Method for measuring speech intelligibility

FIELD: computation engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out object-oriented measurement tract correction. To carry out it, some test signal frequencies are transmitted of given level in turn. Real level of the acoustic signals is measured at each frequency at their transmission place. The acoustic signal levels are compared to given levels at the same frequencies, measured acoustic signals levels deviations from the given ones are measured and frequency characteristic of the measurement tract is adjusted to compensate the difference between the measured and given acoustic signal levels at their transmission place.

EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability of measurements.

2 dwg

 

The technical field.

The invention relates to speech recognition, specifically for measuring the intelligibility of speech under extremely adverse conditions, the noise at low signal to noise, and is intended primarily to determine the degree of protection of premises against unauthorized leakage of acoustic speech information in real conditions.

The level of technology.

There are various ways of measuring the intelligibility of speech. The simplest, but least accurate to evaluate the intelligibility ratio given by the integral of the level of the acoustic signal and the measured integral of the noise level in the listening position. More accurate methods - expert hearing at the place of reception of acoustic signals, composed of specially selected phrases, words or syllables (programs)that are emitted in the place of generation of the speech, with subsequent processing of the results to determine the intelligibility ("Acoustics", reference book edited by Maspoch, - M.: Radio and communication, 1989; GOST In 20775-75. "The voice transmission over communication paths, equipped with privacy. Requirements for speech intelligibility. Method of measurement"; Annavasal, Affain "fundamentals of theory and calculation of information-measuring systems", M.: Mashinostroenie, 1991). In particular, these papers Pampacancha, Adducing "Electro-acoustic paths of the military communications and Guest In 20775-75 described this method of measurement, used in this apparatus and methods of mathematical processing. The method is technically simple, but not reproducible and accurate in conditions of weak signals, i.e. when the intelligibility of speech syllables less than 25%, as it depends, in particular, from intelligence experts, and most importantly - consuming and requires the participation of a large number of experts.

A more objective method based on the sequential radiation of separate tonal components of the audible spectrum in the transmission and determining any experts of their threshold of audibility in the receive location, and actually receive location can only be microphones connected via amplifiers with headphones experts (Nebroski "Calculation and measurement of speech intelligibility", - M.: Communication, 1962). The acoustic radiation level of each component is increased to the threshold of hearing her an expert. Recorded radiation levels mathematically processed taking into account the curve of human audibility and thus determine the minimum level of the speech signal to obtain a given speech intelligibility at the receiving location. The information, of course, can also be used to determine the maximum level of the acoustic signal, wherein in the predetermined acceptance speech is guaranteed to be legible, i.e. provided with a certain level of protection against leakage the acoustic information. However, this method is time-consuming, because it requires the participation of many experts and time. In addition, the estimate of intelligibility is not on the real level of acoustic signals, and those that meet the threshold of hearing at the specified location. This is often unacceptable, because, as you know, the parasitic channels of transmission of acoustic information (walls, floors, Windows, furniture, doors etc) usually unevenly attenuate frequency components of speech and the protection of information from leakage, calculated according to the results of the above measurements may not correspond to actual.

Currently, the most common instrumental methods based on the tonal method of speech intelligibility (e.g., Pampelmousse, Adducing "Electro-acoustic paths with feedback," GOST In 20775-75, Useful model # 27259). They provide a measure of intelligibility in any ratio signal/noise purely technical means, without the use of expert listening. Most modern device patent for useful model №27259, publ. 10.01.2003. It is the closest to the claimed method according to most of the essential features and, therefore, selected as a prototype.

Below is a detailed description of the prototype method.

