Method for removing of liquid or frozen agent from product

FIELD: food-processing, microbiological and chemical industry, in particular, removal of liquid or frozen agent from product, more particular, sublimation concentration and drying of frozen solutions or suspensions, sublimation drying of frozen food products, and also concentration or drying of liquid solutions and suspensions.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing reaction of product with absorbing solution in vacuumizer by mass exchange through gaseous phase; providing heating of product to be dried using absorption heat of vapors of agent to be removed, said absorption being provided by means of absorbing solution and said heat being transmitted through heat transmitting device or through heat conducting walls which separate product to be dried from absorbing solution. In order to heat said product, heat of condensation vapors of agent removable from absorbing solution during regeneration thereof may be also utilized. Freezing of product and keeping of temperature mode in drying chamber are provided by means of refrigerating unit. Utilization of absorbing solution for creating hydraulic gates in processing pipelines provides for increased pressurization of vacuumizer and reduced loading of vacuum pump.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for sublimation or evaporation of agent to be removed from product by drying procedure.

13 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of food, microbiological and chemical industry and can be used for freeze concentration and drying of frozen solutions or suspensions, freeze-drying of frozen foods, as well as for concentrating or drying of liquid solutions and suspensions.

There is a method of venting agent released from the product containing liquid or frozen remove the agent, providing for the placement of the product in hermetically sealed chamber, the removal of her non-condensable gases, heating of the product and the simultaneous removal of the volume of the chamber separated from the product vapors agent by absorption absorption solution (SU 848916 And 23.07.1981).

The disadvantage of this method are: significant energy consumption for sublimation or evaporation removed the agent from the dried product.

The technical result of the invention is to reduce energy consumption by sublimation or evaporation removed the agent from the dried product.

The technical result is achieved in that the heating of the product carried out by the heat absorption of vapors removed agent absorption solution is passed through the heat transfer device, and the product is placed above or below the hollow sealed and warming shelves, connected to the heat transfer device.

Preferably as a heat transfer device used heat transfer vapor compression setting, the capacitor of which are in the form of shelves heating the dried product, and the evaporator moisten the circulating absorption solution. The use of compression allows you to reduce the operating temperature of the absorption solution to the temperature of the vapor compression evaporator installation and to increase the working temperature of the product to the temperature of the condenser (heating shelves). Cooling the absorption solution using a heat transfer device allows you to restore the absorption characteristics of the solution after heating as a result of absorption.

As heat transfer devices can be applied as a heat pipe or a device with a circulating liquid coolant.

For a product that contains the deleted agent in the form of water or ice, as the absorption solution using concentrated aqueous solution of sodium chloride or calcium chloride, or chloride or lithium bromide.

When using stationary heating shelves, built-in camera, as the working fluid vapor compression heat transfer setup used refrigerant. This allows you to apply for transfer of heat is s typical vapor compression installation.

When using roaming warming shelves made with the possibility of disconnection of the vapor compression unit as the working fluid vapor compression heat transfer setup used antifreeze liquid, having a boiling point at atmospheric pressure above room temperature, the vapors can be absorbed by the absorbing solution, and non-condensable gases from the vapor compression system installation remove the vacuum pump.

The working pressure inside the system of the vapor compression heat transfer device with the specified working fluid above the working pressure in the chamber. Therefore, it is possible penetration of the vapor of the working fluid into the atmosphere chamber through looseness of connectors connecting the condenser of the vapor compression device (plug-warming shelves) with other parts of the system. To exclude possible negative effects of the penetrating vapors of the working fluid on the work of the drying chamber is provided by the possibility of absorption of the absorbing solution. When using the absorption solution based on aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, calcium chloride, chloride or lithium bromide as the working fluid vapor compression installation preferably applied water and/or ethanol.

The working pressure inside the system talpirid the existing vapor compression device with the specified working fluid below atmospheric pressure, therefore, it is possible leaks of non-condensable gases (air) from the atmosphere. To exclude the effects of gases drawn on the performance of the vapor compression plants produce removal of non-condensable gases from the system of the vapor compression device using a vacuum pump.

