Method of disposing charges of solid rocket fuel
FIELD: consuming industrial waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises securing the housing filled with the charge of the solid rocket fuel to the front part of the gas duct of the plant for using the charges of the solid rocket fuel, burning the solid rocket fuel, and processing the combustion products by cooling the combustion products with a material with high heat capacity, dry cleaning of gas with a neutralizer-sorbent, and afterburning the combustion products.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
7 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the field of destruction and disposal of rocket engines solid fuel by burning a charge of solid propellant (TRT), in particular to methods of disposal charges TRT on a stationary bench installations.
There is a method, implemented on a bench setup that allows you to burn the charges TRT directly in the solid rocket motor case. The apparatus consists of a vertically oriented stand resistant type in which the charge in the case is the output housing bore up .
The disadvantage of this method is the implementation of the solid rocket motor design parameters (flow, temperature, pressure, length of the torch, the composition of the combustion products), which are usually large, which leads to the impossibility of using the existing gas cleaning systems, such as ejection of scrubbers.
Also known is the method used in the trap , according to which charges TRT burned in a vertically mounted enclosure with an inlet and outlet, and in case after the start of combustion through the inlet serves liquid refrigerant (water) using a node of the forced water supply from the reservoir with liquid refrigerant. The method allows a given point in time to stop the burning of the charge, however, by this method in the combustion process are estimated the parameters of burning.
There is a method applied in the testing set to , which contains vertically mounted combustion chamber, a housing with an inlet and outlet, charge TRT, accommodated in the housing, a container of liquid refrigerant outlet of the housing is located in the upper part, and the input associated with the capacity of the liquid refrigerant, is in the lower part. In accordance with the way the free volume of the shell with charge TRT fill with liquid refrigerant (water). The required level of liquid refrigerant in the process of combustion of the charge supported by the node controlling the flow of liquid refrigerant. The disadvantage of this method is that the combustion process due to the need for regulation of water flow into the engine during the time of installation is labor-intensive, creates problems of proof and problems when working in conditions of negative temperatures.
The closest in technical essence and adopted for the prototype is the method used in the installation comprising a sealed combustion chamber with the flue, in front of which is fixed a charge of solid propellant in the housing, the combustion chamber contains the protective cover from the heat of the material block the injection of dry neutralizer and connected to the cleaning chamber of the combustion products through the receiver, and the block is clean, located in the cleaning chamber, connected to the block afterburning of carbon monoxide through the flow regulator and the combustion chamber is also connected with the supercharger inert exhaust gases of a heat engine. The combustion chamber, receiver and camera cleaning made in the form of sealed containers. The products of combustion of solid fuel from the housing is directed into the flue gas duct, provided with a protective casing of the heat capacity of the material, and then into the combustion chamber and the receiver, where it is the accumulation over time of burning. The combustion products are cooled due to the heat of the flue and the protective casing of the heat capacity of the material. Due to this reduced pressure in sealed containers. Clean accumulated in containers of products of combustion is performed in the cleaning chamber, which serves dry powder neutralizer or install it catalytic filter dry cleaning for a longer time than the time of combustion of the charge TRT, through the use of the flow regulator of the combustion products at the exit of the chamber cleaning unit afterburning of carbon monoxide .
The disadvantage adopted for the prototype of the method is that the first products of combustion capture in the combustion chamber and the receiver and then gradually perepuskat gases in the cleaning chamber, which serves the catalyst-sorbent in the form of dispersed hydroxides on the model or potassium. The cooled gases are carried out through the use of heat capacity materials of construction casing and the combustion chamber. All these operations are suitable for the disposal of small charges of solid fuel, when the volumes of gases under normal conditions are relatively small, for example 100-200 nm3, i.e. the mass of the charge is in the range of 100-200 kg If necessary, disposal charges solid fuel with masses 10000-25000 kg using the cumulative gas tanks becomes difficult due to the large volume, mass, and complexity of the service.
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention was to develop a method of disposal charges solid fuel combustion without the use of storage tanks for expiring products of combustion of solid fuels in order to reduce the material intensity of installation, ease of maintenance, taking advantage of the dry neutralization of acidic impurities.
