Ditching and transporting rig for layered pit excavation
FIELD: earth-moving equipment, particularly machines for ground cutting, pit excavation for hydraulic structure, large-scale object building, as well as for mineral deposit development.
SUBSTANCE: ditching and transportation rig comprises basic chassis connected with earth-moving module and with transportation-handling devices, which move ground in vertical and horizontal directions. Earth-moving module is made as bucket rotary drum secured by means of vertical and horizontal hinges, as well as control-rods to the basic chassis so that the bucket rotary drum may rotate in vertical and horizontal planes and overhanging length thereof may be changed. Device is provided with continuous-type conveyer unit made as auger system and as telescopic pipe pivotally connected with transportation-handling device, which move ground in horizontal direction. Horizontal auger is located inside bucket rotary drum and is offset with respect to drum axis so that auger axis is parallel to drum axis. The horizontal auger is transversal to inclined auger having lower end installed under outlet end of horizontal auger. Upper end of inclined auger is pivotally fastened to upper telescopic pipe section. Transportation-handling device, which moves ground in horizontal direction, is made as endless band installed on length-adjustable telescopic sliding frame, which may change ground displacement distance by means of tightening rollers. Rollers have pins installed at different heights sliding in telescopic frame grooves. The telescopic frame has flanging. Lower telescopic pipe section is provided with rotary hinge connected to telescopic frame flanging so that rotary hinge may perform longitudinal movement with respect to frame flanging. Transportation-handling device, which provides vertical ground movement is composite and made as continuous-type bucket bands mating each other in transfer points.
EFFECT: increased ability and speed of pit excavation, reduced costs of ground excavation and transportation outside the pit and provision of continuous technological cycle.
2 cl, 8 dwg
The invention relates to earth moving equipment, assemblies, systems and machines for excavation, formation of pits, largest pits for hydraulic structures or for the construction of large objects, as well as in the development field.
The known method of phased testing of deep open pits, including layer-by-layer excavation with a gradual refinement of each layer, forming a spiral transport ledge on the slope and the evacuation of the soil (see patent RU NO. 2060390, E 21 41/26, 1992). This method of quarrying is the most progressive of known, however, its implementation requires the use of more modern equipment, ensuring the continuity of the production cycle, with low energy intensity development processes and evacuation of the soil.
Known for mining and loading machine comprising a base chassis with blade and transporting device (see patent RU No. 2018577, CL E 02 F 3/76, 1990). This machine is designed for cutting blade of a small layer of the earth and its overload by the conveying device in the hopper and then into the car. Such a machine is inefficient to use in the development of deep and large quarries because of its poor performance.
A known machine for layer-by-layer excavation, including the base chassis, chain work on the gun and tow soil (see patent RU No. 2129193, CL E 02 F 5/06, 1997). The working body of this machine has higher performance than moldboard work the body, but its use in the development of large quarries also impractical. When operating this machine or pour the soil away from the place of design or an oncoming car. In the first case, additional hardware is required for the collection and handling of soil, and the second a large number of cars, which makes the process of career development is much more expensive and more time-consuming.
A device for transporting soil during the passage of the pits, including the final section of the auger with the thrower to drop ground to the periphery of the pit (see patent RU NO. 2053331, E 02 F 5/08, 1992). The known device cannot be used during the development of large and deep pits, because they do not have the funds for high-performance and continuous excavation, and also provides for the use of additional independent from the main unit means for evacuation of soil from the place of its development.
The closest technical solution to the claimed invention is "Excavation-loading complex on the basis of the dragline", includes base chassis associated with the excavation module and the transport and handling devices vertical and Hori is tal movement of soil (see patent RU NO. 2099475, E 02 F 3/48, 1993). In the known technical solution selected soil immediately transported by a system of vertical and horizontal movement beyond development. However, in the known device is not provided for maintaining a continuous excavation, soil comes portions, which facilitates the work handling system. When using the working body with the continuous development of ground known complex will drastically reduce its performance, and the intensity and complexity of the entire complex will be so high that its use in the development of deep open pits will not be useful.
