Method for hydration of gypsum plates and apparatus for effectuating the same

FIELD: method and equipment for manufacturing gypsum plates.

SUBSTANCE: method involves the following steps: first step includes molding plate; second step includes hardening by hydration process until hydrated article is produced with hydration extent within the range from 33% to 80%; third step includes continuing hydration process in at least one rotating drum by rotating plate around central axis; fourth step includes drying process. Intermediate cutting process may be provided between second and third steps, said cutting process may be effectuated in accordance with wire principle. Apparatus has linear zone for partial hardening and hydration, and at least one hydration drum comprising central axis around which multiplicity of branches are arranged. Each branch in drum may be divided into multiplicity of levers, with surface of said levers making from about 50% to about 99% the surface of respective branch. Drum may have from 10 to 150 branches, preferably from 40 to 120 branches. Hardening and hydration zone and drum may be arranged in two axes extending in parallel with one another.

EFFECT: improved quality of articles, improved maintenance and operating conditions.

12 cl, 11 dwg

 

The present invention relates to an improved method for the manufacture of gypsum boards, as well as a device for implementing this method.

Known gypsum boards, which formed the core of the dense gypsum (whose density has a value, for example, in the range from 0.6 to 1.0, and usually is 0.7), located on at least one substrate paper type, and preferably between two substrates of the type of paper (usually one of these substrates is conventionally called creamy paper, and the other substrate is called grey paper). The classic method of manufacturing such gypsum Board is composed of the following technological stages. Usually this method includes a step of molding plates, this stage is composed of intermediate stages, namely the stage of the expander cream paper, phase mixing, providing test formed mainly gypsum (palpitations) and water, in which, to make this stove a specific operational properties are added various additives (in particular starch, and, if necessary, one or more foaming agents used for the formation of foam); the step of applying the mentioned test on cream paper; phase unwrapping and applying gray paper for continuous Faure is financing of the layered structure, which is the basis of the said plate; stage of hydration, curing and adhesion of the mentioned test, the hydration process of this test, with two layers of paper on special supports, forming a line forming. The final part of this line molding receive the semi-finished product this product, which can be cut accordingly by means of scissors, and then subjected to the necessary manipulations, in particular including the operation of inverting the obtained plate in such a way as to place the surface of the cream-colored top. Finally, the thus obtained product is introduced into the drying unit to remove excess moisture from the plate (so-called operation of the drying plate). On the way out of this drying installation this stove is subjected, in the dry state, various kinds of processing bringing it to the standard state for giving it a final presentation.

If each step of this method is its own technical problems, some of these stages are, in a sense, critical, or from the point of view of kinetics of chemical reactions, kinematics or method that can influence the characteristics and quality of the final product, either from the point of view of complexity, the overall dimensions of technological equipment the Oia and the difficulties of his maintenance, and also occupied this technological equipment space, or from the point of view of several of the above-mentioned problems in their totality. So, the steps that are most critical, not counting the initial forming stage are the stages of hydration and curing, as well as the phase transfer plates in a wet condition and stage of drying in the drying device to remove excess free moisture. Essentially each of the main stages of the method of manufacture of gypsum boards is critical for the method used and/or for the final product. This degree of criticality is specific to the method of manufacture of gypsum boards.

The stage from the beginning of the hydration of gypsum to the cutting plate typically lasts a few minutes, for example, 3 to 4 minutes, or slightly longer, the next stage of the transfer plate in the wet state and the end of hydration up to the entrance to the drying chamber has a duration of from 5 minutes to 10 minutes. In the case where it is desirable to increase the speed of a given production line thus in order to reach the values of this velocity in excess of 150 m/min with ordinary duration of hydration, it is necessary to increase the length of the line forming up to 500 m and more, which significantly increases the cost of production line and puts m is ogochocinco problems in the kinematics of the transfer and positioning of the plates on technological machines.

The phase transfer plates in a wet condition implies the use of complex devices that need to operate in a hot and humid atmosphere. The productivity of the production line, thus, depends on the reliability of these devices, maintenance of which is rather complicated and expensive.

At the same time, these traditional devices, due to their design features that lead to the difference of the time of hydration in the longitudinal direction of the plate, on the one hand, and shifts between a series of plates, on the other hand, before entering into the drying chamber, which must be overcome by the use of complex systems. Then it is necessary to eliminate these offsets to ensure uniform drying throughout the surface of the plates and, in particular, at the ends of these plates. Thus mechanisms must ensure that the plate is not broken at the ends and not ran to each other. To do this in the existing level of technology is necessary to use very complex mechanics and the proper regulation of the speed of rotation of multiple drive motors.

The drying phase requires the use of mechanical devices that must operate in a wet environment, and humidity of this environment can reach a state of complete saturation of vodjani and pairs and this medium may have a temperature up to several hundred degrees Celsius, which again is connected with the problems of maintenance of this equipment.

And finally, the drying phase is consuming a very large amount of energy and it would be highly desirable to have available such a method and device for drying, which would serve to plate only the necessary amount of thermal energy.

Other implementation steps of this process put and also other problems that require the best solution. So, for example, at the stage of cutting used scissors in the form of two rollers, equipped with cutting edges that have to be cleaned regularly. This device is sufficiently destructive and mechanical rough to plaster plate (this is also one of the reasons, which necessitates a relatively long curing process, because hydratherma wet curing gypsum must be able to withstand the mechanical stresses resulting from cutting and manipulations performed with this plaster slab in the area of its transfer in a wet state).

Stage a coup d'etat, or flipper, up to the present time is often required. Delicate edges of gypsum boards to form the Xia through the bottom of the roll with thickened edges or tape, representing contraforma; it requires fitting a plate with a cream paper was in the down position. However, during the subsequent drying preferably, this cream side plate was on top and not subjected to the danger of contamination of the transporting rollers of the drying chamber. Will be desirable to be able to eliminate this complicated step of inverting the plate (while having the opportunity, if necessary, to save, if this is desirable, modern configuration with plaster test, which is applied on cream paper).

The phase transfer plates in a dry condition poses less problems than the transfer of these plates in the wet state, but this step is quite complicated and is associated with complex maintenance.

The technical problem of this invention is to provide a method and device for its implementation, which allows to eliminate the above problems and to provide other advantages from the point of view of conduct/quality of the final product, maintenance, operating costs, capital expenditures and working conditions. The invention is based in part on the principle, according to which, in contrast to the existing prior art, where plaster plates move over large distances with use the of various equipment, these gypsum boards are almost static; however, only the equipment is movable, usually rotational movement.

In accordance with the first variant object of the invention is a method of manufacturing a gypsum Board, comprising the following steps:

(I) forming plate;

(II) hardening by hydration up to get hydrated product with the degree of hydration in the range from 33% to 80%;

(III) continuation of hydration in at least one rotating drum by rotating the plate around the Central axis; and

(IV) drying.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the hydration continues in the above-mentioned at least one drum until the receipt of integrity.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the hydration continues in the above-mentioned at least one drum only partially and continues until the receipt of the integrity of the second drum.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing this method includes between steps (II) and (III) an intermediate stage of cutting.

In accordance with a possible way to implement this step of cutting is carried out on the principle of wire.

In accordance with a possible way to implement the degree of hydration at the output of stage (II) has a value contained in the dia is the azone from 33% to 66%, and preferably from 33% to 50%.

