, although it offers exactly the same functionality.

The resulting keys are called compact key (abbreviated as CSK). In the most simple case (no samovnusheniya) CSK represents the number of the record structure of a key in the description Table of the elements.

First we need to add the key to the current list of fields EDT by number of records in the Table element descriptions. Applied to the above EXAMPLE 2 this leads to the following:

Algorithm (3) is used to calculate the CSK in the General case (with slowlycane structures) of the structuring key instance:

Algorithm (3):

Let instance_key - structuring the key instance of the specified descriptive element.

Let cs_key corresponding compact structure key.

Let prefix(key) - the largest prefix (first n tokens) key (key), which actually exists in the EDT (table).

suffix(key) - the last token key (key), such that key = prefix, key) + suffix(key).

Let self_cont(key) - key snowclone.

Let compact_form(key), the corresponding compact form key in EDT.

when (prefix(instance_key)! = instance_key)

{

cs_key = cs_key + compact_form(prefix(instance_key));

instance_key = self_cont(prefix(instance_key)) + suffix(intence_key);

}

cs_key = cs_key + compact_form(prefix(instance_key));

Example: We want to calculate CSK, corresponding to the following structure key: 0.0.1.1.0.

Using step-by-step algorithm described above, we obtain:

instance_key = 0.0.1.1.0

prefix(instance_key) = 0.0.1

cs_key = 3

instance_key = self_cont(prefix(instance_key))+suffix(intence_key) = 0.0.+1.0=0.0.1.0

prefix(instance_key) = 0.0.1

cs_key = 3.3

instance_key = self_cont(prefix(instance_key)) + suffix(intence_key) = 0.0.+0=0.0.0

Which leads, finally, to:

cs_key = 3.3.2

In the above example for simplicity, the item was not the item with many occurrences. However, it should be noted that each token structuring key instance (respectively CSK instance) could be indexed (respectively, contain multiple indexes).

The sole purpose of forming a compact structure of the key is reducing the size of the stream. So, first of all compact structuring the instance key is decoded in its expanded form (structuring the instance key) using the decoder before moving on to the above-described phase decoding. Bring the config below algorithm 4 restores the structure of the instance key, the corresponding compact key instance:

Algorithm (4):

Let resultNCKey - extended form compact key (the result of applying this algorithm).

Let compact_key - compact structuring the key instance of the specified descriptive element.

Let current_key - token compact structure of the instance key compact_key.

Let compact_key[i] is the i-th token compact_key.

Let size(compact_key) - the number of tokens compact_key.

Let diffCode(key1, key2) - data obtained by removing the common prefix key1 and key2.

Let NCKey(CKey), the corresponding expanded form compact key Ckey.

Let self_cont(key) - samovlenna key to key.

All indexes are first removed from compact_key and put back (restore) formed in the form compact_key at the end:

current_key = compact_key[0]

resultNCKey = NCKey(current_key)

for (i=1; i<size(compact_key); i++)

{

previous_key = current_key;

current_key = compact_key[i];

resultNCKey+ = "." + diffCode(NCKey(current_key),

self_cont(previous_key));

}

Example: We want to form a structure of the instance key that corresponds to the next CSK 3.3.2.

Use the step-by-step of the algorithm described above results in the following:

compact_key = 3.3.2

current_key = 3

resultNCKey = 0.0.1 (looking EDT)

(i=1)

previous_key = 3

current_key = 3

self_cont(previous_key) = 0.0

NCKey(current_key) = 0.0.1

diffCode(0.0.1, 0.0) = "1"

resultNCKey = resultNCKey+"." + "1"

⇒resultNCKey = 0.0.1.1

(i=2)

previous_key=3

current_key=2

self_cont(previous_key)=0.0

NCKey(current_key)=0.0.0

diffCode(0.0.0, 0.0)="0"

resultNCKey=resultNCKey+". "+"0"

⇒resultNCKey = 0.0.1.1.0

end

Therefore, 3.3.2 - this is a compact form of structuring of the instance key, 0.0.1.1.0.