Freezing of the product and the required temperature balance in the drying chamber carry out the vapor compression refrigeration unit, the evaporator which moisten the circulating absorption solution, and the heat of absorption of vapors removed agent absorption solution is passed through the working fluid vapor compression unit from the evaporator surrounding the condenser environment, such as outside air. Wetting of the evaporator of the refrigeration unit absorbing solution avoids numerazione remove the agent on the evaporator and reduce the dimensions of the evaporator and reduces the partial pressure of vapor removed agent over the wetted evaporator compared to the partial vapor pressure of the removed agent over the traditional evaporator (over desublimation) at the same evaporator temperature.

Alternatively you can join the vapor compression refrigeration installation and vapor compression heat transfer installations in the far East the stage setting the vapor compression heat transfer installation by adding to the system the vapor compression refrigeration installation of additional capacitor, cooled additional evaporator vapor compression heat transfer installation. When working in a two-step adsorption solution moisten the evaporator of the refrigeration unit and transmit the heat of absorption is consistently working fluid working vapor compression refrigeration installation working body working the vapor compression heat transfer installation, which radiates heat to the product through the heating shelves.

Heating of the product can be carried out by the condensation of vapors removed agent fed into the internal cavity of the sealed shelves, on which or under which is placed dried product. The vapor flow in this case is carried out on the boiler, in which the regeneration of the absorbing solution. Temperature control of heating shelves carried out by adjusting the pressure of the vapors removed agent inside shelves. Pairs agent, penetrating through leaking connectors in the drying chamber are absorbed by the absorption solution.

Heating of the product by vapor condensation agent to be uninstalled apply if necessary the maximum possible drying of the product by high temperature difference between the dried product and the absorption solution. In this case, the exhaust heat of absorption from the absorption solution carried the t using the refrigeration unit into the environment. This heating method is preferably applied at the last stage of freeze drying for maximum concentration of the product.

Regeneration of the absorbing solution is preferably carried out by desorption (evaporation) remove the agent from the solution when it is boiling in a closed kettle with the desorbed vapor extraction agent. Vapors are removed from the boiler agent used for technological purposes, such as for sterilization chambers before downloading the product, or for the recovery of spent heat, for example for heating of the product in the drying chamber.

Regeneration of the absorbing solution can be carried out by evaporation of the absorbed agent into the atmosphere from the solution, placed in open vessels, due to solar energy.

Regeneration of the absorbing solution can be done by removing the absorbed agent from a solution through a semi-permeable membrane, a reverse osmosis method.

In the short mode, the regeneration of the absorbing solution can be implemented by adding the diluted absorption solution of the corresponding crystalline salt.

To facilitate moving the vapors removed the agent from the product to the absorption solution from the volume of the drying chamber to remove non-condensable gases. Removing more the part of non-condensable gases from the chamber volume is preferably carried out by vacuum pump low vacuum.

When loading the camera unfrozen product, allowing it to heat in the chamber to a temperature at which the partial vapor pressure of the removed agent corresponds to the vacuum created by the vacuum pump, the removal of residual non-condensable gases from the volume of the chamber is carried out by heating the product or portion of a liquid agent to be uninstalled in the camera. Evaporating remove the agent fills the entire volume of the chamber, forcing the remnants of the non-condensable gases in operating the vacuum pump, which removes them together with the part of the agent vapor in the atmosphere. After removal of non-condensable gases produce the seal chamber through a vacuum line.

When loading into the chamber of frozen product, it cannot be heated in the chamber to a temperature at which the partial vapor pressure of the removed agent corresponds to the vacuum created by the vacuum pump, the removal of residual non-condensable gases from the chamber volume is performed by the flow into the chamber carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide together with pairs deleted agent fills the entire volume of the chamber, displacing the remains of other non-condensable gases in operating the vacuum pump, which removes them together with part of the carbon dioxide and vapor agent into the atmosphere. The removal of carbon dioxide from the volume of the chamber is carried out after its germ is the dimension of the vacuum line by filing in the camera portion of the alkali solution. The alkali solution is fully absorbs carbon dioxide from the entire volume of the chamber. The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide is spent on evaporation of the solvent, alkali volume of the chamber. The solvent preferably used to remove the agent.