The present invention is directed to the solution of the technical problem of improving the performance of excavation and transport of layer-by-layer Assembly for quarrying, reduce its energy consumption, simplify the design of all of its constituent nodes, accelerate the development process career, cheaper method of excavation and evacuation of career continuity of the technological cycle.
The solution of a technical problem is achieved by the excavation and transport layer-by-layer Assembly for career development, including basic chassis associated with the excavation module and the transport and handling devices vertical and horizontal movement is of runta, digging the module is made in the form of a bucket rotary drum mounted through vertical and horizontal joints, a system of rods and cylinders on the base chassis can be rotated in vertical and horizontal planes, and changes the length of the departure of the rotary drum, and provided with a block conveyors continuous-action, made in the form of horizontal and inclined augers and a telescopic pipe, swivel associated with transport and handling device of the horizontal movement of soil, while the horizontal auger is located within the bucket rotary drum offset and parallel to the axis of the drum, and installed perpendicular to the inclined auger, the lower end of which is fitted at the exit end of the horizontal auger, and the upper end of the inclined auger pivotally connected with the upper section of the telescopic pipe, while the transport and handling device of the horizontal movement of soil made as installed on mobile telescopic frame, an endless belt made with the possibility of varying the extent of the transportation of the soil through a system of pulleys, shafts which are installed at different heights so that they can move in special grooves telescopic frame having a frame, the lower s is s telescopic pipe is equipped with an adjustable hinge, related flared telescopic frame and mounted with a possibility of longitudinal movement of the rotating hinge relative to the flange, and transport-handling device, the vertical movement of soil made of composite in the form of a set of infinite bucket tapes associated with each other in areas of congestion, and, in addition, the shafts adjacent pulleys transport and handling device of the horizontal movement of soil are biased in opposite directions by springs located in the grooves of the telescopic frame.
The invention is illustrated by drawings.
Figure 1 shows earth-moving layer-by-layer Assembly for career development, figure 2 - basic chassis systems control excavation and transport of the unit, figure 3 - excavation module, side view, figure 4 - excavation module, view And figure 3, figure 5 is the same, view B, figure 4, figure 6 - transport-handling device Assembly, 7 - tape transport and handling device for horizontal movement of soil, type In Fig.6 is removed from the telescopic frame and without supports, Fig - telescopic frame without flanging transport and handling device for horizontal the movement of soil on mobile supports.
Earth-moving layer-by-layer Assembly for career development b includes the basic chassis 1, associated with excavation module 2 and the transport and handling devices 3 and 4 are vertical and horizontal movement of soil. Excavation module 2 is made in the form of the bucket rotary drum 5 mounted on the base chassis 1 can be rotated in vertical and horizontal planes, and changes the length of the departure of the rotary drum 5. Excavation module 2 is equipped with a unit conveyors continuous-action, made in the form of a horizontal auger 6 located inside of the bucket rotary drum 5 with an offset from its axis 7 and parallel to it and installed perpendicular to the inclined screw 8, the lower end 9 of which is located beneath the exit end 10 of the horizontal auger 6 and the telescopic tube 11. The upper end 12 of an inclined screw 8 by means of the hinge 13 is connected with the upper section 14 of the telescopic pipe 11. The lower end 15 of the telescopic pipe 11 via the rotating hinge 16 is associated with the transport and handling device 4 horizontal movement of the soil.
The base chassis 1 can be equipped or wheels 17 or 18 tracks. To adjust the position of excavation module 2 on the base chassis is a system of rods 19 and cylinders 20, 21, 22 and others connected with excavation module 2 through vertical and horizontal joints. To WSOY rotary drum 5 excavation module 2, mounted on the shaft 7, is a frame 23, which by means of fasteners 24 fixed buckets 25, equipped with cutting elements 26. Inside the drum 5 above the horizontal auger 6 is fixed pitched boards 27. Boot box 28 inclined auger 8 is at its lower end 9 and is located below the exit end 10 of the horizontal auger 6. For adjusting the position of the drum 5 with the screw 6, the tilt axis 29 of the screw 8 relative to the horizon line and related by means of the hinge 13 of the telescopic tubes 11 are used, the cylinders 20, 21 and 22. Horizontal auger 6 is covered by a casing 30, and an inclined auger 8 is located in the casing 31, the shaft 32 of the screw 6 is perpendicular to the shaft 33 of the screw 8. Boot the box 28 of the screw 8 is made in the upper part of the casing 31 at the lower end of the screw 8 at the exit end 10 of the screw 6.