The following describes an example of a binary syntax. The fragments are part of a file that has a header. The file header contains at least the identifier of the schema (defined in the MPEG standard ID or URL, as suggested in M6142).

Each fragment consists of a compact structure of a key K(DEi) instance (or structuring of the instance key and the value C(DEidescriptive element (also called content), as described in figure 4. The General form of the structure of the instance key is as follows:

Key[ind](...)[ind]. Key[ind][ind](...)[ind]. (...)where each group Key[ind][ind](...)[ind] is called a token. Tokens structuring key instance contain in most cases, a single index. Tokens compact structure of the instance key can contain multiple indexes. All keys and indexes are integer values encoded using a variable number of bytes. Thus, the whole structure of the key is encoded using a variable set of bytes, each of which is managed by 2 most significant bits with the following semantics:

Control bitsSemantics
Bit 7Bit 6
00"A new level": the Next byte is the beginning of a new token.
01"Continue": the Next byte should be interpreted as subsequent bits of the current key or index
10"Indexed": the Next byte is the beginning of the next index within the current token
11"The end": the Current byte is the last byte of the structure of the key.

Figure 4 also describes the General format for encoding values of the descriptive element. In accordance with figure 4 before adding to a binary file or stream values D(DEidata is encoded byte size S(DEi) data block. This is done to inform the decoder about the size of the encoded data and to ensure easy random access to data and quick interpretation of the stream. Because certain primitive data types can contain a large number of bytes (for example, free annotation text or movie scripts), it is assumed to encode the size of the data to use a variable number of bytes.

Bit 7Semantics
0"end": Encoding length completed
1"continuation": encoding length is continued on the following bytes

Figure 5 shows an example of binary encoding for compact key "0.1[70][1]". Five of bytes required to encode this compact key "0.1[70][1]". Each byte begins with two control bits. Six less significant bits are used to encode values. The control bits of the first byte is '00' (new level). Bits value '000000', which is a binary representation of the first identification information from the sequence ('0'). The control bits of the second byte is '10' (indexed). Bits value '00001', which is a binary representation of the second identification information from the sequence ('1'). The binary representation of the first index '70'-'1000110', it contains more than six bits.

Therefore, the coding is performed in two bytes: the third and fourth bytes. The control bits of the third byte is '01' (continued). Bits value '000110' (less significant bits of the index, which must be encoded). UE is alaysia bits of the fourth byte is '10' (the index). Bits value is '000001' (the most significant bits of the index, which must be encoded). Finally, the control bits of the fifth byte is '11' (end). And his bits value is '000001' (binary index value, which must be encoded).

6 gives an example of the binary encoding size of the data, 575 (binary representation: 10 00111111). The first byte consists of 7 less significant bits length values with the addition of the control bits that defines what you want the other bytes. The second byte contains the remaining bits control bit set to "end".

As already mentioned, the main advantage of the proposed coding scheme is that encodes only the attributes and elements that contain the value of a simple type, and items that are only structural containers (for example, a complex type), are ignored. This helps to ensure that this structure can be logically deduced on the side of the decoder using the description Table of the elements.

Example:

Consider the following fragment instance (found in the Central experimental test series):

(URL - uniform resource locator)

In this case, only MediaURL can be encoded (as is the Troc), using structuring key, which allows the decoder to recover the entire structure of the description Table of the elements. Other elements of the container may not be transferred.

In the General case should be coded all items that have the simplest type (i.e. for which it can perform a binary representation by standard that provides interoperability).

Examples of such simple types are types that are predefined XML schema (for example, string, tolerance,...), and basic special types of MPEG-7 (for example, unsignedInt1 (unsigned integer 1), unsignedInt2 (unsigned integer 2),..., MediaTime (Wednesday-Time), Matrix,...).

The simplest types also include extended types, which may include complex types in the following cases:

- there is no need to provide direct access to elements within the structure of complex type;

- there is already an efficient binary representation.

