Plant agent for controlling of freshwater mollusk

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparations obtained by pharmacopoeia method from overground and underground parts of calamus (Acorus calamus L.) for controlling of freshwater mollusk.

EFFECT: enhanced assortment of effective agents for controlling of freshwater mollusk.

6 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture, comes to herbal remedies for the destruction of shellfish - intermediate hosts of the pathogen trematodozov animals and fish and can be used in the system protivopostavleny activities for desinvasion pastures and destruction of freshwater mollusc intermediate hosts of Fasciola ordinary.

The number of known synthetic molluscicides and vegetable origin, differing in structure and mechanisms of action.

From herbal preparations studied molluscicide properties of drugs of oak Quercus robur L./1/, Norway spruce Picea abies L./2/, bergenia tolstolistnogo Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch/3/. Known herbal medicines are effective against the mollusc Lymnaea goupili, L.subangulata, L.truncatula, L.ovata, L.peregra, L.stagnalis, L.palustus, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbarius corneus and L. auricularia, are environmentally "clean" and low and very slightly toxic to relatively mammals, fish, amphibians, aquatic organisms and vegetation.

With the aim of expanding Arsenal of herbal preparations for the destruction of shellfish - intermediate hosts of the pathogen trematodozov animals and fish - and expanding the resource base is proposed to use the preparations of the roots, rhizomes, stems-stems, leaves and fruits of plants Aira ordinary (Acorus calamus L.).

Air ordinary (Acorus calamus L.) is a perennial is ravenshoe a plant of the family Araceae - Araceae. Common in the middle and South of the European part of Russia, Western and Eastern Siberia and the far East. Air ordinary grows on the edges of the marshes, wet meadows, shores along slow-flowing rivers and streams, lakes, ponds, canals and ditches. Rhizome contains tannins - up to 12%-, ascorbic acid, and 150 mg specific to the type glycoside-Corin - 1.1% and essential oil - 4,8-5,0%, starch up to 20%, resin, volatile, gum and mucilage. The composition of essential oil contains mono - and sesquiterpenoid: α-pinene, (+) - camphene, (+) - camphor, borneol, β-elements, α-kalamen, Aaron, as well as phenolic compounds, such as azaron. The leaves contain tannins - 8-12%, ascorbic acid 150 mg, essential oils of 2.5 - 3%. In medicine Acorus calamus rhizome in the form of an aqueous decoction or alcohol tinctures are used as an aromatic bitter to stimulate the appetite and improve digestion, and as a tonic. Drugs Aira ordinary possess antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and deodorizing effect. In practice, the treatment of animal diseases drugs Aira ordinary in the form of infusion, bolus, cereals, teas and medicines appointed interior with chronic gastritis, enteritis, dyspepsia, hepatitis, cholecystitis as a diuretic, and in fo the IU powder or tincture is used for external treatment of suppurating wounds and ulcers. Air ordinary use as a repellent means: bunches of fragrant leaves deter insect pests.

To combat freshwater mollusks use powder, which is prepared from rhizomes, roots, leaves and stems-stems of calamus ordinary, and extracts prepared from its rhizomes, roots, stems-stems, leaves and fruits.

The powder is prepared by grinding plant to a particle size of 1-3 mm with subsequent drying.

For preparation of extracts as extractants use water, ethanol, ammonia (ammonia water).

An aqueous extract of the rhizomes, roots, stems-stems, leaves and fruits prepared pharmacopoeial method in the ratio of raw material to izvlekali 1:(5-15). Medicinal raw material is crushed to a particle size of 1-3 mm, a portion of the raw material filled in the extraction apparatus, pour the calculated amount of water temperature 65-85°depending on the density of the raw material, insist within 16-48 hours, heated to a temperature of 100°C, filtered and evaporated to a water content of 1:1 or to loose weight.

Example. Into the flask was placed 100 g of crushed roots, rhizomes and stems-stems, added 500 ml of water with a temperature of 85°With (taking into account the coefficient of water absorptionin=2), left for 48 hours, heated to a temperature of 100 C, filtered, and boiled away until the water content is 1:1. Received aqueous extract liquid consistency.

Alcohol extract of the rhizomes, roots, stems-stems, leaves and fruits prepared pharmacopoeial method in the ratio of raw material to izvlekali 1:(5-15). Medicinal raw material is crushed to a particle size of 1 to 3 mm, a portion of the raw material filled in the extraction apparatus with stirrer and external steam heat, add the calculated amount of ethanol concentration of 50-70%, incubated 24-48 hours at a temperature of 35-45°and With constant stirring and 6-10 hours at a temperature of 50-65°C, followed by filtration and concentrated under vacuum to proper consistency.

Example. In the extraction apparatus with stirrer and external steam heating was placed 500 g of crushed roots, rhizomes and stems-stems, added to 5000 ml of ethanol concentration of 70% (taking into account the coefficient of water absorptionin=2), left for 48 hours at a temperature of 40°and With constant stirring, and then after increasing the temperature to 60°by regulating the speed of steam - shirt extraction device for 8 hours, filtered and agglomerated by evaporation under vacuum to a thick consistency.