The telescopic tube 11 includes an upper section 14, an intermediate section 34 and lower section 15 connected through a swivel joint 16 with the transport and handling device 4 horizontal movement of the soil, made in the form located on the movable telescopic frame 35 endless elastic band 36 mounted on the drive shafts 37 and supporting rollers 38. The device 4 with an endless elastic band 36 is arranged to change the length of the transportation g is the flying boot through a system of pulleys 39, the shafts 40 are installed at different heights so that they can move in special inclined grooves 41 telescopic frame 35 and are biased by springs 42 alternately above or below. The shafts 43 of the supporting rollers 38 are installed with the possibility of lateral movement in the slots 44 of the frame 35. Telescopic frame 35 is comprised of sections 45, interconnected by a movable connection in the form of a slightly curved sectors 46, located at the edges of the sections 45, connected between and is equipped with a horizontal grooves 47 and the fingers 48. The fingers 48 are fixed on the sectors 46 in the area of the grooves 47 and biased by springs 49. The location of the slots 47 of each section 45 coincides with the location of the fingers 48 on the adjacent section 45. The frame 35 has a longitudinal pitched boards 50 flared 51 located above the tape 36. Frame 51 communicates with the tilting hinge 16 of the lower section 15 of the tube 11. Frame 51 also serves to pivot the hinge 16 around her and to move along it. Pitched boards 50 flared 51 have the same telescopic design, as well as section 45 of the telescopic frame 35. The device 4 is installed on the movable racks 52, equipped with wheels 53. Sector 46 due to its curved shape are slightly turn relative to the racks 52, performs in this case the role of the vertical hinge is. Swivel hinge 16 associated with flanging 51 pitched boards 50 telescopic frame 35 is installed with the possibility of longitudinal movement relative to the flange 51. Telescopic frame 35 is equipped with a quick-release mechanism on the hitch (not shown) to the chassis 1 of the machine.
In the area of overloading the soil with device 4 horizontal movement of soil on device 3 vertical displacement of the soil is an exciting fixture 54, rigidly United with the device 3. Device 3 is made of a composite in the form of a set of endless chain bucket tapes, pivotally interconnected in areas of congestion, and with sloped Board 55 in the area of congestion on the discharge conveyor 56.
Earth-moving layer-by-layer Assembly for pit feature at the bottom 57 of the quarry so that the height of the developed layer 58 was slightly less than the height of the capture excavation module 2. The device 4 is disposed on the bottom 57 at its perimeter, and handling of soil from one endless chain screener tape device 3 to another feature on the highways 59 career formed in each of the selected layer. The discharge conveyor 56 fitted over the periphery 60 of the quarry.
Earth-moving layer-by-layer Assembly for career development is as follows.
In a pre-planned place is achala pit feature excavation module 2 excavation and transport of the unit. The development of a ground lead layers. When the excavation of the first layer to form highway 59 on the slope of the pit. Highway 59 necessarily strengthen, based on the estimated lifetime. After the selected first layer, formed the quarry to the bottom 57 despise the whole earth-moving unit. In each subsequent layer transport highway 59 is a continuous extension of the previous one.
When the excavation work of module 2 scoops 25 with cutting elements 26 capture and raise the ground up, where he under its own weight wakes up between the gaps of the frame 23 on the sloped boards 27 and the horizontal auger 6. From the output end 10 of the screw 6, the soil serves on the inclined auger 8 in the casing 31 which is at the lower end 9 has a special boot window 28. Auger 8 sprinkles the ground in articulating the associated telescopic tube 11, in which the soil is directed to the device 4 of its horizontal travel. The telescopic tube 11 hinged pair, consisting of a hinge 16 and the flange 51 pitched boards 50, associated with the device 4 horizontal movement of the soil. The tube 11 can be extended if necessary and change its angle. The extension pipe 11 is due to the promotion of its sections 14, 34 and 15 relative to each other when the distance increases excavation module 2. The slope of the labour of the s 11 regulate the hydraulic cylinder 21, thus an optimum angle to the horizon for a natural rolling of the ground under its own weight on the tape 36 device 4. The choice of the optimal angle of inclination of the pipe 11 depends on the properties of a particular soil and weather conditions during the operation.