These criteria are definitely when the descriptors are defined using video and audiography MPEG-7. Indeed, a compact binary representation is already defined, and should be used. Moreover, there is no need (most of the time) access to specific parts of the handles (they make sense as a whole).

Efficiency (in the sense of compression of the information) in order Udet to increase with increase in the number of proto-types (which are encoded in an optimal way), but so is the complexity of the decoder, which is supposed to include means for decoding all standard simple types.

The TABLE below MATRIX 2 represents an example of the compact structure of the instance key for instance, already used in the TABLE IS the MATRIX 1. Compact structuring the instance key is related to the descriptive element <Media Time time Unit = 'PT1N30F'>, - 7[0].7[1].6. The binary representation of this compact structure of the instance key - '10-00011100-000000 10-000111 00-000001 11-000110'. The length of the content encoded in 1 byte: 0-0000111. And is PT1N30F converted from character strings (sequences) into bytes using conventional encoding of characters.

3
TABLE-MATRIX 2
Compact KeyInstanceCompact key attribute
<?xml version="1.0" encoding= " UTF-8"?>
0<video segment id="VS1">8
1[0]<a Keyframe>./../video/.jpg</a Keyframe>
2<annotation>My trip to Scotland</annotation>
<Media Time per unit time="PT1N30F">6
3<Start>0</Start>
5<Stop>1500</Stop>
</Media>
7[0]<video segment id="VS2">7[0].8
7[0].1[0]<a Keyframe>./../video/videopath/1.jpg</a Keyframe>
7[0].1[1]<a Keyframe>./../video/videopath/2.jpg</a Keyframe>
7[0].1[2]<a Keyframe>./../video/videopath/2.jpg</a Keyframe>
7[0].7[0]<video segment id="VS3">7[0].7[0].8
7[0].7[0].1[0]<a Keyframe>./../video /video peyzaj /.jpg</a Keyframe>
7[0].7[0].2<annotation>l grove</annotation>
7[0].7[0].3<Media Time per unit time="PT1N30F">7[0].7[0].6
7[0].7[0].4<Start>0</Start>
7[0].7[0].5<Stop>200</Stop>
 /td> </Media-Time
</video segment>
7[0].7[1]<video segment id="VS4">7[0].7[1].8
7[0].7[1].1[0]<Klucevsek>./../video/videopath/.jpg</a Keyframe>
7[0].7[1].2<annotation>North beach</annotation>
7[0].7[1].3<Media Time per unit time="PT1N30F">7[0].7[1].6
7[0].7[1].4<Start>200</Start>
7[0].7[1].5<Stop>450</Stop>
</Media>
</video segment>
</video segment>
</video segment>

1. The encoding method for encoding descriptive element of the XML instance of this schema that defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements, while the hierarchical structure contains hierarchical levels, parental descriptive elements and child descriptive elements, and a descriptive element to the categories should be coded, contains content, characterized in that it comprises the stages:

forming at least one table describing the elements of the mentioned XML-like schema that defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements, and the description table of the elements contains the identification information to uniquely identify each descriptive element in each hierarchical level and structural information for finding any subsidiary of the descriptive element from its parent descriptive element,

looking at in-memory hierarchical view of the above-mentioned instance from a parent of descriptive elements to the child descriptive elements to achieve the descriptive element, which must be encoded and extracted from the description table of the elements at each hierarchical level identification information of each scanned descriptive element,

form for each descriptive element of the sequence extracted identification information consisting of the extracted identification information for this descriptive element at each hierarchical level,

encode mentioned descriptive element, which must be encoded in the form of the fragment, and mentioned fragm the NT is formed by adding the aforementioned content to sequence the extracted identification information.

2. The encoding method according to claim 1, characterized in that, when the descriptive element is defined in XML schema as an element may have multiple occurrences, then the description table of the elements further comprises for this descriptive element information about the entry to indicate that the said descriptive element can have in the instance of many occurrences, and when during encoding viewed the entry with the specified rank, corresponding to the extracted identification information is indexed by this rank.