Removing non-condensable gases from the chamber volume may be exercised by the pump medium vacuum.

The absorption solution is preferably used for additional sealing chamber for a period of freeze-drying by creating valves, filled with absorbing solution in technological pipelines connecting the internal volume of the chamber with the device in which the suction of air from the atmosphere. Additional sealing would eliminate the need for continuous work (and the availability) of the pump medium vacuum to maintain the operating vacuum in the drying chamber.

The use of the claimed invention can reduce the cost of construction of the device freeze drying, increase reliability and reduce irreversible energy costs.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, in which figure 1 shows a process diagram of a variant of the device for implementing the method of liquid concentration and freeze-drying with roaming warming shelves and regeneration of paglat the positive solution by boiling. Figure 2 shows part of the technological scheme variant of the device for implementing the method of liquid concentration and freeze-drying from a fixed heating shelves and regeneration of the adsorption agent by reverse osmosis. Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the method of drying the product by direct transfer of heat absorption from the absorption solution. Figure 4 shows a side view of the drying chamber with gateway compartment and two loaded packages trays with the product and the heating shelves.

The device shown in figures 1 and 4, includes a drying chamber 1, heating shelves 2, vacuum hoses 3 and 4, a compressor 5, an evaporator 6, the throttle valve 7, the valves 8 and 9, the container 10, the vacuum pump 11, and the vacuum valve 12, the valves 13 and 14, the buffer tank 15 tank 16 and valve 17, the container 18, pump 19, the valves 21 and 22, the evaporator 23, a compressor 24, a capacitor 25, the throttle valve 26, the perforated partitions 27 and 28, tanks 29 and 30, the capacity of the 31, valve 32, the heat exchanger 33, a heater 34, the valves 35, 36, 37 and 38, the container 39, 49 packages warming shelves and trays with the product, the external loading door 50 of the drying chamber, a rotary compartment 51, the lock of the boot the door 52.

The implementation of the method is as follows.

Product distribute a layer of 1-2 cm in trays, which are placed on a hollow sealed shelves 2, RA is required in several tiers on roaming carts. The resulting package 49 is placed in the drying chamber 1 and connect 2 shelves by means of a flexible vacuum hose 3 and 4 to the vapor compression heat transfer device consisting of a compressor 5, an evaporator 6, the throttle valve 7 and connecting pipelines. Directly before connecting shelves include a compressor 5 and due to the resulting vacuum in the evaporator 6 podsushivayut required quantity of the working fluid from the tank 10.

The drying chamber is hermetically closed. To prevent leaks of non-condensable gases from the atmosphere through leaks outer door 50 in the chamber provide a lock compartment 51, closing additional lock the door 52. From the drying chamber and airlock compartment remove non-condensable gases.

Non-condensable gases are also removed from the cavities warming shelves 2 and the evaporator 6, which open the valves 8 and 14, after removal of the gas valve 14 is closed.

Venting can be done in three ways.

In the first method, the venting is carried out with the help of a vacuum pump for creating medium vacuum, by which the content of non-condensable gases in the drying chamber is reduced to the required level.

The second and third methods provide enhanced removal of non-condensable gases from the chamber when the marketer pump low vacuum.

In the second method, the removal of non-condensable gases is carried out by increasing the partial pressure of the removed agent in the chamber until the pressure provided by the applied vacuum pump 11. The product is heated to the appropriate temperature by feeding the vapors removed the agent from the heater 34 through the valve 37 in the inner cavity 2 shelves. Non-condensable gases with vapors removed agent is pumped out from the drying chamber by a vacuum pump up to full replacement of non-condensable gases pairs agent to be uninstalled.