Prior to the development of each new layer of soil in the career telescopic frame 35 connect the quick-release mechanism coupled to the chassis 1, and then it is stretched to the length of the treated area during forward movement of the excavation module 2 during its operation without stopping for adjustment. When this frame 35 device 4 together with an elastic band 36 may follow the contours of the periphery of the quarry, if it has a rounded appearance, due to the turning mechanism sections 46 relative to the racks 52. The tail part of the device 4, located in an area of exciting fixtures 54 device 3 remains stationary, so relatively it produces stretching device 4 when driving earthmoving module 2. When the length of the device 4 reaches the optimal value, the quick disconnect coupling from chassis 1 excavation module 2. After this excavation module 2 is connected to the device 4 through the hinge 16 with the possibility of longitudinal movement relative to the flange 51 pitched boards 2 of the frame 35. Further, when any is upravlenii motion excavation module 2 ground submitted telescopic pipe 11 to the tape 36 device 4, is transported to the gripping device 54 of the device 3 for vertical movement of the ground outside the pit.
In the area of overloading the soil with a gripping device 54 to the device 3 soil grab buckets of the lower chain of an endless belt device 3 and move up. Place swivel endless chain belts 3 are located in the area of highways 59, here the ground clutter from the bottom of the ribbon on the upstream chain of the endless tape device 3, and so as long as the soil will not fall onto the conveyor 56. The number of endless chain belts 3 depends on the number of selected layers of the soil in your career. Swivel tape between the device 3 has Bystroye-split design (not shown).
Thanks to such design, excavation and transport layer-by-layer Assembly for career development works almost without interruption until completed development of a layer of soil. His changeover and start development of the next layer is minimized through the use of legkorabban structures of all compounds and couplers, the possibilities for varying the extent of transportation of soil telescopic tube 11 and the device 4. The hardening earth is erolog module 2, rotary drum 5 and the bucket 25 with additional cutting elements 26 provides the development of practical any trudnoobrabatyvaemyh soil. Augers 6 and 8 and the telescopic tube 11 to provide continuous removal of soil from the place of the development devices 4 and 3 for the horizontal and vertical movement. These improvements enable the dismantling and installation of the unit very quickly, almost without stopping the development process and the evacuation of the soil from the pit. All elements of the Assembly are interconnected and provide a smooth uninterrupted performance. When the unit is excluded disposal in the career, the use of expensive mechanisms for the transport of soil from the pit, such as a car. All structural elements of the mobile unit, simple and reliable in their operation. The unit can be used in the formation of pits for the construction of large objects, even in urban areas, as well as in the development of any quarries for different purposes and different fields.
Thus, the claimed invention solves the technical problem of improving the performance of the excavation and transport of layer-by-layer Assembly for quarrying, reduce its energy consumption, simplify the design of all incoming negatives in the nodes, accelerate career development, cheaper method of excavation and evacuation of career continuity of the technological cycle.
1. Earth-moving layer-by-layer Assembly for career development, including basic chassis associated with the excavation module and the transport and handling devices of vertical and horizontal movement of soil, characterized in that the excavation module is made in the form of the bucket rotary drum mounted through vertical and horizontal joints, a system of rods and cylinders on the base chassis can be rotated in vertical and horizontal planes, and changes the length of the departure of the rotary drum, and provided with a block conveyors continuous-action, made in the form of horizontal and inclined augers and a telescopic pipe, swivel associated with transport and handling device of the horizontal movement of soil, when this horizontal auger is located within the bucket rotary drum offset and parallel to the axis of the drum and is mounted perpendicular to the inclined auger, the lower end of which is fitted at the exit end of the horizontal auger, and the upper end of the inclined auger pivotally connected with the upper section of the telescopic pipe, while the transport and handling is a device horizontal movement of the soil made as installed on mobile telescopic frame, an endless belt, made with the possibility of varying the extent of the transportation of the soil through a system of pulleys, shafts which are installed at different heights so that they can move in special grooves telescopic frame having a frame, while the lower section of the telescopic pipe is equipped with an adjustable hinge, connected with flared telescopic frame and mounted with a possibility of longitudinal movement of the rotating hinge relative to the flange, and transport-handling device, the vertical movement of soil made of composite in the form of a set of infinite bucket tapes associated with each other in places overload.