The solution of a technical problem has been achieved by the fact that in the method of disposal charges solid rocket fuel, including bond charge TRT in the housing with the front part of the flue installation disposal charges solid rocket fuel, the combustion of a charge of solid propellant and processing of products of combustion, which consists in cooling the combustion products heat the material, the soup purification of gases by the catalyst-adsorbent and the oxidation products of incomplete combustion, connect with the front part of the flue charge of solid propellant in the housing without pulling the nozzle, introducing more on the periphery of the subsonic jet of combustion products of solid rocket fuel in the front of the flue air suspension dispersed solid endothermically decomposing the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent as the specific heat of a material with a coefficient of excess catalyst-sorbent 8-10 in relation to remove acidic impurities, with a coefficient of ballasting the products of combustion of the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent 2,5-3 with respect to the mass of the charge of solid rocket fuel and air excess factor of 1.1-1.3 in relation to digemin products of incomplete combustion, processing of products of combustion of solid fuel is carried out in the duct with respect to the cross-sectional area of the subsonic jet of combustion products at the outlet of the housing to the cross-sectional area of the flue of 0.025-0.050 and the length of the flue 15-20 diameters, is removed by means of cyclones disperse the condensed products from the mixture of combustion products with air suspension, conduct the purification of gas, remote together with disperse the condensed products, mix re-purified gas from the gas stream, purified using cyclones, and remove all of the gas in the chimney. Predecessor Converter-Sorb the NTA is calcium carbonate.
The precursor of the catalyst-adsorbent is calcium acetate. The precursor of the catalyst-adsorbent is a mixture of calcium carbonate and calcium acetate. The precursor of the catalyst-adsorbent is calcium hydroxide. Deleted condensed products are cooled, divided into the spent sorbent, unspent sorbent, the sorbent precursor and condensed phase products of combustion of solid fuel and then re-used in the composition of the air suspension unspent catalyst-sorbent and the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent in the total mass of dispersed solids in air suspension. Regenerate unspent catalyst-sorbent. Additional cooling of the mixture of combustion products and air suspension is carried out using moving through the duct intermediate heat carrier from the heat of the material of the regenerative heat exchanger deferred heat.
A comparative analysis of the essential features of the prototype and the proposed method shows that distinguishing the essential features of the proposal are those in accordance with which:
burn a charge of solid fuel in the housing without traction nozzle with an exit from the housing subsonic stream of combustion products;
- introducing more in the front part of gasko is and on the periphery of the subsonic jet of combustion products of solid fuel air suspension dispersed solid endothermically decomposing the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent as heat material with excess the catalyst-sorbent 8-10 in relation to remove acidic impurities, with a coefficient of ballasting the products of combustion of the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent 2,5-3 with respect to the mass of the charge of solid rocket fuel and excess air of 1.1-1.3 in relation to digemin products of incomplete combustion;
- spend in the duct with respect to the cross-sectional area of the subsonic jet of combustion products at the outlet of the housing to the cross-sectional area of the flue of 0.025-0.050 and the length of the flue diameters of 15-20 processing of products of combustion of solid fuel, which consists in cooling the products of combustion, dry cleaning gases by the catalyst-adsorbent and the oxidation products of incomplete combustion;
- removed by cyclones disperse the condensed products from the treated mixture of combustion products with air suspension dispersed solid endothermically decomposing the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent;
- conducting a post-treatment gas, remote together with disperse the condensed products;
- mix re-purified gas from the gas stream, purified using cyclones, and remove all of the gas in the chimney.
The essence of the present invention will be more readily understandable from a consideration of the figures of the drawing, where:
figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the installation for implementing the method of the disposal of the charges of the solid fuel of the present invention;
figure 2 shows an example of graph reduction temperature of products of combustion of the solid fuel after cooling, post-combustion and neutralization according to the present invention and growth of the concentration of the solid phase in the gas mixture in the gas duct, depending on the ratio of the abundance of the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent (n) to remove acidic impurities or from the ratio of ballasting (m) products of combustion precursor of the catalyst-sorbent relative to the weight of a charge of solid propellant,
and the following description of the exemplary embodiment of the method of disposal charges solid fuel.
As shown in figure 1, the installation for the implementation of the proposed method of disposal charges solid fuel contains flue 1 round, for example, with an inner diameter of 3.6 m or similar area of a rectangular cross-section, the front end wall which is attached to the solid rocket motor case 2 with a charge of solid fuel 3, mounted on the frame platform (not shown) so that the hatch back plate of the housing, for example, the diameter 0,78 m, open into the cavity of the duct. On the front end wall of the flue posted by uniformly distributed around the circumference of the periphery of the hatch body solid 2 pneumatically 4 supply air suspension dispersed solid endothermically decomposing PressTV is nice Converter-sorbent, coming from the hopper 5 to the device fluidized by supplying air through a distribution grid. Pneumatically 4 is connected with pneumotachometer in the form of a battery of cylinders (one shown) 6, for example, capacity 81600 m3. The duct 1 with a square bore, 20-40 times larger area flow area aft of the bottom of the solid rocket motor housing 2, ends with a battery of four uniflow cyclones 7, the axial outputs of which are communicated with the reservoir 8, and the peripheral outputs caught dispersed solid phase bound by the channel 9 with receiving hopper 10 hot solid products. The bin is provided with a flow-through refrigerator 11, the vibrator 12 to exclude clumps dispersed solid products and the output of the classifier mixture of solid products 13. The receiving hopper 10 is equipped with a block upper self-cleaning ceramic filters type 14 "Candela", the outputs of which are communicated with the reservoir 8. The outlet manifold 8 is connected with the chimney 15.