The method involves the placement of a source of acoustic ispy is athelny signals at the point of placement of the source speech signal, and receiver - in point to the location of the receiver unauthorized leakage of acoustic information. Emit a sequence of tonal sound frequency specified level with pauses between them, and the frequency of the radiation divided by the average frequencies of the N bands, which are divided audible range of speech. During the radiation of each frequency receiver test signal through a bandpass filter tuned to this frequency, and take measure of the total acoustic signal is formed at the place of reception on this frequency and acoustic noise in this band. During pause receiver receive and measure the signal noise in this band. According to the results of measurements determine the power value of a received signal of this tonal frequency, on the basis of independent linear summation of the capacities of the signal and noise determine signal/noise ratio on this tone frequency. Then the procedure is repeated on the next tone frequency, then the next, until you have defined the relation signal/noise at all tone frequencies of the test signal. In certain respects, the signal/noise at all tone frequencies of the test signal to compute the intelligibility of the speech signal on the real background noise on the basis of known techniques (see, for example, article Ana and others, "the Correlation theory of speech intelligibility," in which the magazine "problems of radio electronics", series "General electronics", 1995, issue 1, p.3-9; Nebroski "Calculation and measurement of speech intelligibility", - M.: Communication, 1962).

In other words, the essence of the method, like most other instrumental methods of measurement of intelligibility, is a series of radiation at the point of transfer test N tonal acoustic oscillations in the speech frequency range, the received signals at a given point of reception, the N-band measure of signal to noise for all N frequencies of the test signals and the subsequent calculation of the coefficient of intelligibility - known methods. The essence of the method is illustrated in figure 1 - example of a simplified structural diagram of the method, where 1 is the generator of the N-frequency test signal, 2 - acoustic emitter (speaker), 3 - receiver of acoustic signals (microphone), 4 - N-band meter signal to noise ratio, 5 - evaluator level of speech intelligibility.

The device consists of series-connected generator 1 of the test signal, the loudspeaker 2, placed in the place of the actual location of the sound source signals, a microphone 3, placed at the listening position, N-band meter 4 signal to noise ratio on each of the N frequencies of the test signals and the transmitter are 5 levels of speech understanding.

Device is about works in the following way. After placement of the speaker 2 and the microphone 3 in these locations include the device. Generator 1 generates an acoustic test signal to the specified level, consisting of a sequence of N frequencies, separated by medium frequency N bands, which are divided audible range of speech. Speaker 2 emits the specified signals. Microphone 3 converts the received signals into electric, N-band meter 4 signal to noise determines the signal/noise ratio for each frequency of the test signal. Thus, at the input of the transmitter 5 level of intelligibility in turn receives the measured ratio of signal to noise for all N emitted frequencies. The transmitter 5 level of intelligibility on the measured signal to noise makes calculation of speech intelligibility. The calculation is made on the basis of known relationships and theories, the essence of which is that initially above the measured signal to determine the noise intelligibility coefficients for each frequency of the test signal. Them determine the average (arithmetic mean) value of the coefficient of intelligibility. Then at a certain average value of the coefficient of intelligibility and known curve verbal intelligibility from the value of the coefficient of intelligibility determine slaves the Yu speech intelligibility (see, for example, article Vchgetdate and Some other methodological approaches to assessing the effectiveness of protection of verbal information in W. "Special equipment" No. 4, 2000, p.39-45).

The described method is widely used for measuring the intelligibility of speech, i.e. to determine the quality of listening. Currently, however, no less significant problem was the fight against eavesdropping, i.e. reducing the legibility in places of possible information leakage, prevent unauthorized listening. In this case (unlike the problem of determining the quality of listening) the ratio signal/noise a little. The application of the described method for the control of these parameters is not always acceptable due to its lack of precision. The total acoustic signal leakage can be formed and non-linear ways, so to ensure the reliability of measurements must be made is the real signal level in the transmission, which is very small at the point of reception. It is also known that the level of real total acoustic signal at the point of transfer (location, source protected information) depends not only on the radiation power, but also from the secondary acoustic signals reflected from the structural elements of the premises (walls, ceiling, window glass, furniture), from reverberation noise from the vibration is ion, from magnetic, educated in other ways, for example, artificial acoustic interference caused by equipment, engineering structures, human activities (Laurentin "Acoustics", M.: Higher school, 1978, Chapter VII, str-370).