2. Excavation and transport Assembly for career development according to claim 1, characterized in that the shafts of adjacent pulleys transport and handling device of the horizontal movement of soil are biased in opposite directions by springs located in the grooves of the telescopic frame.
FIELD: mining, particularly methods of surface mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves transporting rock and unloading thereof under dump front slope; forming advance embankments; increasing advance embankment heights and pouring rock between the embankments. The advance embankments are formed of solid rock and are made as broken line with line sections extending at an acute angle to direction of dump front forming. Gaps between advance embankments are filled with soft rock so that soft rock front is behind from dump front and spaced from it for distance equal to not less than distance between solid and soft rock locations.
EFFECT: increased stability of each stacked refuse layer.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop steep and inclined ore bodies.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separating stages and dividing open-pit field into penetration and production horizons; excavating ore and removing capping by bench movement; employing temporarily inactive wall parts; constructing descents and haulage benches, conveying semi-trenches; delivering ore and cut capping to day surface; dividing capping rock in transversal section in hanging and laying wall into inclined layers, wherein angle of temporary inactive wall slope parts of layers to be excavated is different in upper, central and lower zones and the angle is increased in dependence of different speed of horizontal and vertical bench movement in upper and lower horizons; forming temporary (intermediate) dumps, permanent and additional in deposit sides; conveying rock along the descents directed towards the second and the third excavation stage pit contour with the use of cyclic vehicle means and then with the use of continuously acting vehicles, wherein trenches with conveyers are directed so that conveyor lifting means may be extended or cascade system may be created if ore body thickness varies or ore body inclination angle changes. Conveyer lifting means are formed in ore production zone when cyclic acting means reach extreme transportation level, which puts the system out of optimal operation area. Conveyer lifting means path is selected to elongate the conveyer lifting means or to provide their operation along with vertical lifting means to deliver ore to transfer point on day surface. The last lifting means is constructed at high depth so that composite transport level does not project outwards optimal system operation area. At final pit development stage design wall angles are adjusted, the last layers are cut and the wall angle magnitudes are brought to extreme stability-varied final magnitudes.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of capping and ore extraction, reduced current stripping ratio, decreased stripping volume in sides during sloping thereof under steep angles and increased operational safety.
6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, hydraulic building, road-building, agricultural building and so on, particularly to develop block rock or half-rock massifs.
SUBSTANCE: method involves stage-detailed rock zoning into block size, fracture porosity, strength and quality; dividing working zone massif into horizons having different heights or dividing working zone parts into productive blocks; dividing the productive blocks into uniform unit blocks, which are cut in top-down direction by "disassembling" method in accordance with block size so that blocks having the largest dimensions, namely technologically and technically oversized rock pieces in pit face are broken first and then properly sized and fine fractions are removed from rock massif with the use of corresponding working tool set of all-purpose mining rig. The all-purpose mining rig performs direct cutting of properly sized rock pieces from massif, drilling and blasting oversized rock pieces with the use of explosive charge having diameter of 8-84 mm under local shelter or by mechanical breaking or loosening operations. Then rock is removed and loaded on transportation means, moved to internal dump or to temporary bottomhole store.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock massif, pit face and coal strip mine cutting.