When implementing the method for the installation of figure 1 in the hopper 5 download the precursor of the catalyst-adsorbent, which preferably is calcium carbonate, caso3crushed to particles with an average size of 50-100 μm. When such particle size calcium carbonate has good fluidity and will require less air flow for fluidization. The grinding of the carbon is and calcium to smaller particles increases the cost of the technology and complicates transportation. Materials adopted by the dispersion of 50-100 microns are easily transported by screw conveyors and pneumatic feeders. When the entry of such particles into a high-temperature jet of combustion products occurs further fragmentation or explosive disintegration of the solid particles due to a sharp increase of internal stresses as a result of increased surface temperature, which leads to the formation of solid particles with sizes of the order of 10-20 microns, and in some cases even less than 10 μm. The particle size of the material plays a significant role in the sorption of acidic compounds, which occurs in heterogeneous conditions (reaction between solid and gas). Smaller particles have more surface area to the volume of the solid reagent in contact with the acid gas impurities in the products of combustion, increasing the rate of absorption of impurities. When the dispersion of 10-20 μm powdered calcium carbonate in the high temperature zone is a fast calcined to decompose to Cao and CO2. The reaction takes place with absorption of heat.
Caso3→Cao+CO2-177,89 kJ (1,779 kJ/g caso3)
RESF 2, past control, mounted on the frame platform (not shown), secured, covered with special tent and taken by the locomotive to the incinerator. After fixing jig platform and bonding ass is his bottom housing with a receiver end wall of the flue 1 installation disposal in solid propellant rocket motors 2 insert the actuator (not shown) and run the system purge duct air from pneumogastric 6. For 0.3-1.5 seconds before the supply of electric current to the actuator include the submission of an air suspension of dispersed solid endothermically decomposing the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent calcium carbonate, which expires in the cavity of the duct from pneumatically 4 in multiple streams on a single-row or multi-row circular path around an open hatch in the rear of the bottom of the solid rocket motor housing 2.
Formed after ignition of a charge of solid fuel 3 subsonic high-temperature stream of products of combustion is mixed with the annular stream of air suspension of calcium carbonate. Mixing is an exchange of momentum and energy. The cooling stream of combustion products is caused by the heating of the cold air suspension, and an endothermic heat effect of reaction for the decomposition of calcium carbonate.
For solid propellant rocket motors with a total mass of solid fuel 25000 kg major products of combustion include
- solid phase (alumina and other products) 10195,71 kg
- the gas phase (in addition to the acidic impurities) 11265,76 kg
- hydrogen chloride (acid impurity) 3538,53 kg
Thus, the gas phase contains to be afterburning of carbon monoxide in the number 6935,63 kg and hydrogen H2the number 716,9 kg Afterburning carried out by supplying air into the composition of the air suspension. The amount of air is determined is by reactions afterburning coming with heat dissipation
2SD+O2→2SD2+565 kJ (or 10.1 kJ/g)
2H2+O2→2H2O+483,64 kJ (or 120,9 kJ/g N2)
To burn WITH need 0,57 kg O21 kg or 2,858 kg of air when the air excess factor of 1.1. When disposing of a single charge will need 19822 kg of air. For afterburning of H2you need 8 kg of O21 kg of N2or 40 kg of air excess factor of 1.1. When disposing of a single charge on the oxidation of hydrogen will be required 28676 kg of air. Just afterburning required 48498 kg of air or 40360 m3.
The process of neutralization of the hydrogen chloride is described by the equations:
Consumption of calcium carbonate to neutralize in terms of stoichiometry is 1,3661 kg caso31 kg of HCl. Thus, the stoichiometric demand for calcium carbonate for the disposal of a single charge is 4839 kg of Excess calcium carbonate is injected to increase the completeness of neutralization of HCl and for efficient cooling of the mixture of products of combustion of solid fuel and air suspension as due to the heat of the combustion products to the cold air suspension, and the reaction is endothermic decomposition of the excess of calcium carbonate.