The third method includes removing non-condensable gases is carried out by blowing drying chamber with carbon dioxide. To reduce consumption of carbon dioxide blowing is carried out at maximum vacuum provided by operating vacuum pump 11. The blowing is carried out until complete replacement of non-condensable gases in the drying chamber with carbon dioxide.

After removal of non-condensable gases are sealed drying chamber through a vacuum line. Close the vacuum valve 12 and is filled through the valve 13 "U"-shaped section of the vacuum pipeline absorbing solution for the formation of the water seal. The valve 13 is closed and switch off the vacuum pump 11. Sealing the drying chamber is carried out. The water seal prevents the penetration of kondenseerumise gas into the drying chamber from the atmosphere by sucking air through leaks outer door of the chamber in a depressurized compartment 51 and through the vacuum valve 12 when the vacuum pump.

A gradual increase in pressure in the vacuum pipe on the outside of the trap and in communicating with him gateway compartment, offset buffer tank 15. When the critical pressure includes a vacuum pump 11, open the vacuum valve 12 and reduces the pressure in shluzova compartment and a buffer tank 15 to routine, then again close the vacuum valve 12 and stop the vacuum pump.

When removing non-condensable gases by blowing carbon dioxide gas, after sealing the drying chamber from the tank 16 through the valve 17 is sucked into the open tank 18 located inside the chamber 1, a portion of the alkali solution to remove residual carbon dioxide from the volume of the drying chamber.

Include a pump 19 and through the valves 20 and 22 into the chamber serves absorbing solution, which flows down the outer surface of the evaporator 23. The absorption solution absorbs vapors removed agent in the camera, while intensely warming up. For cooling the absorption solution in order to restore its absorption characteristics include the compressor 24 of the refrigeration unit. A pair of working fluid boil in the evaporator 23, the cooling water flowing along the evaporator absorbing agent, is pumped by the compressor 24 and capacitor 25, where at high pressure it condenses, giving up heat the GTC condensation surrounding the condenser environment. The condensed working fluid from the condenser 25 through the throttle valve 26 is returned to the evaporator 23, thus completing the operating cycle of the refrigeration unit. The vapor pressure of the agent to be uninstalled in the area of the evaporator is reduced, and the internal volume of the chamber to the evaporator through the perforated sheet 27, which protects the product from the spray absorption solution, proceed pairs removed agent, correspondingly reducing the vapor pressure of the agent on the product. From the product starts to evaporate or sublimate remove the agent, when this happens the cooling of the product until its samozatachivanie, if it's freezing has not been made before loading the product into the drying chamber. Absorbing agent flows from the evaporator 23 team in the capacity of 29, where the pump 19 is again applied to the wetting of the evaporator. The level in the team capacitance 29 is supported by a buffer tank 31.

After reaching the desired temperature in the chamber off the compressor 24 of the refrigeration unit and include a compressor 5 vapor compression heat transfer installation, the evaporator which moisten circulating adsorption pump by opening the valve 21.

The working body, which is in the form of liquid in the evaporator 6, under the action of vacuum generated by the compressor 5, boils, removing heat from polotical the solution, wetting the walls of the evaporator. A pair of working fluid received in the cavity of shelves 2, where it condenses, giving up heat of condensation by heat conduction and thermal radiation product, placed in trays on the shelves. The condensed working fluid from the shelves through the throttle valve 7 is returned to the evaporator 6.

Of the product under the action of the incoming heat evaporates (sublimates) remove the agent pairs agent moves through the holes of the perforated sheet 28 to the evaporator 6, where it is absorbed by the cooled circulating absorption solution, wetting the evaporator. The heat of absorption is transferred from the absorbing solution, a working body, and in turn, the product, which again is spent on evaporation (sublimation) of the deleted agent. As in the system of the drying chamber is continuously brought the heat required for compression of the working fluid in the compressor 5, the excess heat from the system removes the periodic switching of the compressor 24 of the refrigeration installation.