FIELD: mining, particularly methods of underground or surface mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating deposit up to design depth by opened method; cutting ore located under pit bottom in top-down direction by opencast-underground mining method, which is changed for underground-opencast mining method with opened excavated space and with ore movement via ore pass located in deposit center. During opencast-underground mining ore is developed within the limits of rock contour and then ore is cut along with forming platforms and faces having angles of inclination of not more than extreme ore shifting angles. During underground-opencast mining radial blind drifts are created in prepared sublevels and blind drifts are connected with working horizons by cross headings. Ore is cut from the blind drifts by blasting thereof so that inclined platforms for ore delivery to ore pass are created. Angles α of platform inclinations obey the following condition: φ≤α≤γ, where φ is angle of natural rock debris slope, γ is maximal angle of ore face shifting.
EFFECT: possibility to cut ore deposit located below design pit bottom mark up to lower level of explored reserves and increased working safety.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: ground excavation and pit and open-cast mine formation to erect hydraulic structures, large objects and deposit development.
SUBSTANCE: method involves marking open-cast mine contour; excavating ground in layers along with stepwise cutting of each layer; forming spiral transport ledge in open-cast mine slope and removing ground, wherein each layer at pit center is provided with depression; installing continuous-type ground excavation rig in front of depression; lowering working tool of ground excavation rig in depression; cutting ground of each layer in direction from depression to open-cast mine periphery along spiral line; forming constant transport spiral ledge in each layer in mine slope along open-cast mine perimeter; removing cut ground by length-adjustable vertical and horizontal conveyers, wherein horizontal conveyer lengths are decreased in each layer as depression diameter increases and vertical conveyer length is increased as open-cast mine depth increases. Spiral transport ledges of all layers form common continuous inclined spiral line.
EFFECT: increased simplicity and reduced time of open-cast mine development, reduced costs of ground excavation and disposal, provision of continuous work cycle.
FIELD: ground excavation and pit and open-cast mine formation to erect hydraulic structures, large objects and deposit development.
SUBSTANCE: method involves marking open-cast mine contour; excavating ground in layers along with stepwise cutting of each layer; forming spiral transport ledge in open-cast mine slope and removing ground, wherein each layer at layer perimeter is provided with trench; simultaneously forming permanent spiral transport ledge in outer trench slope; installing continuous-type ground excavation rig in trench; cutting ground of each layer along spiral line in direction from layer periphery to center thereof; removing cut ground by length-adjustable vertical and horizontal conveyers, wherein horizontal conveyer lengths are decreased in each layer as diameter of layer to be cut increases and vertical conveyer length is increased as open-cast mine depth increases. Spiral transport ledges of all layers form common continuous inclined spiral line.
EFFECT: increased simplicity and reduced time of open-cast mine development, reduced costs of ground excavation and disposal, provision of continuous work cycle.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly open-cast mining, particularly to produce natural stone blocks from sheet deposits by open-cast mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming benches in each separate deposit so that production deposit is arranged at bench bottom; excavating mineral blocks by moving hydraulic excavator bucket teeth under productive deposit bottom and removing the blocks having natural configuration due to applying hydraulic action of excavator boom, handle and bucket to block with the use of natural deposit fracture porosity, which defines configuration and volume of produced blocks.
EFFECT: increased output, possibility to produce blocks from thin sheet deposits along with maintaining natural block volumes.
FIELD: mining, particularly opened mining of horizontal and flat-lying seams.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting upper stripping ledge and rock interlayer ledges by shovel in mined-out space; mining mineral and conveying thereof. Covering stripping and rock interlayers are cut simultaneously with the use of single shovel located on lower rock interlayer roof. Upper stripping ledge is developed by upward digging operation, rock interlayers are developed by upward and downward digging operation performed during reverse shovel movement, wherein shovel moves along zigzag path and throws interlayer rock between ridges of banks.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposit development.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to form single-layer dump or lower layer of multilayer dump along with successive and simultaneous creation of dump layers.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating dump layer by unloading rock within predetermined land zone from vehicle performing a number of runs onto the layer in radial direction. The layer filling is carried out by longitudinal sections in direction away from pit and rock is freely laid in single direction within the limits of each above layer section. Above mentioned vehicle runs are began from pit exit end.
EFFECT: possibility to create dump over the full land zone near pit and at remote locations.