The estimated temperature of the mixture of combustion products and air suspension after passing Rea the Nations post-combustion and neutralization of acidic impurities is integrally from the balance of entry into the system of thermal energy from the combustion products, when oxidation, neutralization and air suspension on the one hand and the loss of thermal energy for the decomposition of calcium carbonate and heating design, on the other hand.
where Hi- the number of selected heat sources heat dissipation;
Qjthe amount of absorbed heat sources absorption or lost due to drainage design;
Wl- the amount of heat introduced into the mixture of air suspension (usually very small and in approximate calculation not included);
mC - mass and beats. the heat capacity of the components of the mixture of combustion products and air suspension.
To calculate a first approximation adopted:
- the average specific heat of the mixture processed products of combustion and the remainder of the introduced air suspension C=1,146 j/g·deg;
- thermal energy of the combustion products of the charge weight 25000 kg initial temperature 3000°With H1=112,5 GJ;
- thermal energy afterburning WITH H2=70 GJ;
- thermal energy afterburning H2H3=86,68 GJ;
- thermal effect of the reaction of neutralization of H4=40,7 MJ (not included).
Total 269,2 GJ
When excess factor 1,0 entire caso3the number 4839 kg is involved in the neutralization process. If the excess factor 2, the decomposition process with absorption of heat involved 439 kg caso 3selecting 8604,61 MJ or 8,604 GJ. Change in the coefficient of excess of caso3select the desired temperature of the exhaust gases for further processing, as shown in figure 2.
The residence time of calcium carbonate in the flue should not be less than 1 C. This time is sufficient for the calcined particles of calcium carbonate size 10-20 μm to obtain a large specific surface area. So at the time of calcination 0.5 s and the particle size 3-45 μm was obtained, the specific surface area of Cao from 20 to 80 m2/year Maximum tank surface area was achieved at temperatures of about 1000°C. At high specific surface area rate of neutralization, i.e. the speed reduction of the concentrations of acidic impurities, increase and completion of the neutralization process is achieved on shorter sections of the flue.
The flow velocity in the duct is determined by the initial amount of movement of the stream of combustion products of solid fuel supplied air suspension and a cross-section of the flue. The mass of products of combustion of solid fuel is 20-25% of the total mass flow in the duct so that the flow rate determines the input air suspension. For efficient operation of the battery uniflow cyclones 7 preferably have a flow rate at the end of the duct not less than 15 m/s Maximum speed on rangiwaea the residence time of the gas mixture in the gas duct is not less than 1 and is valid from a structural and economic considerations length of the flue. Practical is the length of 55-60 m
Before battery uniflow cyclones 7 chilled neutralized dusty gas mixture has a concentration of solid phase is determined by the solids content in the combustion products and the amount of the calcium carbonate is converted into Cao and CaCl2.
where 1,11 - the ratio of molecular masses CaCl2and caso3;
n is the ratio of the abundance of the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent;
0,56 is the ratio of molecular mass of Cao, caso3.
The mass of the gas phase will consist of the mass of the gas components of the combustion products of solid fuel, mass of products of combustion chamber and nitrogen of the air that came in with the air suspension, the mass of carbon dioxide from decomposition of calcium carbonate and water mass from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with calcium oxide
The solids concentration in the gas mixture is
where 0,8322, nm3/kg specific volume of air at normal conditions.
As can be seen from the graph of figure 2, the solids concentration in the gas mixture is at the level of 0,248-0,526 kg/nm3that is comparable with the concentrations in the well-known experiments on the purification of gas flow cyclones (Thermophysics aeromechanical. V.10. No. 3. 2003. S), in which the fullness of purification was obtained more than 95%.
As can be seen from the graph of figure 2, the deep temperature reduction is achieved by the coefficient ballasting the combustion products calcium carbonate 2.5 to 3 in relation to the mass of fuel.
To reduce the coefficient of ballasting the products of combustion of the solid fuel precursor of the catalyst-sorbent or more temperature reduction additional cooling is carried out using moving through the duct intermediate heat carrier from the heat of the material of the regenerative heat exchanger deferred heat.