In the drying process reduces the concentration and the increase in circulating absorption solution, therefore, produce a continuous or periodic regeneration of the absorbing solution. Cover the valve 20, opening the valves 32 and 35. Part of the circulating absorption solution to pass through the through the heat exchanger 33, which is heated and enters the reboiler 34. In the boiler due to external heat source is desorbed from the solution to remove agent pairs which can be used for technological purposes, such as heat treatment (sterilization) cameras and pallets of trays, and for other purposes connected with the recycling of spent heat. The regenerated absorption solution from the boiler 34 enters the heat exchanger 33 where it is cooled, giving heat supplied to the regeneration of the absorbing solution, and returns to the circulation loop.

As the drying of the product vapour pressure of the removed agent on it decreases and finally the moment comes when it is compared with the vapor pressure of the agent over the absorbing solution. The drying process is suspended. To resume the process, you must either increase the heating temperature of the product, or a stronger cooling of the adsorption agent, or both.

If you need further final drying of the product, proceed to the next stage of drying. Turn off the compressor 5, open the valves 7 and 9, and of the shelves 2 and the evaporator 6 into the container 10 completely drain the working fluid heat transfer system. The valves 7, 8 and 9 is closed, open the valve 38 and open the valve 37. The shelf is supplied with vapor removed the th agent from the boiler 34. Pair fed agent condenses, giving up heat of condensation product being on the shelves, and drain in a team capacity 39. The condensation heat is spent for evaporation (sublimation) remove the agent from the product.

At the same time turn the compressor 24 of the refrigeration device. Pair the deleted agent absorbed by the cooled absorbent solution, wetting the evaporator 23. Increasing the temperature of the product by increasing the vapor pressure of the agent in the heat shelves 2 and reducing the temperature of the absorbing agent by maximum cooling of the evaporator 23, reach the highest possible degree of drying of the product.

The device shown in figure 2, contains the drying chamber 1, heating shelves 2, the compressor 5, an evaporator 6, the throttle valve 7, the vacuum pump 11, and the vacuum valve 12, valve 13, the buffer capacity of 15, the pump 19, the valves 21 and 22, the evaporator 23, a compressor 24, a capacitor 25, the throttle valve 26, the perforated partitions 27 and 28, tanks 29 and 30, the tank 31, the capacitor 40, the evaporator 41, a high pressure pump 42, the membrane device 43, the throttle valve 44.

The implementation of the method is carried out similarly to the above-described method. The difference are the following :

Simultaneous operation of the compressor 24 of the refrigeration unit and the compressor 5 heat transfer in the system is carried out only in the deep of the final product. Filing absorption solution passes through valve 22 to wetting of the evaporator 23. The valve 21 is fully closed. The working fluid of the refrigeration unit boils in the evaporator 23, taking the heat of absorption from circulating absorbing agent. A pair of working fluid is pumped by the compressor 24 to the condenser 40, where at high pressure it condenses, giving up heat of condensation of a working body heat installation, located in the evaporator 41. The condensed working fluid of the refrigeration unit from the condenser 40 through the throttle valve 26 is returned to the evaporator 23. The heat exchange of the condenser 25 with the environment during this mode of operation the maximum limit.

The working fluid in the evaporator 41 is boiling, a pair of working fluid is pumped by the compressor 5 in the heat of the shelf 2, where it condenses, transferring heat of condensation product in the trays placed on shelves. The condensed working fluid from shelves 2 through the throttle valve 7 is returned to the evaporator 41. In this mode, the refrigerating unit performs the function of the first stage, and a heat transfer unit has the function of the second stage of a two stage installation, transferring the heat of absorption from the absorption solution product. When working stage installation increases the temperature difference between the p is politely solution and product that allows to achieve a high degree of product concentration. However, the cost of heat transfer in this setup more than the single-stage installation. Therefore, this method is cost-effective at the last stage of drying of the product.

For the main stage of concentration or drying apply a single-stage heat setting, which is the cycle: wetted absorbing agent of the evaporator 6 - compressor 5 - heating shelf 2 - throttle valve 7 to the evaporator 6. When you need to adjust the temperature in the drying chamber, the compressor 5 heat transfer installation switch off and include the compressor 24 of the refrigeration unit, which is the cycle: wetted absorbing agent of the evaporator 23 to the compressor 24 and the capacitor 25, giving warmth to the environment, - the throttle valve 26 to the evaporator 23.