The present invention also proposes a device for the manufacture of gypsum boards, having in its composition a linear zone of solidification and partial hydration and at least one drum containing the Central axis 9, around which there are many branches 10A, 10b, 10C, 10d.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drum each branch is divided into many levers 11a, 11b, 11c, 11d, and the surface occupied by these levers is from 50% to 99% of the surface of the corresponding branches.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing this drum contains from 10 to 150 branches, and preferably from 40 to 120 branches.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing area curing and hydration and dryer are located on two parallel axes.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the curing zone and the drum is connected by means of rollers 8A, 8b and 8C, and these rolls are mutually penetrate into the branches 10A, 10b, 10C, 10d.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the proposed device comprises a cutting device containing the wire.

This invention is carried out in a drum containing the Central axis 9, around which there are many branches 10A, 10b, 10C, 10d, and each branch is divided into many rich the GOV 11a, 11b, 11c, 11d, and the surface occupied by the levers, ranges from 50% to 99% of the surface of the corresponding branches.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drum contains from 10 to 150 branches, and preferably from 40 to 120 branches.

In accordance with a second embodiment of the object of the invention is a method of manufacturing a gypsum Board, comprising the following steps:

(I) forming plate;

(II) curing the plates with hydration;

(III) drying during rotation of the plate.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drying is carried out in at least one drum, rotating in the chamber.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drying is carried out in at least one drum, with at least one drum contains a single drying section.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drying is carried out in at least one drum, with at least one drum contains two differ from each other in the drying section.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drying is carried out in at least one drum, with at least one drum contains three or more distinct from each of the drying sections.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drying is carried out in at least two reels.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drying is carried out in at least two reels with sections drying, different from one drum to another.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing each reel may contain one, two, three, or more different from each other drying sections.

In accordance with the preferred method of implementing the drying is carried out in at least one drum, with at least one drum has at least two different from each section drying; this method of implementation includes the case when two different drying zone are located in the same drum, and also the case when at least two different drum contain at least two different zones of drying (at least one drying zone on at least one drum).

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drying is carried out in at least one drum using recovery of the latent heat of condensation of water vapor.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drying is carried out in at least one first reel without the use of recovery and in at least one drum using recovery.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the proposed method further comprises one stage:

(IV) cooling plate.

In accordance with a possible way to implement the cooled partially carried out in not what toroi of the last reel.

In this invention it is also proposed a device for the manufacture of gypsum boards, having in its composition zone curing and hydration and the drum containing the Central axis 13 around which there are many branches 14a, 14b, 14C, 14d, and this drum is enclosed inside the chamber 15.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing each branch is divided into a number of teeth type of teeth of the comb.

In accordance with a possible way to implement the camera is a single drying section.

In accordance with a possible way to implement the chamber is divided into two different sections drying.

In accordance with a possible way to implement the chamber is divided into three or more different sections of drying.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the Central axis is a shaft, and the teeth are hollow and are in communication with the barrel.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the Central axis is a shaft, and the teeth are hollow, are in connection with the said barrel and contain holes located along these teeth.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the said device comprises at least one drum without the use of recovery and at least one drum using recovery of the latent heat cond is ncacii water vapor.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drum has one cooling zone.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the cooling zone corresponds to one quarter of the circumference of this drum, below the average horizontal and Luggage, if necessary, is at the level of the zone.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the cooling zone corresponds to one quarter of the circumference of this drum located above the middle horizontal mentioned hiding the camera is positioned, if necessary, at the level of the zone.

In this invention features a drum containing the Central axis 13 around which there are many branches 14a, 14b, 14C, 14d, each of these branches is divided into a number of teeth type of teeth of the comb, and the drum is enclosed inside the chamber 15.

In accordance with a possible way to implement the camera is a single drying section.

In accordance with a possible way to implement the chamber is divided into two different sections drying.

In accordance with a possible way to implement the chamber is divided into three or more different sections of drying.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the Central axis is a shaft, and the teeth are hollow and are in connection with this STV is scrap.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the Central axis is a shaft, and the teeth are hollow, are in communication with the barrel and have holes along these teeth.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drum has one cooling zone.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the cooling zone corresponds to one quarter of the circumference of this drum, below the average horizontal and Luggage, if necessary, is at the level of the zone.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the cooling zone corresponds to one quarter of the circumference of this drum located above the middle horizontal, and the said chamber, if necessary, is at the level of the zone.

In accordance with a third variant of the object of the invention is a method of cooling gypsum boards by their rotation in a rotating drum, and the drum has a Central axis 13 around which there are many branches 14a, 14b, 14C, 14d.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the above mentioned method is used in the drum, which are in direct contact with the surrounding air.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the above mentioned method is used in Baraba is e, enclosed inside the chamber.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the above mentioned method is used in one quarter of the circumference of the drum, below the average horizontal and mentioned the camera, if necessary, is at the level of the zone.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the above mentioned method is used in one quarter of the circumference of the drum, above the average horizontal and mentioned the camera, if necessary, is at the level of the zone.

In accordance with the fourth alternative object of the present invention is a method of spatial manipulation of gypsum boards by their rotation in a rotating drum, and the drum has a Central axis 13 around which is a lot of branches 14a, 14b, 14C, 14d.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the above mentioned method is designed to flip the plates.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the above mentioned method is designed for alternating coup plates.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the above mentioned method is designed for stacking plates on one another in pairs.

In accordance with the fifth option object of the invention is a method of drying/calcination/performing chemical re the capabilities of flat objects during rotation mentioned flat object in the at least one rotating drum, this drum has a Central axis 13 around which is a lot of branches 14a, 14b, 14C, 14d, and this drum is enclosed inside the chamber 15.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing each branch is divided into a number of teeth type of teeth of the comb.

In accordance with a possible way of implementation of the mentioned at least one drum is composed of a single drying section.

In accordance with a possible way of implementation of the mentioned at least one drum is composed of two different from each drying section, corresponding to the two sections mentioned cameras.

In accordance with a possible way of implementation of the mentioned at least one drum is composed of three or more distinct from each of the drying sections corresponding to the two sections mentioned cameras.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drying is carried out in at least two reels with drying sections, different from one drum to another.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the drying is carried out using the recovery of the latent heat of condensation of water vapor.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the Central axis represents the trunk and the above-mentioned teeth are hollow and are in connection with the mentioned article is I.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the Central axis represents the trunk and the above-mentioned teeth are hollow, are in connection with the said barrel and contain holes located along these teeth.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing the cooling is carried out in some parts of the last reel.

In accordance with a possible way of implementation of the mentioned cooling zone corresponds to one quarter of the circumference of this drum, below the average horizontal and mentioned the camera, if necessary, is at the level of the zone.

In accordance with a possible way of implementation of the mentioned cooling zone corresponds to one quarter of the circumference of this drum located above the middle horizontal, and said camera is positioned, if necessary, at the level of the zone.

In accordance with a possible way of implementing a flat object is a wooden plate, gypsum tile, slab or tile of clay, cement or other material.

Preferred is a combination of the various above-mentioned variants among themselves, in particular, the combination between the first and second options, the combination between the second and third options, as well as a combination between a first, second and retigo options.

The invention will be better understood from the following more detailed description, references are given in Appendix figures on which:

- Figure 1 is a schematic view of a process unit in accordance with the existing state of the art in the field;

- Figure 2 is a General diagram of a device in accordance with the invention;

- Figure 3 is a schematic view of a rotating drum hydration in accordance with the invention;

- Figure 4 is a schematic top view of a rotating drum, shown in the previous figure;

- Figure 5 is a schematic view of embodiments of a drum hydration in accordance with the invention;

- Figa and 6b are schematic views of a drum drying in accordance with the invention;

- Figa and 7b are schematic views, in the analysis to the top, drum drying in accordance with the invention;

- Figa and 8b are schematic views of a drum drying in accordance with the invention, which can be used in the process of indirect drying and/or heat exchanger of thermal energy;

- Figure 9 is a schematic view of the cooling drum is in accordance with the invention;

- Figure 10 is a schematic view of the drum of revolution in accordance with the invention;

- 11 schematically represents an embodiment of the method of supply plates drums in accordance with the invention.