This dependence is nonlinear and castotnozawisimaya, which significantly reduces the reliability of the measurements of the coefficient of intelligibility. Moreover, to exclude the above deviation of the actual level of acoustic radiation from a given in advance unsurveyed premise is fundamentally impossible. Moreover, the acoustic characteristics even in advance of the surveyed premises in the place of radiation can significantly change when the atmospheric temperature, day and night, the presence and movement of equipment, furniture, people and much more. Listed secondary acoustic signals and noise can significantly affect the results of the measurement of speech intelligibility by reducing their accuracy and reliability.

This is the big disadvantage of the described method.

The objective of the invention.

The present invention is to improve the accuracy and reliability of measurement of speech intelligibility.

The solution is the essence of the invention.

The problem is solved by the fact that in the known method for measuring the intelligibility of speech, providing for the placement of the source of acoustic test the signal at the point of placement of the source speech signal, and receiver - in point to the location of the receiver unauthorized leakage of acoustic information, coherent radiation N-frequency acoustic test signal to the specified level, and the frequency of the radiation is distributed at medium frequencies N bands, which are divided audible range of speech, reception and measurement of acoustic signals generated in the receiving location for all N frequencies of the test signal, determining from the results of measurements of the ratio signal/noise for each frequency of the test signal, the subsequent calculation of the level of speech intelligibility by certain signal to noise

important changes and additions, namely:

before emission testing acoustic signal produced object the correction of the frequency characteristics of the tract measurements, which

- alternately emit all N tone frequency test acoustic signal of a given level and for each frequency measure the actual level of acoustic signals in place of their radiation,

- compare the measured levels of acoustic signals with predetermined levels on the same frequencies and determine the deviation of the measured levels of acoustic signals from the target,

- adjust the frequency response of the channel measurements to compensate for the difference between the specified and measured the levels of the acoustic test signal in place of their real radiation.

Disclosure of the invention.

The essence of the invention is to provide measurements at each frequency exactly at a given level of acoustic signals, because of possible deviations from the desired levels due to reflections, resonances, non-linearity of the emitter, etc. in advance, before measurements are recorded, measured and compensated for in the place of reception (listening). This operation we called a General term - object correction, because it addresses mainly the specific distortion measurements associated with features of the objects (buildings).

An example of a simplified block diagram of a device that implements the described method, are presented in figure 2, where the following notation: 1 - generator N-frequency test signal, 2 - acoustic emitter (speaker), 3 - receiver of acoustic signals (microphone), 4 - N-band meter signal to noise ratio, 5 - evaluator level of intelligibility, 6 - meter level of the acoustic signal at the site of radiation, 7 - comparator, 8 - adjustable offset frequency characteristics.

The device consists of series-connected generator 1 N-frequency test signal, the loudspeaker 2, placed in the place of the actual location of the sound source signals, a microphone 3, placed in the place of letting them listen the Oia, adjustable offset 8 frequency characteristics, N-band meter 4 signal to noise and transmitter 5 level of speech intelligibility. Directly in front of the acoustic emitter 2 posted by meter 6 level of the acoustic signal, the output of which is connected to the comparator 7. The device is synchronized to a clock synchronizer.

The method is implemented as follows.

Place the source of the acoustic test signal (speaker 2) at the point of placing the real source of the acoustic signal and the acoustic signal receiver (microphone 3) at the point of possible placement of the receiver of acoustic information. Before measuring the intelligibility of speech produced object the correction of the frequency characteristics of the tract dimensions, which in turn generate the generator 1 and emitted by the loudspeaker 2 separate tone frequency test signal of a given level and for each frequency measured by the measuring device 6, the actual levels of the acoustic signal in place of their radiation, compare unit 6 measured levels of acoustic signals with predetermined levels on the same frequencies, determine the deviation of the measured levels of preset and adjustable corrector 8 corrects the frequency characteristic of the tract measurements of intelligibility for compensat is and the difference between the predetermined and the measured levels of the test signal in place of their real radiation.