4 cl, 2 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: methods of surface mining, particularly to transport rock from open-cast mine.
SUBSTANCE: hoisting device comprises drive, haulage rope and load container with spherical balloon. The balloon is enclosed in teardrop-shaped shell. The head shell part is directed towards upper horizon, bottom part thereof is opened and provided with stiffening ring and stringers.
EFFECT: reduced power input and provision of favorable drive operation conditions, reduced haulage rope cross-section and, as a result, reduced hoisting device size as a whole.
FIELD: excavations, bordering of excavations, making embankments, particularly foundation pits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves ramming and compacting ground by means of free-fall rammer moving in guiding hole; laying concrete mix on pit bottom through water-bearing bed height; setting concrete mix; perforating orifice through ready concrete plug by means of free-fall rammer; ramming pit up to design depth.
EFFECT: increased working efficiency, possibility to form pits in water-bearing ground due to elimination of ground water influx into pit bottom and prevention of loosened ground caving inside the pit.
FIELD: mining, particularly special methods or apparatus for drilling, for water-tight screen forming and large well drilling during hydraulic mineral production, for retaining wall construction in ground and for foundation building.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises working tool made as turbodrills with rock-cutting tips. The turbodrills are connected one to another and constitute linear row. The working tool is also provided with central member including outer pipe and inner column. Each turbodrill comprises spindle. Auger or helical sections are coaxially installed on spindle of each turbodrill and on inner column of central member. Sealing member and branch pipe are located in upper part of outer pipe. The branch pipe is adapted to be connected to vacuum plant. Pressure pipelines are installed on frame between turbodrills with auger or helical sections. The pressure pipelines are provided with hydraulic heads entering well bottom zone. Method involves rotating auger or helical sections coaxially installed on turbodrill spindles and inner column to clean well bottom of cut rock; supplying flushing liquid to well bottom zone via pressure pipelines provided with hydraulic heads, wherein the pipelines are arranged between turbodrills having auger or helical sections; widening central mine part by installing inertia or foldable reamer on central member, which is arranged in advance of rock-cutting tips connected to turbodrills; evacuating upper part of pipe string of central member.
EFFECT: improved well bottom zone cleaning of cut rock during well drilling and, as a result, increased mechanical and run drilling speed and reliability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly foundation pits rammed by free-fall method.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises cylindrical part connected to section of circular truncated mouth cone. The section has base provided with base having flat ring extending transversely to longitudinal device axis. Cone section is parallel to base and faces free end of cylindrical part.
EFFECT: prevention of ground protrusion in pit and taper formation during pit ramming, provision of free ram removal from pit bottom and ram retraction in guiding shaft for following ramming cycle performing.
FIELD: building, particularly to construct road embankments on permafrost ground.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body composed of two stacked layers and ballast prism arranged on base platform. Each layer is formed as trapeze with larger base facing downwards. Lower base of upper layer trapeze has dimension c equal to that of upper base of lower layer trapeze. Lower base of upper layer trapeze mates upper base of lower layer trapeze. Upper layer has side slope less than that of lower layer. Main embankment parameters are determined from corresponding relations.
EFFECT: provision of embankment stability due to permafrost temperature reduction in embankment base.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining and building, particularly to construct trench adapted for further wall erection in densely built-up urban and industrial areas and to construct trench under difficult hydrogeological conditions, namely in watered unstable ground.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming a row of pilot wells spaced equal distances one from another and having diameters lesser than design trench width; forming working wells having diameters equal to design trench width by widening pilot wells along with simultaneously cutting bridges between working wells and removing the cut ground. The pilot wells are vertical or inclined and drilled under thixotropic mix protection. Distance between the pilot well axes is less than design trench width. The pilot wells are drilled in anti-phase one with another by inner and outer columns to provide ten-fold outer column strength in comparison with that of inner column. The pilot well is widened by removing outer column from it and providing the column with hollow reamer having cutting tool diameter equal to design trench width. Removable section of outer column is installed under the reamer. The removable section is provided with through receiving orifices and has height measured from lower end thereof to lower cutting tool plane enough for section advancing for pilot well widening and to prevent working well axis deviation from drilling axis and to provide section disconnection from reamer when reamer reaches trench bottom. After working well collision hollow calibrator body is installed on outer column. Outer and inner columns are brought into rotary-reciprocal movement and the calibrator is moved along trench length to remove cut ground from trench through calibrator interior.