Figure 1 schematically presents the classical process plant for manufacture of gypsum boards. Zone 1 represents the phase of the molding plate, and this step comprises the sub-steps of unwinding cream paper, mixing the components to obtain a plaster dough, applying this test on cream paper and unrolling gray paper for the formation of a layered structure with a filler, which is the predecessor of the finished gypsum Board. Zone 2 represents the step of curing until you have received already essentially of hydrated products. Zone 3 represents the step of cutting individual plate or series of plates. Zone 4 represents the phase shifting of these plates in the wet state (operation rolling for laying slabs cream side up with a device called a "flipper", and eliminate bias between a series of plates before entering the drying chamber). Zone 5 represents the stage in a drying chamber to remove excess moisture. Area 6 represents the phase of the transfer plates in a dry status is anii (including, if necessary, the folding of these plates in pairs creamy parties to each other, re-cutting, binding and packaging of finished plates).

Figure 2 shows a General diagram of the device in accordance with the invention. This device, as in the previous case, contains a curing zone, the implementation of which is the beginning of the hydration of gypsum. This hydration in this case does not occur completely, but usually only comes to the degree of hydration is less than 80% and preferably reaches values enclosed, for example, in the range from 33% to 66%, and even more preferably to less than 50%. In this case, the term "hydration" has a classic sense, but it means the exercise of the conversion of chemical compounds CaSO4·0,5H2In a chemical compound CaSO4·2H2O. Measurement of the degree of hydration is also a classical way, namely the dimension of the curve, which can be a corresponding rise of temperature, weight gain (or absorption of water), the degree of curing, etc. In this case, any suitable classical methods for measuring the degree of hydration.

Said curing zone is schematically represented here by a strip of molding 7a, rollers located in front of the mechanical nonica and 7b, and the actual mechanical shears 7C, and area 7d. This zone 7d represents the acceleration zone 7d (designed for classic way to create some space between the series of plates). This area is adjacent to the stop 8, which will serve as a device for the introduction of the plates in a rotating drum equipped with levers. This area stop contains rollers 8A, 8b, 8C, 8d, 8e, 8f, 8g, etc., These rolls usually are separated from each other at equal distances and are designed (as in the current level of technology) for making plates in a wet condition with the only difference that in this case these plates are hydrated to a lesser extent, there are less solid. The distance between the rollers will be determined in such a way as to exclude plastic sagging or fluidity of the plates between the support elements, a specialist in the art can easily identify. Once these rollers 8A, 8b, 8C, etc., this plate is captured by the drum 9, which is an object of the present invention.

Here it should be noted that the step of cutting may be carried out in the same way as in the device of the classical type. However, this cut can also be implemented more adapted for this case the device type wire cutting oil". This wire is Loka can be single or maybe double, moreover, in this case, two wire act, for example, by type of scissors. To the extent that the degree of hydration is reduced in the process of cutting, scissors can be much more simple in design and should not be "hard". In this case, the metal wire stretched across the production line. This wire can be tilted relative to the plane of the plate and/or in relation to the axis of a given production line. Manipulation of such wire are very simple and made the incision is more accurate. This avoids the disadvantages associated with mechanical shears used in the existing prior art. Cleaning this wire is also very simple; you can, for example, to mount this wire in the form of a loop and to turn it off before performing each operation of the cutting. In the process of turning the brush very simple design ensures clean wire.

Figure 3 shows the rotating drum in accordance with the invention, located between the above-described rollers 8A, 8b, 8C. In this case, can also be used the term "carousel" instead of the term "rotating drum". Here, the rotating drum is presented in the form of only one quadrant or quarter circle hooks with the eat, to better represent its interaction with rollers 8A, 8b, 8C. The drum 9 contains the axis 10 (typically a trunk), on which are fixed the branches 10A, 10b, 10C, 10d, 10e, etc. (the relationship of these branches with the Central axis of this figure is not shown to simplify the drawing). Each branch contains several relatively wide levers, for example, levers 11a, 11b, 11c and 11d (the form of which is optimized properly), designed to ensure curing of the slab without manifestations of stress. The number of levers on one branch is determined by many different factors, the main of which are the speed of the process line, the length of the drum and the number of branches in the drum. This is the number of branches may, for example, be made in the range from 3 to 60 pieces. If we consider the surface of one full branches, the levers in General can vary from 50% to 99% of the surface of the corresponding branch. The levers may be solid or may contain holes so that at the same time to maintain the plate without showing fluidity and not hinder the process of water evaporation, which occurs at this stage of the process. The dimensions of the drum usually have the following values: diameter has a value from 3 m to 6 m and is preferably from 3.5 m to 4 m In regard to the Lina drum, it easily adapts to the specific needs of the production. Increasing the capacity of the drum is achieved by adding additional leverage. Usually the length of the drum can range from 3 m to 25 m, and even more. If we consider the plaster plate P, it is served on the rolls 8A, 8b, 8C (promotion of this plate is controlled by appropriate mechanical and/or electrical and electronic devices). In this case, the drum is in such position that the plate P is able to pass between the branches 10A and 10b. Then the drum turns, his arms come into contact with wet plate R (which is basically not had time to bend) and disconnect the plate P from the rolls, and in this case, the plate P is positioned on the levers 11a, 11b, 11C and 11d branch 10b. These rolls again be free, therefore, to be able to take the next plate P'. This time, the plate is first among branches 10b and 10C, and then, after the rotation of the drum, comes into contact with the levers branch 10C. Continuing the process in a similar way, you can "fill" plates branches of this drum. This drum is composed of, for example, from 10 to 150 branches, and preferably from 40 to 120 branches. The speed of rotation of the drum will be selected, in particular, is uncle speed this process line, size and number of branches of this drum and parameters implemented method, which should lead to full hydration and satisfactory flatness of the plate at the outlet of the drum. Usually the speed of rotation of the drum has a value in the range from about 1/hour (turnover per hour) to about 6/hour, and preferably in the range of from about 4/hour to about 6/hour in the case of installation with a single drum hydration.

4 shows a prior method of implementation drum hydration, shown here at the top (in this case shows only one of the branches, namely the one which will lift plate (P).

Figure 5 presents an embodiment of the preceding situation. This time the rotating drum 9 are displaced with respect to the rolls 8A, 8b, and 8C. While the conveyor 12 provides translational movement of the plates from the rolls 8A, 8b, and 8C in the direction of the drum 9. This conveyor feeds the plates of the series of plates on one branch of the drum. This conveyor classic way is a system of fixed supports, which are moved forward and then rotate in the lower position, for example, like a truck caterpillar associated with the movement of lifting and lowering.

You might also consider placing the drum directly to the end zone acceleration/about the setting, but with the axis, not parallel, but perpendicular relative to the direction of movement of the plates. In this case, the axis of these plates perpendicular to the axis of the drum; the drum represents the length of the length of this plate. When this plate at the end of its stroke will be set against the sleeve of the drum before being captured by the branches of the drum.

Hydration in one or more rotating drums can realize significant benefits in terms of the installation of production facilities. Indeed, the traditional length of the section of curing can be reduced to 50%. In addition, the hot zone plates in a moist condition until the entrance to the drying chamber also significantly reduced. And yet, the residence time for each plate in the drum is one in the same, which allows to provide a very uniform degree of hydration of the plates. This advantage manifests itself even more in the case when the drum for drying plates used in conjunction with the drum hydration.