At the entrance to the uniflow cyclone 7 using swirl (impeller) are spin dusty thread. Under the action of centrifugal force, the solid phase particles to move towards the periphery of the housing of the cyclone, and the cleaned gas allow to flow through the axial outlet, limited clipper with louvered grilles in the reservoir 8, and collected on the periphery of the housing of the solid phase together with part of the gas mixture, about 10-15%, by channel 9 is directed to a receiving hopper 10 hot solid products. The gas phase away from the hopper 10 through the upper block of ceramic filters type "Candela" 14 with pulse jet cleaning. The Firm Tenmat Ltd. (UK) produces such filters with diameters from 60 to 150 is m and lengths from 350 mm up to 3000 mm Filter elements are fixed at the top of the tank cover so that dust-Laden gas can reach them from the outside. After accumulation of dust on the surface in the form of agglomerates is drop them down into the dust collector, either spontaneously or under the action directed from the inside of the filter impulse pressure. Filter elements are available in standard sizes enable cost-effectively handle the volume of hot gases to 0.5 mlnm3/h (139 nm3/with, in this example, the maximum gas flow through the filters will be of the order of 80-100 nm3/s). The speed of movement of the gas filter is selected depending on the temperature, size distribution of particles and the nature of the material particles and is 100-150 m/h pressure Drop on the filter, usually at the level of 200 mm of water column. Completeness of cleaning up to 99.9%. The outputs of filters report with header 8. Through the outlet manifold 8 peeled divert gases in the chimney 15.
In the receiving hopper 10 is installed flowing fridge vibrator 11 and 12 carry out the cooling of the incoming solid phase prior to its processing in the classifier 13. In the classifier shared by solid phase components, differing in density, namely:
|calcium carbonate||of 2.93 g/cm3|
|calcium oxide||3.4 g/cm3|
|calcium chloride||2,512 g/cm|
|aluminium oxide||of 3.96 g/cm3|
Calcium chloride and aluminum oxide are sent for recycling, and calcium oxide and calcium carbonate sent for regeneration for reuse. Calcium oxide regenerate or to calcium carbonate by keeping in suspension layer in passing flue gases, or to the calcium hydroxide CA(Oh)2by keeping a layer of calcium oxide above the water or by steaming, or by the conversion of calcium oxide to calcium acetate by exposure of the layer of calcium oxide in acetic acid vapors. After chemical treatment and drying the obtained endothermically decomposing the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent sent together with the remaining calcium carbonate in the mill and sieve classifier for removal in the hopper 5 product with a grain of 50-100 μm. Larger particles additionally grounded, and smaller subjected to granulation with a ceramic binder to the specified size.
Particles of calcium hydroxide when calcined give greater specific surface area than calcium carbonate, but endothermic heat effect with less 1,476 CGG CA(Oh) 2.
The use of plants for recycling charges solid rocket fuel for the proposed method would eliminate the use of water for cooling the products of combustion during combustion and neutralization of acidic combustion products using aqueous solutions of alkalis. Delayed cooling of the solid phase, i.e. after completion of combustion makes it possible beneficial use accumulated in the solid phase of the heat of combustion of fuel, such as adding heat to the heating system. Installations for the disposal of the charges of the solid fuel is more compact in comparison with the known technical solutions, there are no large storage tanks for liquids and gases, tank predecessor of the catalyst-sorbent mass, for example, 100 tons, has a volume of 34 m3that significantly less water tanks 200 m3in the system water-cooled products of combustion. Apply the neutralizer-sorbent easily regenerated. In the case of the adsorption on the surface of products of incomplete combustion catalyst-sorbent may be subjected to annealing for burning of organic residues.
Sources of information
1. Design and testing of solid rocket motor. / Under the editorship of Vanickova A.M. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1980, p.106-107, 2, 10.
2. Patent Franz and No. 2185941, CL In 05 With 5/00, 1974.
3. RF patent №2021560, CL F 23 G 7/00, 1994.
4. RF patent №2087804, CL F 23 G 7/00, 1997.
1. The method of disposal charges solid rocket fuel, including bond charge TRT in the housing with the front part of the flue installation disposal charges solid rocket fuel, the combustion of a charge of solid propellant and processing of products of combustion, which consists in cooling the combustion products heat the material, dry cleaning gases by the catalyst-adsorbent and the oxidation products of incomplete combustion, characterized in that connected to the front part of the flue charge of solid propellant in the housing without pulling the nozzle, introducing more on the periphery of the subsonic jet of combustion products of solid rocket fuel in the front of the flue air suspension dispersed solid endothermically decomposing the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent as heat material with a coefficient of excess catalyst-sorbent 8-10 in relation to remove acidic impurities, with a coefficient of ballasting the products of combustion of the precursor of the catalyst-sorbent 2,5-3 with respect to the mass of the charge of solid rocket fuel and air excess factor of 1.1-1.3 in relation to digemin products of incomplete combustion, processing of products of combustion of solid fuel is carried out in g is thode with respect to the cross-sectional area of the subsonic jet of combustion products at the outlet of the housing to the cross-sectional area of the flue of 0.025-0.050 and the length of the flue diameters of 15-20, removed by cyclones disperse the condensed products from the mixture of combustion products with air suspension, conduct the purification of gas, remote together with disperse the condensed products, mix re-purified gas from the gas stream, purified using cyclones, and remove all of the gas in the chimney.