Then start measuring intelligibility, which generate the generator 1 and beam emitter 2 test acoustic signal of a given level, which are, most often, the sequence of pitch frequencies distributed according to the average frequency N bands, which are divided audible range, with pauses between frequencies. Take the receiver 3 at the point of measurement of the received acoustic signals in the radiation and in the pauses, produce object the correction of the frequency characteristics of the tract measurement with a corrector 8. Then N-band meter 4 divide them narrowband filters at frequencies corresponding to the frequencies of the test signal, measure the levels of received signals, and then determines the signal/noise ratio for each frequency of the test signal and calculate calculator 5 clarity on the real background noise based on the correlation theory of speech intelligibility (Laurentin "Acoustics", M.: Higher school, 1978, Chapter VII, str-370), which is the development of the formant of speech intelligibility (see, for example, Nebroski "Calculation and measurement of speech intelligibility", - M.: Communication, 1962 and the patent for useful model # 27259, publ. 10.01.2003).

The main difference between the claimed process from the prototype is the introduction before measuring the intelligibility of the operation object correction of frequency characteristics and channel measurements, why alternately emit frequency test signal of a given level at each frequency is measured actual levels of radiation in the place of their radiation, comparing the measured levels of acoustic signals with predetermined levels on the same frequencies, determine the deviation of the measured levels from the set and adjust the frequency response of the channel measurements of intelligibility to compensate for the difference between the specified and measured levels of the acoustic test signal in place of their real radiation.

This way we are not aware of the available sources of information.

The combination of the above differences is creative achievement inventors, it is not obvious for the expert.

Industrial applicability.

The claimed method is easily implemented as a circuit or programmatically by chemoreactive, well-developed industry, which follows from the above description of the example execution.

In particular, the measurement of the actual level of the acoustic signal can be performed by a level meter or sound level meter, compared with the specified level can be performed visually (by comparison with the standard or table) or subtractive device. Adjustable offset frequency characteristics can be, in particular, multi-band tone control. A device that implements described in the manual, built on state Informacoustica successfully passed Metrology and certification tests and is already used when measuring the ratio of speech intelligibility. Any practical difficulties associated with the use of the invention, is not met.

Actually received benefits before the prototype consist in increasing the reliability and accuracy of measuring the intelligibility of speech. In particular, the guaranteed lowest level determine signal/noise 10 dB below the zero level, the hearing threshold of the ear (2×10-5PA) and the degree of intelligibility is reduced by 1.5 times, the measurement error is reduced by more than half due to the elimination of the influence of secondary sources of acoustic signals. The accuracy of determination of speech intelligibility in conditions of weak signal and high noise level allows guaranteed to establish the absence of channels of information leakage, because intelligibility is defined below the nominal value, given the normative-methodical documents.

Thus, in our opinion, the claimed technical solution meets all the criteria applicable to the invention, it is new, not obvious and industrially applicable.

The method for measuring the intelligibility of speech, providing for the placement of the source of acoustic test signals ass is authorized power at the point of placement of the source speech signal, and receiver - in point to the location of the receiver unauthorized leakage of acoustic information, coherent radiation N-frequency acoustic test signals to the specified level, and the frequency of the radiation divided by the average frequencies of the N bands, which are divided audible range of speech, reception and measurement of acoustic signals generated in the receive location for each frequency test signal, determining from the results of measurements of signal to noise for each frequency of the test signal and the calculation of the level of speech intelligibility on certain higher the signal to noise ratio, characterized in that prior to emission testing acoustic signals produced object the correction of the frequency characteristics of the measurement, which alternately emit a single frequency test signal of a given level and for each frequency measure the actual level of acoustic signals in place of their radiation, comparing the measured levels of acoustic signals with predetermined levels on the same frequencies, determine the deviation of the measured levels of acoustic signals from the target and adjust the frequency response of the channel measurements to compensate for the difference between the specified and measured levels of the test signal in place of their real radiation.



 

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