EFFECT: increased technological efficiency of trench having different profiles and different direction construction.
14 cl, 9 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: mining, particularly to consolidate or to protect pit sides against landslide during pit operation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying transversal members connected to ropes along slope, wherein the ropes are fixedly secured to anchors located in upper bench berm; drilling inclined wells extending to bench slope; installing next anchor along lower edge of upper berm and drilling next inclined well cluster. Suspending net to bench slope and pulling down ropes from upper berm through drilled inclined wells so that the first rope ends extend from bench slope; lowering the rope ends to lower berm and securing thereof to transversal members arranged above the net, wherein the transversal members are installed beginning from lower berm; tightening the ropes and fastening the second rope ends to anchors.
EFFECT: increased operational safety and decreased labor inputs for bench slope consolidation.
1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to form pits for foundation building in weak and sedimentary ground in densely built-up urban areas.
SUBSTANCE: working tool comprises coaxial working shells provided with support members extending along lower edges thereof. The working tool also has head installed over upper parts of working shells, as well as guiding shell coaxially arranged in the working shells and abutments secured to support members of working shells. The guiding shell comprises abutment of predetermined profile. Each working shell abutment has thickness equal to distance between the shell provided with this abutment and neighboring inner shell. Each working shell abutment has the same profile as guiding shell abutment. Method of pit forming involves pressing guiding shell in ground; driving working shells in ground coaxially to guiding shell, wherein number of shells, shape and shell dimensions are selected from pit geometry and ground characteristics.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and costs of profiled pit forming, reduced dynamic load on buildings and structures built in proximity to the pit.
9 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to reinforce landslide slopes, particularly extensive landslides.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises bored piles fixed in stable slope ground layers and retained by anchoring means. To provide stability of lower landslide part inclined bars of anchor means are connected to bored pile heads. The anchor means are drilled down the slope and have fan-like structure. The anchor means are located at different levels in landslide body.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption for landslide control structure erection and increased stability of landslide massif.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to erect road embankments.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment ground, retaining wall and support structure. Embankment ground is divided with flat geonet webs into several layers. The retaining wall is also divided into layers similar to ground layers and covered with single geonet webs. Each retaining wall layer has vertical through slots filled with macroporous draining material. Flat geonet webs are inserted between hollow layers of retaining wall. Vertical cavities of adjacent retaining wall layers in height direction are superposed in plan view. Length L of ground layers reinforced with flat geonet webs beginning from inner retaining wall surface is determined from a given equation. Road embankment erection method involves forming retaining wall base; laying road embankment ground layers alternated with flat geonet webs; erecting retaining wall comprising several layers and constructing support structure. Base is initially created and then lower erection wall layer is erected on the base, wherein the retaining wall is provided with vertical cavities having heights corresponding to ground layer heights. The vertical cavities are filled with coarse material for 2/3 of volume thereof and then embankment ground layer is poured and compacted. Embankment ground is leveled and coarse material is added in the cavities. The coarse material is leveled and geonet web is placed onto the coarse material within the bounds of retaining wall and embankment ground layer. Next layers are formed in similar manner. Reinforced concrete block for retaining wall forming comprises device, which cooperates with ambient ground. The device comprises one or several vertical through cavities to be filled with granular coarse material. Depression in concrete is formed in lower block surface in front of erection loop.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption and erection time, increased service life, stability and operational reliability.
9 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to stabilize slope landslides.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises vertical walls built in base formed under the landslide and located along the landslide so that distance between adjacent walls decreases towards lower landslide end. Vertical walls are made of pile rows defining pleat-like system having pitch preventing ground punching between the piles. The pleats are directed so that corner apexes thereof face sliding ground and grillages of adjacent pleat flanges are connected by transversal beams.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity and increased technological efficiency of structure erection.