Extract ammonia from rhizomes, roots, stems-stems, leaves and fruits prepared pharmacop the emergency way in the ratio of raw material to izvlekali 1:(5-15). Medicinal raw material is crushed to a particle size of 1-3 mm, a portion of the raw material filled in the extraction apparatus with stirrer and external steam heat, add the calculated amount of ammonia water with the concentration of 6-11%, incubated 48-72 hours at a temperature of 35-45°and With constant stirring, followed by filtration and concentrated under vacuum to proper consistency.

Example. In the extraction apparatus with stirrer and external steam heating was placed 600 g of crushed roots, rhizomes and stems-stems, added 9000 ml of ammonia concentration of 10% (taking into account the coefficient of water absorptionin=2), left for 60 hours at a temperature of 45°and With constant stirring, filtered and agglomerated by evaporation under vacuum to a thick consistency.

For processing extracts Aira ordinary use of the fallopian solutions prepared in water temperature of 65-80°C.

When studying the effects of drugs calamus common on lower crustaceans, benthos, fish, amphibians, vegetation is established that they caused the death, %: lower crustaceans (Daphnia, Cyclops) - 11-26; benthos (oligochaetes, chironomids) - 10-14; - fish - only during the first hours after the insertion of drugs into the pond. Amphibians (frogs, newts) disappeared at 2-8 day.

Drugs Aira ordinary not cause burns in RA the plants. Fall in the water in spring and summer for 4-6, in the fall of 6-10 days.

Processing pastures performed in the period of active state shellfish at the end of may (after decrease of melt water) - June or August - early September when the water temperature not below +14°and ph not above 7.6. Treatment ponds carried out in the spring to fill them with water for stocking and when shellfish after wintering in the fall after the descent of ponds and harvest. Drugs calamus common on pasture habitat shellfish (pools, wetlands and coastal areas of reservoirs, canals, ditches, Bocage, maceina, pits and in the bed of the drained pond) contribute in the form of a stock solution with a sprayer, and in powder form - manually from the windward side.

Before desinvasion of pastures and drained ponds cease the application of organic and mineral fertilizers, and grazing animals begin after the death of the clams.

The invention is illustrated by examples.

Example 1. On a pasture habitats Lymnaea truncatula (0,38 ha) at a water temperature of 14.8-17,5°and a ph of 6.9-7.0 and contributed calamus extract in the ordinary form of the mother liquor at the rate of 2 g/l was Observed mortality, %: shellfish - 95, masonry - 88.

Example 2. On a pasture habitats Lymnaea truncatula (0,34 ha) at a water temperature of 25.4-28,1°C and ph 6.8 or 6.9 contributed calamus extract in the ordinary form of the mother liquor at the rate of 1.5 g/l was Noted g is Belle, %: shellfish - 98, masonry - 93.

Example 3. On a pasture habitats Lymnaea goupili (0.20 ha) at a water temperature of 21.5-23,4°and a ph of 6.6 to 6.9 contributed powder Aira ordinary calculation of 8-9 g/l was Observed mortality, %: shellfish - 94, masonry - 86.

Example 4. On a pasture habitats Lymnaea subangulata (0.28 ha) when the water temperature 24,9-28,1°and a ph of 6.9-7.0 and contributed powder Aira ordinary calculation of 7-8 g/l was Observed mortality, %: shellfish - 96, masonry - 91.

Example 5. In habitats Lymnaea stagnalis, L. ovata, L. peregra, L. auricularia, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbarius corneus in wet bed flat pond (0.24 ha) when the water temperature is 17.4-19,5°C and ph 7.0, and 7.1 contributed powder Aira ordinary at the rate of 25 g/m2. Celebrated death, %: shellfish - 94, masonry - 88.

Example 6. In habitats Lymnaea auricularia, L.palustris, L. stagnalis, L. ovata, L. goupili, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbarius corneus in wet bed flat pond (0.28 ha) when the water temperature is 24.4-28,2°and a ph of 6.8 to 7.0 contributed extract of calamus ordinary in the form of a stock solution of 25 g/m2. Celebrated death, %: shellfish - 100, their brickwork - 98.

Thus, we conducted experimental studies have shown that drugs Aira ordinary have molluscicidal action, which can be used for the destruction of shellfish - intermediate hosts of the pathogen trematodozov animals for their pasture prevention.

Sources of information:

1. Patent RU 2141204 C1, A 01 N 65/00, And 01 To 61/00, 1999.

2. Patent RU 2148319 C1, A 01 N 65/00, 2000.

3. Patent RU 2239321 C1, A 01 N 65/00.

The use of drugs from the aerial and underground parts Aira ordinary (Acorus calamus L.), as a means to combat freshwater mollusks.



 

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