3. The method of decoding the slice that contains the content and sequence identification information, characterized in that it comprises the stages:

forming at least one table describing the elements of the XML schema, these XML schema defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements that contain hierarchical levels, parental descriptive elements and child descriptive elements, and the description table of the elements contains the identification information to uniquely identify each descriptive element at each hierarchical level and structural information for finding any subsidiary of the descriptive element from its parent opiate inogo element

view identification information for the identification information in the above sequence identification information,

at each stage of view is carried out in the description table of the elements search descriptive element related to the current identification information, and add this descriptive element to the in-memory hierarchical representation of an instance of an XML-like schema if it already by this time is not contained in the above-mentioned stored in memory hierarchical view,

add content to the narrative element referred to in-memory hierarchical representation, which refers to the latest identification information mentioned sequence identification information, so as to form an instance of the XML schema.

4. The method of decoding according to claim 3, characterized in that when the descriptive element is defined in XML schema as an element may have multiple occurrences, the description table of the elements further comprises for this descriptive element information about the occurrences to indicate that the descriptive element can be the instance a lot of matches, and when the said sequence contains an indexed ID info is the information, this index is interpreted for the corresponding descriptive element as the rank of the occurrence, and the same descriptive element of lower rank is added to the in-memory hierarchical representation, if it is not already included in it.

5. An encoder for encoding descriptive element of the XML instance of this schema that defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements, while the hierarchical structure contains hierarchical levels, parental descriptive elements and child descriptive elements, with descriptive element, which must be encoded contains content, characterized in that it contains

memory for storing at least one table describing the elements derived from the XML schema that defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements, and the description table of the elements contains the identification information to uniquely identify each descriptive element at each hierarchical level and structural information for finding any subsidiary of the descriptive element from its parent descriptive element,

the viewer mentioned instance from a parent of descriptive elements to the child descriptive elements to achieve descriptive e the ment, which must be encoded, and retrieving from the table a description of the elements on each hierarchical level of identification information for each scanned descriptive element, and

means for forming for each descriptive element of the sequence is extracted identification information consisting of the extracted identification information for descriptive element at each hierarchical level,

means for encoding the aforementioned descriptive element, which must be encoded in the form of the fragment, and the said fragment is formed by adding the aforementioned content to sequence the extracted identification information.

6. A decoder for decoding the slice that contains the content and sequence identification information, characterized in that it contains a memory for storing at least one table describing the elements derived from the XML schema, and mentioned XML schema defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements that contain hierarchical levels, parental descriptive elements and child descriptive elements, and the description table of the elements contains the identification information for uniquely identificare the project for each descriptive element at each hierarchical level and structural information for finding any subsidiary of the descriptive element from its parent descriptive element, means for performing view identification information for the identification information in the sequence identification information at each stage of view in the above table are searched descriptive element related to the current identification information, and added this descriptive element to the in-memory hierarchical representation of an instance of an XML-like schema, if it is not already contained in the above-mentioned stored in memory hierarchy predstavleniya tool to add content to the narrative element referred to in-memory hierarchical representation, which is associated with the last identity mentioned sequence identification information so as to form an instance of the XML schema.

7. Transmission system containing an encoder according to claim 5.

8. Transmission system containing a decoder according to claim 6.

9. The signal for transmission over the transmission network containing the encoder and/or decoder having a memory in which is stored at least one table element descriptions are derived from the XML schema, and XML schema defines the hierarchical structure of descriptive elements, while the hierarchical structure contains hierarchical levels, parental descriptive ELEH the coefficients and child descriptive elements, the description table of the elements contains the identification information to uniquely identify each descriptive element at each hierarchical level and structural information for finding any subsidiary of the descriptive element from its parent descriptive element, the signal includes at least one fragment representing coded descriptive element, and the fragment contains the value of the content and sequence identification information, which is linked in the description table of the elements with the specified coded descriptive element and its parent descriptive element.



 

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