Drums in accordance with the invention can be adapted to the plates of different lengths, for example, to the plates of a length of 1.50 m and up to the full length of the drum. Indeed, the arms are wide enough to be adapted to any length of the plates and to any type of the series of plates of any length: plates, at any length, there will always be sufficient (in the greater part of its area) to rely on the levers of the drum.

To discharge this drum, you can use systems similar to those used to load in a variant implementation, illustrated in figure 5, namely, the conveyor. This conveyor may contain rolls; it can also contain an endless conveyor belt disposed between the levers of the drum and the axis of such a tape perpendicular to the axis of the drum. In this case, the plate is fed to the tape, is placed over it and the branches of the drum are released naturally. The speed of movement of the conveyor belt appropriately adapted to the rotational speed of the drum so that it had the ability to release the drum. Any other known system can also be applied to manipulate the plate for its transfer from one drum to another.

You can also use two or more drums hydration, if necessary. The transportation from one drum to another when this is so, for example, as stated above.

On figa and 6b presents an alternate implementation of the present invention, namely, a drying device, based on the same principle BPA is ashegoda drum. This drying device has an axis 13 and the branches 14a, 14b, 14C, etc. and the whole design is placed in the chamber 15 (figures are presented only half of this drying device). This drying device of a new type is loaded using the system transfer plates in the wet state in accordance with the current level of technology, or using the above-described drum hydration in accordance with the invention.

The drying operation is quite simple. Gypsum panels are supplied into the drying device, are placed on the branches of the drum and are under the influence of thermal energy to escape from the water. Camera 15 allows you to restrict the area or section of the drying. This chamber is connected to arablionz.com circuit, not shown on the figures here, which in addition to the pipeline is composed of one or more heat generators and fans designed to circulate hot gases around the subject drying gypsum boards. This camera 15 can be divided into two or more sections with the circulation of air or other gas between the sections; this technical solution will be described in more detail below. On figa schematically presents a case of using a single drying section, while fig.6b presents a case of using dvokriselnyh sections drying (different temperatures from one drying section to another). Circulation of gases in the said drum in said chamber will be described in more detail below with reference to Fig.7.

Compared with the existing prior art, this type of drying device allows you to provide the best uniformity of drying. Indeed, in the existing prior art plates are introduced into the drying zone in the longitudinal direction and slowly, which entails a shift between a series of plates, that is, to the potential dangers of the so-called calcification ends of the plates. On the other hand, as the plates in the series of plates have different degrees of hydration, drying is affected by heterogeneity. In accordance with the new way of gypsum plate inserted into the drying zone in the transverse direction and quickly, allowing you to eliminate the above mentioned disadvantages.

Each branch preferably (but not necessarily) contains rather teeth type of teeth of the comb than the levers (unlike drum hydration), because in this case there is no serious danger signs of fluidity, as well as to ensure the best conditions of heat exchange. However, you can use and leverage, in particular, contains many holes. This tooth type tooth comb is in contact with the plate section comprising, for example, from 0.5 cm to 10 cm, in particular from 1 cm to 8 cm In this case, the drum contains n the example, from 20 to 150 branches, and preferably from 60 to 120 branches. The drum typically has the following dimensions: diameter from 3 m to 6 m, preferably from 3.5 m to 4.5 m, and the length from 3 m to 25 m and more, but is preferably in the range from 6 m to 15 m Usually use two or more such drying drums. These drums are the preferred way to have different sections drying (to optimize the drying process by accurately controlling describing the drying curve weight loss as a function of time").

The speed of rotation of the drum will be chosen in function of the number of branches in the drum, the performance of a given production line, etc. Usually the speed of rotation of the drum has a value in the range from about 1/hour up to about 6/hour, and preferably from about 2/hour to about 4 per hour.

In this case, the drum may be partially or completely located in a heated chamber to provide essentially homogeneous atmosphere in the drum. However, it is preferable that the plate shaped channels of promotion gases to obtain the so-called "adaptable" circulation of these gases in the chamber. This allows you to have several drying sections with different profiles and optimize, so the drying process. To obtain a satisfactory uniformity of drying in the direction of the length of the plates in each defined thus section susceptor hot gases will have alternating with each other in opposite directions. This operation is fairly simple, for example, by changing the direction of rotation of the fan or by setting the respective deflectors at the ends of the camera. When using this technical solution each section contains an even number of channels. You can also set the burner, for example, at the two ends of the camera. The circuit can be obtained, in particular, by appropriately kapotasana or formation of the shrouds, and the chamber 15 is divided at the level of the ends of the drum into as many sections as you want in this case.

On figa presents clothes dryer and arrows on this figure shows the motion path of hot gases. The camera in this case is constructed in such a way that the plates act as baffles and guides for flow of hot gases moving parallel to these plates. Thus, changing operating conditions, it is possible to obtain two or more sections of the drying with different temperature conditions. Essentially, you can have as many partitions drying, as there are cavities formed by two adjacent plates.

More specifically, this camera contains its two ends of the housings 16 and 16', which are divided into as many sections as there are sections drying. In the example implementation illustrated in Fig.7, are two sections of drying and hence, two compartments at the level of end covers (16A, 16b and 16 a, 16'b, respectively). The arrows indicate the direction of flow of hot gases.

For example, you can have two sections of drying, namely one section with the temperature of the gases at the inlet of the order of 250°and temperature of gas at the outlet 230°and another section with the temperature of the gases at the inlet of about 220°and temperature of gas at the outlet of the order of 180°C. thus it is possible to apply a greater amount of thermal energy being sure that the plates do not "burn out" or will not be calcined.

Also preferably the reflective septum at the level mentioned casings; this case, the casing 16' will have a reflective wall, which allows the use of gases leaving the first section at a temperature of about 230°as gases that are included in another section at a temperature of about 220°With (or even at the same temperature. This is more clearly shown in fig.7b representing a schematic top view in section, where the casing 16' contains reflective wall 17', around which a moving stream of hot gases. The direction of gas flow is shown by arrows.

Thus, the invention allows to optimize the drying zone, which is very difficult, and is even impossible, in the existing prior art. At this stage it is useful to remind that in the drying process there are usually three zones, namely zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3. In zones 1 and 2 is dried at high temperature gases (intensive drying) to ensure the efficient migration of the starch in the direction of the paper shell and remove about 80% water. Zone 3 is a zone in which the drying is more soft, to avoid exceeding the temperature of calcination of gypsum boards. In this zone, the drying rate is limited by diffusion of vapor in the core plate. In General drying in zones 1 and 2 has a total duration from 15 minutes to 30 minutes (i.e. generally less than 45 minutes), whereas the drying zone 3 has a duration equivalent to the total duration of drying in zones 1 and 2. The temperature in these zones are usually what is stated in the previous statement. It should also be noted that the present invention allows to provide, as to that sought in the existing level of technology, drying in counterflow or parallel flow. Thus, the present invention is particularly well adapted and homogeneous temperature profile drying.

You can imagine the Central stem, divided into zones (like orange slices, with each area to be written is ivalsa hot gas in an independent manner, that allows you to recreate the different heating zones. The heating plates is carried out in the radial direction from the Central stem and the hot gases are distributed through a hole located on the Central shaft, or by means of the teeth of the drum (see, for example, the following figa, which presents this method implementation).

It is possible, and it is preferable to add a few more drying drums sequentially one after another. Device migration gypsum boards from one drum to another have already been described in the previous along with links to the drum hydration. For example, you can have the first drum with two drying sections, for example, the above-described type, and a second drum with the third drying section. This third section of the drying is, for example, the temperature of the gases at the inlet of about 150°and the temperature of the gases at the outlet of the order of 100°C. Such arranged sequentially one behind the other drums can easily be synchronized.