2. The disposal method according to claim 1, characterized in that the precursor of the catalyst-adsorbent is calcium carbonate.
3. The disposal method according to claim 1, characterized in that the precursor of the catalyst-adsorbent is calcium acetate.
4. The disposal method according to claim 1, characterized in that the precursor of the catalyst-adsorbent is a mixture of calcium carbonate and calcium acetate.
5. The disposal method according to claim 1, characterized in that the precursor of the catalyst-adsorbent is calcium hydroxide.
6. The disposal method according to claim 1, characterized in that the remote condensed products are cooled, divided into the spent sorbent, unspent sorbent, the sorbent precursor and condensed phase products of combustion of solid fuel and then re-used in the composition of the air suspension unspent sorbent and the sorbent precursor in the total mass of dispersed solids in air suspension.
7. The disposal method according to claim 1, characterized in that neithr shadowandy regenerate the sorbent.
8. The disposal method according to claim 1, characterized in that the additional cooling of the mixture of combustion products and air suspension is carried out using moving through the duct intermediate heat carrier from the heat of the material of the regenerative heat exchanger deferred heat.
FIELD: methods of purification of flue gases.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of purification of flue gases and may be used to decrease the outbursts of nitrogen oxide with the help of the method of the high-temperature selective non-catalytic reduction. The method provides for feeding of the previously prepared steam-gaseous reduction mixture into the gas flue of the flue gas burning aggregate with the temperature of the flow of the purification gases of 700-1200°C. At that the steam-gaseous reduction admixture is prepared in the connected to the gas flue high-speed reactor during 0.5-5 seconds by introduction of a water solution of carbamide with a superheated steam at the pressure of 3-10 atm. Concentration of the water solution of carbamide makes 20-40 mass %. The time of the contact of the water solution of carbamide with the superheated steam predominantly makes 0,5-2 seconds. The pressure in the reactor predominantly makes 3-6 atm. The temperature of the superheated steam makes 200-400°C. The invention ensures simplification of the production process of purification of the effluent gases from nitrogen oxides, to increase the level of purification of such a gas in the broad range of the temperatures of the purified combustion products, and also to decrease significantly the share of the secondary contaminant - ammonia, in the purified gases.
EFFECT: the invention ensures simplification of the production process of the effluent gases purification from nitrogen oxides, to increase the level of purification of the gases in the broad range of the temperatures of the purified combustion products, to decrease significantly the share of the secondary contaminant - ammonia in the purified gases.
5 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: water heating.
SUBSTANCE: boiler can be used for heating and hot water supplying. Boiler has rectangular closet provided with heat insulation and casing. There is furnace with burner, heat exchanger and branch pipe for letting combusting gas through outer wall of room's wall are disposed inside the closet. The branch pipe is provided with cassette filled with adsorption matter. Cassette is hermetically placed in branch pipe for letting combustion products out between casing of rectangular heat-protected closet and internal surface of outer wall of the room. Branch pipe for letting products of combustion out behind outer wall of the room is mounted in vertical and has cone-shaped muzzle with curvilinear planes and guides and twisting ribs.
EFFECT: improved ecological parameters of exploitation.
FIELD: technologies for combustion of flush gases, including those under high pressure, during extraction and processing of natural gas and oil.
SUBSTANCE: body of burner, mounted on gas inlet pipe, is made conical with widened portion at upper portion, in the body additionally mounted are two catalyst elements, at lower portion on inlet section first catalyst element is positioned, and above on outlet section - second catalyst element, rotary shutters are mounted on base of conical body in additional way, so that in closed position they are in contact with first catalyst element, and open position between first catalyst element and body gap is formed, also, device is additionally provided with one or more main torches, mounted in gas inlet pipeline below rotary shutters and first catalyst element. Relation of diameters of first and second catalyst elements matches relation of debits of hydrocarbon gas, fed in normal mode and during salvo exhaust. Catalyst elements are manufactured either in form of cell-like structured blocks with direction of channels in parallel to direction of feeding of flush gases, or in form of block sections with granulated catalyst, for example, Rachig rings, or in forms of block sections with active-catalyst metallic shavings, or in form of blocks with active-catalyst metallic meshes.