Regeneration of the absorbing solution is as follows. The high pressure pump 42 serves part of the circulating absorption agent in the membrane device 43, in which the absorbing solution is divided into two streams. Concentrated absorption solution through the throttle valve 44 is returned to the circulation system of an absorption solution, and purified to remove the agent output is conducted from the installation.

A fragment of the device shown in figure 3, contains an open container 45, which has an open tray 46. The tray 46 is concentrating or drying the product 47, capacity 45 flows circulating absorption solution 48. The container tray is located in the chamber, from which it is removed interfering gases. The concentration or drying of the product is carried out as follows. Absorbing solution 48 absorbs pairs agent from the chamber, reducing the vapor pressure of the agent in the chamber, while being warmed up by the heat of absorption. The heat is transferred through the walls of the tray 46 to the product, which under the action of the obtained heat evaporation or sublimation vapor agent, increasing the vapor pressure of the agent in the chamber. The increase in vapor pressure of the agent in the chamber again causes the absorption of vapor absorbing agent solution. The process is carried out up until the equilibrium partial vapor pressure of the agent on the product and on the absorption solution will not be the same at the same temperature due to the dilution of the absorbing solution by an agent or as a result of reduction of the content of the agent in the product.

1. Method of removing liquid or frozen agent of the product, providing product placement in the chamber, the sealing, the removal of her noncondensable the basics, product heating and simultaneous removal from the chamber evaporating or sublimating from the product vapors agent by absorption absorption solution, characterized in that heated by absorption of the absorbing solution is cooled to recover its absorption characteristics, heating of the product carried out by the heat absorption of vapors removed agent absorption solution is passed through the heat transfer device, and the product is placed above or below the hollow sealed heating shelves connected to the heat transfer device.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for a product that contains the deleted agent in the form of water or ice, as the absorption solution using concentrated aqueous solution of sodium chloride, calcium chloride or lithium bromide.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that, as a heat transfer device using the vapor compression setting, the evaporator which moisten the circulating absorption solution, and the capacitor are shelves.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the working medium vapor compression units use an antifreeze liquid, having a boiling point at atmospheric pressure above room temperature and vapors which way the s absorbed in the absorption solution, and removing non-condensable gases from the vapor compression system installation carried out by a vacuum pump.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the working medium vapor compression units use a mixture of water and ethanol.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that carry out the regeneration of the absorbing solution by boiling it in a closed kettle with vapor extraction agent to be uninstalled.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that after heating of the product by the heat absorption of vapors removed agent absorption solution is performed in the final drying of the product by filing shelves vapor agent from a closed boiler, and the temperature control of heating shelves carried out by adjusting the pressure of the vapors removed agent inside shelves.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that exercise freezing of the product and/or maintaining the desired temperature balance in the chamber by the vapor compression refrigerating system, an evaporator which moisten the circulating absorption solution, and the heat of absorption of vapors removed agent absorbing solution away from the evaporator the environment surrounding the condenser of the refrigeration installation.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that carry out the regeneration of the absorbing solution by removal of the negatives the liquid absorption agent through a semipermeable membrane by reverse osmosis method.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that providing additional sealing the chamber by creating a technological pipelines connected with the internal volume of the chamber, valves, filled with absorbing solution.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the removal of a major part of the non-condensable gases from the chamber carried out by a vacuum pump.

12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that after reaching the desktop resolution when operating the vacuum pump to carry out the removal of residual non-condensable gases from the chamber by heating of the product and the displacement of the volume of residues of non-condensable gases generated in pairs agent to be uninstalled in vacuum pump.

13. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that after reaching the desktop resolution when operating the vacuum pump to carry out the removal of residual non-condensable gases from the chamber by feeding it carbon dioxide and wipe them remnants of non-condensable gases in the vacuum pump, and then produce the sealing chamber and serves in her portion of the alkali solution to remove carbon dioxide.



 

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