The concept of the proposed drying device allows greater flexibility in terms of different types of drying. Thus, the above-described drying device is a device direct or indirect drying (hot gases are in direct contact with the plates and the smolder velocity vector of the flow of the gases, parallel to the surface of these plates).

Another option direct drying is also possible using this type of drying device. Instead of passing hot gases between the plates, as this has already been said in this description, these hot gases are introduced through the Central trunk, and then arrive at teeth, containing through holes (these teeth are usually performed so that the surface of contact with the plates was minimal, while the hot gases out through the holes located along these teeth). The shape of these teeth are adapted to this type of drying and is rounded so as not to overlap the plate surfaces of the holes in these teeth and ensure the passage of gases. This standard method of drying with a separate gas jets has the advantage that it represents the best heat transfer coefficient, that is, a higher energy efficiency of the drying device.

You can also dry the gypsum boards in accordance with the method of indirect steam drying with minimal design modifications drum. The choice of the method of indirect drying makes it possible to use other types of fuel other than natural gas or light hydrocarbon fuel, such as coal, heavy petroleum fuels, wood is chips or any type of waste, you can burn in the hot water boiler.

In this configuration, the water vapor is introduced into the Central trunk, and then distributed in the teeth of the drum. This steam is condensed in the heat transfer from the plates and collected in a Central trunk or in a circular manifold, and then fed back to the boiler. The drum adapted to this type of indirect steam drying, relatively similar to the drum, is described below with reference to figa and 8b.

On figa and 8b presents another method of implementation. The Central axis 13 becomes the trunk, which introduce hot gases saturated with water vapor and flowing, in particular, of the first sections of the drying device or from a previous drying drums. Branches 14a, 14b, 14C is formed by a hollow teeth type of teeth combs connected to the Central trunk. Hot gases saturated with water vapor, thus moving these teeth type of teeth of the combs from the centre towards the outside and, if necessary, from the outside in toward the center.

In a variant implementation, illustrated in figa, these gases going through the outer chamber through a calibrated orifice, and a few of these calibrated holes 17A, 17b, 17c, 17d are uniformly distributed in the peripheral part. This outdoor camera this case formed by the double with what enkai (15, 15') and connected to the fan. When the drum is rotated, the open ends of hollow teeth regularly against the above-mentioned calibrated and evenly spaced peripheral holes. In between can be installed within the gas stream.

In a variant implementation, illustrated in fig.8b, gases do reciprocating motion inside the teeth, and these teeth has an internal reflective walls. These gases are collected in the annular manifold 13' around the Central trunk.

These gases are in indirect contact with the plates laid on the branches of the drum. Under these conditions, water vapor will condense and give at the same time in contact with its latent heat of condensation. When this water condensate flows down along the teeth type of teeth of the comb and is collected in a Central stem, divided into compartments, or in the annular reservoir, whence it is removed, preferably under gravity or by pump. Moreover, the water condensing on the double wall of the chamber, will drain under gravity. You might also consider collecting water condensate in the Central shaft and its leaking then through teeth type of teeth combs in their lower position. This technology can also be expanded according the instructions of the patent document DE-A-4326877. Thus, it is possible to recover hot water vapor produced in the drying process. Essentially, the proposed drums can be used all the standard system of recuperation of energy that act as true internal heat exchangers.

Thus, figa and 8b presents drum, which can be used for indirect drying and/or heat exchanger of thermal energy, and the fundamental difference between these two modes is the amount of heat supplied by one or more burners.

Figure 9 presents drum drying device, which further comprises the function of cooling plates with the presence of a zone of introduction (E) of these plates, in particular horizontally, and zone them out. This case, the shaded area represents the drying section. When the drum is at the level of the drying chamber, for example, one additional sector of a circle. For example, the output (S) in the form of an aperture on the outer part of the chamber has a horizontal layout, but is oriented in a downward direction. This additional segment of the plate can be cooled by natural or forced way in order to avoid possible heat stroke. Thus, you get a plate of better quality than when using traditional suchilin the second device. In addition, since the output aperture is displaced in the downward direction, the cooled plate itself naturally slips to the conveyor belt below.

You can also have this segment above the horizontal, and in this case, chilled plate out of the drum horizontally, for example, on the conveyor belt.

You can also have one or more full reel, used specifically for cooling, if necessary.

Thus, the output of the last drum receive a chilled plate, which can be sent directly to the zone final delivery to the condition, and packaging without passing through a sequence of heavy and noisy devices that are usually located at the outlet of the drying device, namely the cascade rearrangements of plates of different speed zones, speed up and stop, transfer tables, etc.

The above-described drying drums as the drums hydration capable of receiving plates of different lengths. For the drying cylinder to provide more favorable conditions for the movement of hot gases in the above-mentioned cavities can, for example, to position the plate alternating manner, i.e. one plate end against one side of the drum, and the other plate end face close to the other is Oh side of the drum. It is also preferable to use branches, representing at the ends (i.e. at the level of the lateral disks of the drum segments having a surface sufficient for every plate relied on this segment, whatever its length, and/or having an adapted form (for example, in the form of a baffle) to avoid possible calcined at the end of the plate due to the impact of hot gases blowing.

The use of drums, in particular, at the stage of drying, allows you to view beyond the drying chamber all the organs of the mechanized drive and to protect them thus from exposure to hot and humid aggressive environment.

It should be noted that especially preferred is a compound of at least one drum hydration with at least one dryer. In particular, in this case will be to use two or three of the drying drum, preferably the first (or second) of them with one or two different. sections and the last drum using the recovery of thermal energy. You can also in this case to use the drying process of the indirect type.

A side image of the proposed drum is also useful to perform spatial manipulations with gypsum plates in favorable environmental conditions.

Figure 10 schematic the ski presents drum, used to flip the plate under normal conditions, allowing, thus, to get rid of traditionally used reversal of the flipper. Such a revolution can be applied to any of the plates and may be interleaved; with one plate can be removed from the drum just below the horizontal, and the other plate can be removed after the rotation of the drum approximately 180°and also under the horizontal. It is possible, therefore, to have a rolling coup plates, which can be useful for laying slabs cream parties to each other in the process of packing.

In the implementation method, schematically presented in figure 10, the drum has an inlet (E), as for the drum, shown in Fig.9, and two outputs (S1) and (S2). It is also possible to extract all the plates on the level of output (S1), but it is also possible to extract these plates alternating manner at the level of outputs (S1) and (S2), that allows to get rolling plate (and ease, thus putting them in a dry condition for pairwise folding cream sides, facing each other). In the case when the plate is loaded in the upper part of the drum, they are partially located on the hub or Central stem. In that case, when these plates are loaded in the lower part of the drum (in particular, in the space between the outputs (S1) and (S2)), they and EUT to slide on the camera or any other appropriate fencing, or else they can be in their movement through the tape linear speed which matches the speed of the considered plate at the level of the circumference of the drum (these tapes are preferred will have a trajectory along this circle).

Figure 11 presents the implementation method, in which the plates are loaded into drums (for example, drums hydration, drying, cooling, spatial manipulation). In line with this way of implementing plate loaded along the axis of the drums, and the direction of advancement is located along the same lines (in contrast to the above methods of implementation, in which the load carried by the translational motion after summing up the plate to the edge of the drum). Schematically executes the following sequence of operations. This description is for one plate for convenience, but this implementation method is applicable to a series of plates of the same type; description is with reference to the species in the section, and boards come along the direction perpendicular to the plane of the drawing. At time t=0 the drum is in its original position; the plate n laid on the arms or on the corresponding branch of the drum. At time t=t1 the mechanism formed by, for example, the system rolls, per meshaetsia under the stove n (for example, the result of translational motion), and we consider here the figure presents only one roller and the other rollers are essentially hidden, taking into account selected here is the way. At time t=t2, this mechanism is lifted, and the rolls are in the space between the arms or branches of the drum, resulting in a plate n ceases to lie with the arms or branches of the drum. At time t=t3, the plate n+1, moving along the axis of the drum, took the plate n, pushing it or by mechanised action of the rolls, and plates n and n+1 are moved on rollers. At time t=t4, the above-mentioned mechanism is again lowered, whereupon the plate n+1 lies on the arms or branches of the drum. At time t=t5, this mechanism is removed over the edge of the drum, so that the drum be rotated to the desired angle in order to bring the plate n-1 position of the beginning of the implementation of the above-described specific method implementation.

Thus (as well as in accordance with other methods of implementation), you can use the entirety of the circumference of the drum, that is, 360°to implement the required operations (hydration, drying, cooling, spatial manipulation). In the process of implementation of the turn at the bottom of the drum plate can be hold the HN, for example, using the curves at the level of the arms or branches, or simply may be directed by an external casing, or may be directed to the element type crawler truck, located on the lower part, and this element is accompanied by the movement of plates.

In this mode of implementation, as they say "360°data above regarding time, speed, etc. must be adapted accordingly (for example, for the identical time, the rotation speed can be reduced by half in extent in this case really use all 360° the circumference of this drum, and not just 180°). In addition, in the process of drying zones 1, 2 and 3 can be grouped in a single drum, if necessary.

Finally, it should be noted that the invention in General can be used:

in the case of gypsum boards for any spatial manipulations with these plates, including overturning;

in the case of drying flat objects of any type, in particular, but not in a restrictive way, for a small plaster tiles, shingles (for example, cement or clay), etc. or products for which the chemical reaction of the hydraulic solution. In the past when you learn the term "drying" should be understood to encompass essentially any chemical reaction, which can lead, in particular, to the curing of, for example firing. It does not necessarily have to be the removal of water, but might be reaction of another type, for example, with the release of other gaseous discharge with or without release. For example, we can talk about a hot drying in the case of cement slabs. It should be noted that in these cases, the hot drying often need to have at least two periods or phases "drying". Indeed, it is known that the curing of such plates are used in several stages, among which are: stage (I): stage of rest needed to allow curing before applying heat exposure; a step (2): stage heating with a relatively smooth increase in temperature up to the maximum value of the temperature with mixing moisture, if necessary; step (3): a step of holding at a constant temperature necessary to ensure uniformity of heating and the temperature of the parts in the drying chamber; step (4): ventilation using first hot air and then the ambient air required to dry the camera before unloading. The present invention allows to provide a specific temperature profile during hot drying. In addition, the proposed image is the buy allows you to obtain a so-called camera type "FIFO" (First In, First Out), which will be quite reliable and do not pose a risk of interrupting the process.

The present invention also has the aim of any possible combination between one or more reels of hydration, one or more drying drums (which uses one or more sections of the drying, and used or not used, the recovery of thermal energy), one or more cooling drums, as well as one or more reels of spatial manipulation. The number of reels and/or the number of sections in them in any case is not restrictive of the invention. For example, you can use one drum hydration, as you can use two or more of these reels. You can also use one (or more) drums of hydration associated with one (or more) drying and/or cooling drums, and/or drums spatial manipulation; you can only use the dryer drums; you can also connect these drying drums with drums cooling and/or drums spatial manipulation. You can use a single clothes dryer as well as you can use two, three or more such drying drums. Each clothes dryer can with erati only one drying section, but it may also contain one, two, three or more such sections. Each clothes dryer can be a drum with direct heating or indirect heating. One or more reels may constitute drums with recuperation of heat energy. You can combine all of these types (functions and structures) drums; any valid combination. The invention applies in particular to the case of the connection of one or more reels of hydration with located in, followed by one or more drying drums, and any methods of implementation, as mentioned above, can be taken in combination.

The present invention provides the following advantages, in particular:

From the point of view of behavior and quality attached to manufactured and processed hob:

- the hydration time is almost identical for all plates at the entrance to the drying device;

- elimination of bias between the plates at the entrance to the drying device;

- elimination of calcification of the end plate;

- the possibility of increasing the number of drying sections in order to bring the temperature profile drying to the ideal;

- the ability to embed in the device cooling zones;

- the ability to easily recover skryte thermal energy of condensation of water vapor in the last drying device;

- flexibility in the choice of drying method (direct drying, indirect drying or a combination of these two drying methods) in the cost function used energy sources;

- the possibility of spatial manipulation of the plates in the wet state with a reduced execution time in comparison with classical production lines;

almost complete elimination of cracking or damage to the plate as a result of rapid or abrupt manipulation or impact on the stops.

From the point of view of investment:

the cost of transfer plates in the wet state and, in part, transfer of the plates in a dry state, are integrated into the equipment;

the cost of the process line forming plate due to the fact that this line becomes shorter and/or due to the use in this line shear simpler construction;

- the use of more simple (no moving parts), a drying device with a reduced size;

- the flexibility of the process plant in relation to its performance in the possible changes of its length, the number of reels or the number of branches in one drum; this allows you to expand the possibilities of this setup with less investment and quick installation is;

- reducing the footprint of this technological setting open and closed production area;

definitely less expensive attaching device recuperation latent heat of condensation of water vapor compared to conventional drying installation (virtually integrated into the main installation).

From the point of view of maintenance:

the cost of maintenance on sections of the transfer plates in the wet state or transfer plates in a dry state;

- reduced maintenance cost-drying unit, because of its mechanical actuator can be positioned on the outside from the hot and humid part of the installation; in this case, the use of fewer moving parts;

- eliminating the use of compressed air in the proposed equipment.

From the point of view of operating costs:

- reducing the amount spent on drying energy resulting from the use of the system recuperation latent heat of condensation of water vapor;

- reduced consumption of electricity (installed capacity of electrical equipment for mechanized drive the process plant is reduced by 3-4 times);

- reduced consumption of compressed air (on the tables of the transfer) and is knitted with this maintenance;

the cost of drying in the possible use of less expensive fuel in case of application drying indirect type;

- increase the utilization of technological equipment.

From the point of view of safety and working conditions:

- reduce the production of noise, in particular, on two sections of the transfer plates and the exclusion of cascade equipment at the exit from the dryer. A considerable part of the noise associated with compressed air on the tables of the transfer;

safety improvement is achieved by reducing the number of fast moving parts like rotating (transport rolls), and performs a translational movement (raising and lowering the table).

It should be noted that the present invention impersonal way applies to individual plates, and a series of plates. While the terms of molding, cutting, hydration, drying, etc. related to the "plate"of course, can also be applied to the plates of the series of plates".

It should also be noted that the term "gypsum"used in the description of the invention, the cover plate on the basis of gypsum, and in particular, but not in a restrictive manner, to the plates with one or more wrappers of paper or cardboard (called the English "wall-board" "leaf dry plaster or plaster-board" "dry wall"), as well as other materials, such as a layer of fiberglass (the so-called plate "feu"), to fiber plates (called by the English "fiber-board" "wood-fiber Board"), etc. of the present invention, the preferred way is applied to the plates coated cardboard (like "plasterboard" "dry wall").

The present invention is not limited to the described in the preceding exposition of the ways of its realization, to may have many other embodiments, easily accessible to the person skilled in the technical field.

1. The method of manufacture of gypsum boards, which includes the following steps:

(I) forming plate;

(II) hardening by hydration up to get hydrated product with the degree of hydration in the range 33÷80%;

(III) continuation of hydration in at least one rotating drum by rotating the plate around the Central axis;

(IV) drying.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which the hydration continue in at least one drum until the receipt of the integrity of the plate.

3. The method according to claim 1, in which the hydration continue in at least one drum only partially carried out, until the receipt of integrity mentioned plate, the second drum.

4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, containing between stages (II) and (III) split timing the stage of cutting.

5. The method according to claim 4, in which the step of cutting is carried out in accordance with the principle of wire.

6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, in which the degree of hydration at the output of stage (II) has a value in the range 33÷66% and preferably in the range of 33÷50%.

7. Device for the manufacture of gypsum boards a method according to any one of claims 1 to 6, containing a linear partial curing and hydration and at least one drum hydration, containing the Central axis (9), around which there are many branches (10A, 10b, 10C, 10d).

8. The device according to claim 7, in which the drum each branch is divided into many arms (11a, 11b, 11c, 11d), and the surface occupied by these levers is 50÷99% of the surface of the corresponding branches.

9. The device according to claim 7 or 8, in which the drum is composed of 10÷150 branches and preferably 40÷120 branches.

10. Device according to any one of claims 7 to 9, in which the area of curing and hydration and dryer are located on two parallel axes.

11. Device according to any one of claims 7 to 10, in which the curing zone and the drum is connected by means of rollers (8A, 8b and 8C), and these rolls are made with the possibility of mutual penetration in the branch (10A, 10b, 10C, 10d).

12. Device according to any one of claims 7 to 11, comprising a cutting device that contains the wire.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process for casting hollow ceramic articles, possibly development and building of new equipment or modifying equipment of operating plants in porcelain-faience and majolica industry.

SUBSTANCE: aggregate includes vertically closed conveyer with cradles for casting molds; drive unit; casting section with metering devices; suction off device; control unit in the form of actuating and distributing cam mechanism electrically connected with drive of vertically closed conveyer and kinematically coupled with metering and suction devices. Aggregate also includes cradle locking unit in the form of spring-loaded rod with roller; roller; guides for cradles; drying chamber with upper and lower horizontal branches of vertically closed conveyer; boxes with nozzles and heating-ventilating system; vertical section with replacing member arranged over horizontally closed conveyer for additionally working articles. Boxes with nozzles for drying articles in molds are arranged over lower horizontal branch of vertically closed conveyer in drying chamber between casting section and vertical section. Boxes with nozzles for drying empty molds are arranged over upper horizontal branch of vertically closed conveyer in drying chamber along its whole length and over lower branch that is placed over casting section. Aggregate is also provided with apparatus for cleaning empty molds; said apparatus is placed in casting section in front of metering devices and mechanism for lifting-descending mold lids arranged in vertical section in position for taking articles out of molds. Apparatus for cleaning empty molds includes collector with vertical branch pipes having changeable tips. Said collector is placed on carriage moving vertically along guides and it is connected by means of flexible hose through filter and valve with receptacle of evacuation system of aggregate. Lid lifting-descending mechanism includes balance beam with comb mounted with possibility of rotation in bearing assemblies on carriage that may move on vertical guides.

EFFECT: enlarged assortment, improved quality of articles, lowered size and metal consumption, reduced cost of aggregate, reduced heat separation in industrial room.

3 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: building materials industry; methods and equipment for the bricks manufacture.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the building materials industry and may be used in production of bricks, including the facing brick, building stones, blocks and tiles. The technical result of the invention is the expansion of the assortment of the building bricks and the means for its production, provision of simultaneously of the heightened strength and the frost resistance the bricks, improvement of the bricks decorative effect of their front-face surface imitating the surface texture of the natural building stone. The given technical result is reached because the building wall bricks having the form of the monolithic polyhedron is manufactured out of the mixture having the humidity of 3-10 % and containing a chalkstone with the size of its particle of no more than 8 mm, portland cement of the grade of no less than 400 - as the binding substance, at their ratio (in mass %): the indicated chalkstone - 85.1-90.0, portland cement of the grade of no less than 400 - 10.0-14.9 by the mixture molding under the pressure of 15.0-20.9 MPa during 2-9.9 seconds and by the heat-moisture treatment or a by aging up to the mixture gains the strength amounting to no less than of 50 % from the grade strength of the a ready bricks. The invention gives the characteristic of the building bricks, the method of the bricks manufacture and the set of equipment used for the bricks production.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the assortment of the building bricks, simultaneously heightened strength and the frost resistance of the bricks, improvement of decorative effect of the bricks front-face surface imitating the surface texture of the natural building stone.

25 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: solar power engineering, in particular, construction and process of manufacture of mobile, container-type solar power plants for production and thermal treatment of the roof sheet.

SUBSTANCE: the plant is provided with a solar drier for drying of reinforcing material; solar plant of the hot-box type with a reflecting mirror for heating of the mortar; solar paraboloid concentrator for thermomoisture treatment of the sheet; solar drier for drying of the roof sheet; it has a compartment for application of the facing layer of the roof sheet, and the plant proper is of a mobile, container-type modification and has an independent electric power source, for example, a Diesel-generator, one of the containers has a laboratory equipment and instruments required for checking the physicochemical and processing properties of the roof sheet components, mortar and finished product.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of use of solar power for reducing the cost of the product.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: production of concrete and ferroconcrete, namely processes for producing concrete mass of pavements of automobile roads, tram rail tracks and transporting paths inside factories and plants.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing concrete mixture by three layers containing different components into form with its front layer turned downwards; as molding subjecting said mixture to vibration compaction at different vibration characteristics. According to invention in the result of preparing rational compositions of concrete mixtures, its preparation, placing and compaction, it is achieved optimal relation of solid, liquid and gaseous phases in concrete mixture. It provides its strength and increased useful life period of concrete and ferroconcrete products. Selected three-layer structure of concrete mass in products provides accelerated by 1.5 - 2 times period of product solidification in air due to thermostat-resonance temperature effect of self-heating of concrete mixture. Manufacturing line for making concrete and ferroconcrete products includes successively arranged and technologically matched equipment units for preparing composition type binder, concrete mixture and for vibration compaction of products.

EFFECT: improved strength, cold resistance and operational characteristics of concrete and ferroconcrete products.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: ceramics production, particularly automated lines for brick burning.

SUBSTANCE: line includes burning chamber, cart for delivering bricks to burning chamber, gas supply choke and gas burner. Line additionally has scales, converter, regulator amplifier and delay unit. Control drive is installed on gas supply choke. Scales output is connected to regulator amplifier input. Regulator amplifier output is linked with delay unit input. Delay unit output is connected with input of next delay unit and with input of gas burner choke drive. Output thereof is linked with gas supply choke input, output thereof is connected with gas burner input for gas supplying to burning chamber.

EFFECT: increased output and ceramics quality.

3 dwg

FIELD: methods and installations for continuous production of building elements.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method and installation for continuous production of building elements. The technical result is provision of a continuous process of production of building structures. For production of building elements, which are composed: out of two parallel plane gauze mats made out of the crossing each other and welded to each other in intersecting points a longitudinal wire and a transversal wire; out of holding the gauze mats at the preset cross spacing intervals straight bridge wires and out of a located between the gauze mats run through them bridge wires of an insulating body, at which the two gauze mats are given a parallel position in the production channel at the mutual space corresponding to the desirable thickness of the building element. In an interval between the parallel gauze mats place an insulating plate made out of the heat-insulating material and simultaneously at least on one side hand alternately in the opposite direction at an angle in the plains passing perpendicularly to the planes of the gauze mats at least through one of the gauze mats and through the insulating body pierce several bridge wires and weld them with the wires of the mat.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a continuous process of production of building structures.

29 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: ceramic articles production.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automation of brick drying lines. According to invention, line contains drying chamber, car to deliver bricks in to drying chamber, feed conduits, hot and cold air mixer, conduits to deliver air directly into drying chamber, cold and hot air feed gates, distributing gate and automatic control system including brick weight pickups, brick linear dimensions pickup, brick feed car position pickups, concentrator, transfer devices installed on cars delivering bricks into drying chamber. Control drives are installed on hot and cold air and distributing gates.

EFFECT: increased capacity and improved quality of drying of ceramic articles.

4 dwg

FIELD: production of ceramic articles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed drying line has drying chamber, cars to deliver bricks into drying chamber, hot air feed conduit, cold air feed conduit, hot and cold air mixer, conduits to deliver air directly into drying chamber, cold air feed gate, hot air feed gate, distributing gate and automatic control system which includes temperature transmitter, humidity transmitter, brick car position pickup, concentrator and transfer device, all installed on cars delivering bricks into drying chamber. Hot air gate control drive is installed on hot air gate, cold air gate control drive is installed on cold air gate, and drives to control distributing gates hot air feed gate drive control unit, cold air feed gate and distributing gate drives control units are installed on distributing gates, as well as receivers. Output of hot air feed conduit is connected through hot air feed gate, and output of cold air feed conduit is connected through cold air feed gate with input of hot and cold air mixer whose output is connected through distributing gates with inputs of air conduits delivering air directly into drying chamber, and whose outputs are connected with inputs of drying chamber. Output of temperature transmitter is connected with first input of concentrator, output of humidity transmitter is connected to second input of concentrator, output of brick car position pickup is connected to second input of concentrator, output of brick car position pickup is connected to third input of concentrator, output of concentrator is connected to input of transfer device, output of transfer device is connected to input of receiver whose output is connected to input of control unit of drives of hot air feed gate, cold air feed gate and distributing gates whose outputs are connected to input of cold air feed gate control drive whose output is connected with input of cold air feed gate, and to input of control drive of hot air feed gate whose output is connected with input of hot air feed gate, to inputs of control drives of distributing gates whose outputs are connected with inputs of distributing gates whose outputs are connected with inputs of drying chamber.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and quality of drying.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction engineering; production of building materials.

SUBSTANCE: proposed line contains the following stations installed in technological sequence in line: cellular concrete mass preparation station, cellular mass concrete forming stations. Said stations include tray, detachable side attachments on which longitudinal and cross sides are secured, cellular mass concrete cutting and autoclave processing of cellular mass concrete station and transporter for conveying trays with mass concrete. Line is furnished with pore former-dispenser installed between mixture preparation and forming stations for traveling in between transporter for conveying trays with mass concrete is made in form of grip-manipulator secured on overhead track hoist for travel from posts of forming to cutting post. Cross sides of side attachments are provided with leverage for parallel displacement of sides.

EFFECT: improved reliability of line.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction materials, in particular, production of lime-sand brick.

SUBSTANCE: complex has press, table, group mold with cavities for bricks, conveyor, axially aligned with respect to axis of feeding of bricks from press, and scalding car. Picking-up device is mounted for moving along conveyor to transfer brick from press to conveyor. Stacker is adapted for transfer of brick from conveyor to scalding car. Longitudinal walls of mold cavities and path on which scalding car is moving are arranged perpendicular to conveyor. Cavities of mold are arranged in four rows extending in parallel with conveyor. Each row has two-five cavities.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing formation on conveyor of full layer of bricks for scalding car.

3 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for concreting cast-in-place and precast reinforced concrete structures along with concrete curing temperature regulation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves laying and compacting concrete mix under continuous concrete mix curing temperature control; heating central concrete layers with heating reinforcement when outer concrete layers are in elasto-plastic state. Heating reinforcement is spaced a distance "a" from surface. The heating is carried out simultaneously with surface heat-shielding. Distance "a" is determined as a=δeq(tav-ts)/(ts-ta), m, where δeq - thickness of conditional equivalent concrete layer corresponding to surface thermal resistance, Rs, m; tav - time-average concrete temperature calculated by estimated time of heating directly in heating area, deg; ts - time-average temperature at concrete surface calculated by estimated heating time, deg; δeq is determined as δeq=Rs·λ·F, m, where Rs is heat resistance of rigging with form Rr including thermal resistance Ra of heat transfer from rigging to ambient air, h·deg/kcal; Rs=Rr+Ra=(δr/( λr·F))+(1/(α·F)), h·deg/kcal, where δr is thickness of rigging, m; λr is rigging heat conductivity factor kcal/(m·h·deg), α is rigging surface heat-transfer coefficient kcal/(m2·h·deg), λ is concrete(reinforced concrete) heat conductivity kcal/(m·h·deg); F=1m2 - rigging surface area for thermal resistance calculation, m2. Amount of heat Q used to heat part of member to be heated having length (height) of 1.0 m and cross-sectional width of 1.0 m is determined from Q=(tav-ts)(m+(τ·λ·F/a), where m is constant equal to 60-180 kcal/deg and τ is calculated heating time, hours. The heating reinforcement is heating wires or pipes adapted for hot water circulation.

EFFECT: reduced temperature stresses and prevention of crack formation during structure concreting, as well as possibility to regulate curing temperature.

4 cl, 1 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: apparatus or processes for treating or working, namely curing, setting or hardening, the shaped articles.

SUBSTANCE: method for gypsum panel forming involves shaping the panel, hardening and hydrating thereof and drying the panel during panel rotation. Device to realize above method is also disclosed.

EFFECT: increased panel quality, decreased production and maintenance costs and improved operating conditions.

20 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: building industry branches, namely apparatuses for heat treatment of constructions of reinforced concrete erected in building site with use of automatic control of heat treatment processes.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes concrete form having electric heating units mounted in its boards for convection-irradiation heating of concrete mixture and heating members mounted in bottom of concrete form for convection-irradiation heating; temperature pickups having individual control circuits and connected to inlets of heat regulators. Outlets of heat regulators are connected through switching units having magnetic starters with respective electric heating units. Each control circuit includes at least six temperature pickups placed in monolithic construction and pickup for measuring temperature of environmental air. Said pickups are connected with inlets of respective programmed heat regulator for supplying control signals.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of constructions.

3 cl, 4 dwg

The invention relates to the manufacture of building products, namely the method of laying cinder blocks

The invention relates to techniques for manufacturing products based on cement with the use of heat treatment at atmospheric pressure

The invention relates to the field of construction, namely the manufacture of precast concrete in the field using a variety of carriers to accelerate the hardening of concrete

The invention relates to the construction and manufacture of building products of concrete with the use of automatic process control of heat treatment

The invention relates to the construction materials industry, in particular to workshops for the production of prestressed concrete products

The invention relates to the construction materials industry, in particular to the plants for the precast concrete industry

The invention relates to a method of heat-moisture treatment of construction and other materials and facilities for its implementation

FIELD: building industry branches, namely apparatuses for heat treatment of constructions of reinforced concrete erected in building site with use of automatic control of heat treatment processes.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes concrete form having electric heating units mounted in its boards for convection-irradiation heating of concrete mixture and heating members mounted in bottom of concrete form for convection-irradiation heating; temperature pickups having individual control circuits and connected to inlets of heat regulators. Outlets of heat regulators are connected through switching units having magnetic starters with respective electric heating units. Each control circuit includes at least six temperature pickups placed in monolithic construction and pickup for measuring temperature of environmental air. Said pickups are connected with inlets of respective programmed heat regulator for supplying control signals.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of constructions.

3 cl, 4 dwg

Up!