EFFECT: higher ecological safety and fullness of combustion of flush gases in broad flow range, simplified construction and comfort of maintenance.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: boiler plant comprises chimney with air passage between the reinforced concrete shaft and lining, which define gas discharging passage, air heater mounted under the gas discharging passage, and fan for supplying heated air to the air passage in the chimney. The air passage is separated by two vertical baffles into two sections. The pipe is provided with a box for discharging the heated air from one section of the air passage to the other.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: organic industrial and domestic waste recycling, particularly for housing and communal services, fuel and energy complex, oil and organic synthesis industry and for general mechanical rubber goods production.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises steam generator with furnace and loading device installed in front of the furnace. Loading chamber located in front of the furnace, as well as cooling chamber, thermolysis furnace, condenser with heat energy dissipation means, separator for condensate separation into water and liquid fraction, and liquid fraction rectification means are also provided. Liquid condenser outlet is connected with separator inlet, gas condenser outlet is connected with steam generator. Vessel is linked to water separator outlet. The vessel is connected with water inlet of steam generator and with water sprayer of cooling chamber through filter. Liquid fraction rectification means is attached to liquid separator outlet.
EFFECT: decreased emission of hazardous matter in ambient space.
7 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil processing industry; devices for ecological purification ejected gases.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of oil processing industry, in particular, to the photothermocatalytic reactor of ecological purification of the ejected gases from hydrocarbon impurities including carbon oxide. The reactor contains the body with the technological fitting pipes, the catalyst devices and the sources of the infra-red radiation. The catalyst devices contain the resistance electrical winding placed on the catalyst devices and the swirling or turbulizing turbulence catalyst insertions. The insertions are made in the form of the planar annular and semi-conical perforated components and established coaxially to the sources of the infra-red radiation. The insertions can have a various grade of perforation both in radius and on the whole surface. The catalyst devices of the non-round cross section have the internal equivalent diameter equal to (6.5-16.5)drad, wheredrad is the diameter of the radiating unit. The invention allows to reduce the power input, to expand the range of the reactor application and to increase efficiency of neutralization of the ejected gases.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the power input, expansion of the range of the reactor application and the increase of efficiency of the ejected gases neutralization.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to destruction and recycling of solid-propellant rocket engines by combustion of charges of solid-propellant. Proposed method of recycling by combustion on stand includes fastening of solid-propellant rocket engine by nozzle part inwards elongated mixing chamber. Then ignition is done and delivery of oxidizing fluid into mixing chamber is provided in process of burning of solid propellant for its afterburning. Oxidizing fluid is delivered uniformly over perimeter of mixing chamber in zone of location of nozzle part of solid-propellant rocket engine. Chilling of main lines delivering cryogenic oxidizing fluid is carried out before ignition of solid-propellant rocket engine. Oxidizing fluid is essentially mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen. Oxidizing fluid is delivered from stationary or portable contains along pipelines with equal hydraulic and thermal resistances to spraying nozzle providing particles of 10-100 mcm. Nozzles are uniformly spaced over perimeter of mixing chamber.
EFFECT: reduced capital outlays for construction on stand installation, reduced time taken for mounting and adjusting of objects of infrastructure, simplified design of stand and reduced cost of its operation.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: incineration of waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the object to be incinerated in the closed space with a spaced relation to the bottom and walls to provide access of air for combustion, igniting, and burring after the completion of the incineration process. The object to be incinerated is coated with the mixture for filtering combustion that includes powder metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, oxidizer, and admixture. The thickness of the layer for filtering combustion is 10-22 mm. The layers are interposed between the strips or sheets of water proof paper or polyethylene film, which then are glued or welded to produce the pyrotechnical mats mounted around the object to be incinerated. Each mat receives igniter cord. The mixture for filtering combustion additionally has powder zinc and ferrum or ferrum oxide and is composed of, in mass %: 0.05-99.5 of ferrum oxide, 0.1-30.95 aluminum, 0.39-39.0 of magnesium, and 0.01-30.0 of zinc.
EFFECT: enhanced safety.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: incineration of waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises thermal decomposition of slimes and discharging products of treatment. The thermal decomposition is performed in the reactor provided with electrodes generating the electric arc, and activation is performed with the use of blade wheel. The slime is activated by rising portions of the slime from the bottom of the reactor hopper, throwing up, and spraying throughout the space of the reactor so that to generate fluidized bed with simultaneous treatment with the use of the electric arc.
EFFECT: decreased cost and enhanced environmental protection.
FIELD: incineration of waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying solid waste to the heat-treating chamber on the fire grate inclined to horizontal plane, heating waste until the waste become to be rendered harmful, removing harmless waste, incinerating gas products generated during heating at a temperature of 1000-1200°C. The solid waste is heated by means of torches produced by gas burners arranged in the vertical plane.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and environmental protection.
FIELD: recycling or worn-out tires and other rubber articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal processing of hydrocarbon materials. According to proposed method of thermal processing of worn-out tires, finely divided tires are subjected to pyrolysis in reactor at temperature of 550-800°C in reducing gas produced in reducing gas generator by combustion of gases containing hydrocarbons, and products of pyrolysis are separated. Heat set is used in proposed method. At least part of gaseous products of pyrolysis getting out of reactor with vapors of liquid hydrocarbons is directed into reducing gas generator and heat set. At least part of flue gases getting out of heat set is directed to reducing gas generator and reactor. To implement the method, plant for thermal processing of worn-out tires is used containing reactor, system to let out gases forming in reactor, reducing gas generator connected to reactor, system to deliver finely divided worn-out tires into reactor, and receiver for insoluble residue of pyrolysis. Plant is furnished with heat set with flue gases outlet, and system to let gases forming in reactor is connected to reducing gas generator and heat set. Flue gases outlet device is connected to reducing gas generator and reactor.
EFFECT: dispensing with superheated steam which is replaced by flue gases, possibility of using products of pyrolysis instead of hydrocarbon gas at production of reducing gas.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: burning combustible gas at pressure above atmospheric.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is used for burning lean gases; it consists of unit for burning gas at pressure above atmospheric including lean gas chamber, combustion chamber, heat regeneration section and exhaust; pipe line supplying lean gas to lean gas chamber; heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber and preheated air chamber; plant is also provided with pipe line supplying the compressed surrounding air to heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber, preheated air pipe line for delivery of preheated air to preheated air chamber; provision is made for hole for delivery of lean gas from lean gas chamber to combustion chamber and hole for delivery of preheated air from preheated air chamber to combustion chamber. Heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber is made for heat exchange between lean gas chamber, preheated air chamber and combustion chamber and compressed surrounding air; lean gas and preheated air are burnt in combustion pressure at pressure above atmospheric.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; minimum difference in pressure between gas and air chambers.
12 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to industrial ecology and may be used for flameless purification of ejections of industrial enterprises.
SUBSTANCE: the reactor for catalytic purification of gaseous ejections has a cylindrical body, which interior surface is covered with a catalyst with a source of infrared radiation placed in the body, a tube heat exchanger located in the lower part of the body, a turbine mixer located in the upper part of the body and additionally - a permeable cylindrical drum out of the catalyst so that the axles of the symmetry of the drum and body coincide. The drum embraces the mixer and the source of infrared radiation fulfilled in the shape of a six-ends star is installed in the middle of the body so that its flatness is perpendicular to the axle of the symmetry of the reactor. The drawing off socket is connected with the tube space of the heat exchanger, and the feeding socket is located so as to provide heating of gaseous ejections with the heat of the gases moving out of the reactor.
EFFECT: increases effectiveness of purification of gaseous flow and reduces power inputs for heating the gas flow.
FIELD: rocketry; test facilities.
SUBSTANCE: proposed test set designed for testing small-size solid propellant rocket engines contains storage reservoir and combustion products cleaning system interconnected by gas-dynamic duct. Storage reservoir is installed directly after engine and is hermetically connected with engine nozzle. Gas cooler is installed in gas-dynamic duct between storage reservoir and cleaning system.
EFFECT: no adverse action on environment at combustion of solid propellant charge in the open.
FIELD: chemical industry; reactor having a circulating fluidized layer and a system of selective catalytic reduction.
SUBSTANCE: the offered invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry. A combination of a device consisting of a reactor or a combustion chamber with a circulating fluidized layer and a selective catalytic reduction system contains the reactor chamber with a circulating fluidized layer, the primary solid particles separator, a means for return of the solid particles trapped by the primary solid particles separator to the reactor chamber, at least one surface of heat transfer of a vapor overheater or an intermediate vapor overheater, a system of the selective catalytic reduction, a dry scrubber located below on the production chain in respect to the system of the selective catalytic reduction and a means for introduction of ammonia in the flow of a smoke gas-solid particles. According to one of the offered versions the given device contains a multicyclone dust separator and a means for return of the solid particles trapped by the multicyclone dust separator to the reactor chamber. The given engineering solution ensures low outbursts of nitrogen oxides at the minimum operational cost.
EFFECT: the invention ensures low outbursts of nitrogen oxides at the minimum operational cost.
11 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl