X-ray pulse generator

FIELD: roentgen diagnostics and therapy in medicine and various processes including flaw detection and scientific research.

SUBSTANCE: proposed X-ray pulse generator has X-ray tube effective surface area of whose point cathode and anode is not over 10-6 m2 and preset cathode-to-anode distance is minimum, 10-3 m; it also has high-voltage pulse generator whose heavy-current high-voltage pulse shaper is made in the form of heavy-current high-voltage vacuum or gas-discharge switching unit incorporating electrode that controls switching unit triggering and is provided with additional high-voltage filter inserted in its circuit. Linear size of X-ray radiator focal spot is 0.1-0.5 mm. X-ray quanta energy can be regulated between 20 and 150 keV; X-ray pulse length is about 10-8 to 10-6 s.

EFFECT: reduced size of X-ray tube.

1 cl, 1 dwg

 

The proposed device refers to the source of pulsed x-ray radiation, intended for use in various processes, in particular for testing, as well as in medicine and scientific research.

A device for generating pulsed x-ray (XR 150), consisting of a pulsed x-ray tube and high-voltage impulse generator, with a duration of x-ray radiation 60 NS and a fixed energy of 150 Kev x-ray quanta. The linear size of the focal spot of the x-ray emitter is 2.2 mm (US, XTEK, www.xtek.net).

The inability to control the pulse duration of x-ray radiation and the energy of x-ray quanta along with a large linear size of the focal spot substantially limit the ability of this device, in particular, in the field of x-ray radiography and medical x-ray due to the large linear dimensions of the focal spot, which sets the resolution of the device.

Known generator of pulsed x-ray radiation, which includes a pulsed x-ray tube and high voltage generator of impulse voltages. This device allows you to get an x-ray pulses with a fixed energy x-ray quanta is defined by oulsnam voltage of 200 kV, accelerating the electron beam in the x-ray tube. The pulse duration of the radiation is ˜10-9with linear focal spot size x-ray radiation 2 mm X-ray tube is a two-electrode system - vacuum high-voltage diode with a cathode in the form of a flat disk and the anode in the form of a tapered long stem. The generator high-voltage pulse voltage consists of a primary energy storage device with a low voltage switch, high-voltage pulse transformer, the secondary drive and a high-voltage switch in the form of a two-electrode gas surge arresters (RF patent No. 2095947, H 05 G 1/06, H 01 J 35/00, publ. 10.11.1997,).

Considered the device has a number of disadvantages: the design of the x-ray tube and the physical properties formed therein electron beam such that does not allow you to create a pulse of x-ray radiation with a duration of more than 10-8with significantly limiting the time adjustment pulse of radiation; a linear focal spot size x-ray emitter is not less than 2 mm; energy x-ray quanta is not regulated. The voltage impulse generator does not have online and offline devices run high-voltage switch that can be used to synchronize R is the bot generator with other devices.

This device is chosen for the prototype.

The basis of the invention is to obtain a high-intensity beam of pulsed x-ray radiation with the linear dimensions of the focal spot of the x-ray emitter 0.1 - 0.5 mm, with the ability to regulate energy x-ray quanta in the range 20-150 Kev and a pulse duration of x-ray radiation ˜10-8-10-6with, and also reduce the size of the x-ray tube.

The solution to the above problem is provided by the fact that the generator of pulsed x-ray radiation, which consists of the x-ray - x-ray tube containing a vacuum-tight electrically insulating housing, the vacuum volume which has a high-voltage diode system with a cathode attached to the electrical contact on the high-voltage bushing and installed in front of the anode target with a window for displaying x-ray radiation from the vacuum volume and generator of high-voltage pulses, consisting of a high-voltage voltage source with a cumulative electric capacity and high-voltage high-current pulse shaper, the proposed x-ray tube cathode and anode made a point, with surface area of not more than 10-6m2while the distance between the cathode and the Odom is set to not less than 10 -3m, and in the high-voltage pulse generator high-voltage high-current pulse shaper made in the form of high-voltage high-current vacuum or gas discharge switch, which includes an electrode that controls the start switch in the circuit of the control electrode includes an additional high-voltage filter.

Problem solving provide these differences.

The use of separate cathode and anode with a strictly limited work surfaces provide a pulsed electron current to the anode ˜10-102And specifies an electron beam with current density at the anode ˜103-105A/cm2. When these accelerating voltages 20-150 kV on the anode target stands out peak power of 105-107Watts, allowing you to get a dose of x-rays per pulse of at least 0.5 R.

The construction of the diode system, primarily the length of the period of the cathode - anode ˜10-4-10-2m gives the opportunity to work with pulse voltage within the specified limits 20-150 kV.

Extremely limited working area of the anode target specifies the minimum size of focal spot of the x-ray emitter.

Applied geometry diode system together with the point design of the cathode and anode create who is very useful for the sustainable operation of the device in a wide range of pulse voltages ˜ 10-8-10-6C.

Small size of the working elements of the x-ray tube provide small dimensions of the x-ray emitter, which also has a simple, adaptable and reliable construction.

X-ray tube consists of two electrodes (cathode and anode target, and a window transparent to x-rays. At the anode-target energy of the electron beam, the source of which is the cathode, is converted into the energy of x-ray radiation. The system anode - cathode is in a vacuum flask of electrically insulating material that provides electrical isolation of the cathode from the anode. The cathode is mounted on the high voltage input and ensures efficient operation of the x-ray tube at a pressure of residual gases in the vacuum flask ˜10-3-10-4Torr. Low quiescent vacuum also simplifies the manufacturing technology of the tube. The proposed x-ray emitter does not require cooling of the anode target. Tests of the device at the maximum intensities of x-rays showed that when life 104pulse inclusions destruction of the target does not occur.

The construction of the pulsed x-ray tube is shown diagrammatically in the drawing, according to which it contains a dielectric insulating orpus (flask) 1, for example, from glass or ceramic, the inner volume of which vacuumized. In the vacuum volume is placed a cathode 2 and an opposite cathode anode target 3. The cathode is attached to the electrical contact on the high-voltage input 4. The anode target is fixed on the electrical input 5. Electrical inputs 4 and 5 are derived from the vacuum housing 1 without breaking the vacuum conditions. In the area of the working surface of the anode target in the wall of the vacuum enclosure created the window 6 of the vacuum-tight material, such as beryllium, glass or aluminium, transparent to x-rays. The anode target is made of electrically conductive material and simultaneously performs an anode function of the energy Converter of the electron beam in the x-ray radiation energy. It is external to the housing 1 part high voltage input 3 is connected to the high-voltage impulse generator. Anode input 4 is grounded.

Pulse voltage generator, the block diagram of which is shown in the drawing, consists of a high-voltage supply unit I, high-current high-voltage switch II and block pulse generation start III of switch II. High-voltage power supply unit I includes a DC high voltage 20-150 kV operating from AC or DC voltage 12-220 V, and charge the high voltage source is capitalnew capacity. High-current high-voltage switch II is a vacuum or gas discharge device, designed for the managed switching currents force of at least 100 And, with the breakdown voltage in the absence of external triggering of at least 200 kV. Time switching 10-8-10-6C. the Managed switching is provided by a pulse generator run 3, is connected to the control electrode of the switch II. To avoid breakdown of the generator pulse start III high voltage impulse arising in the process of switching on the control electrode of switch II in the circuit connecting the generator III with a control electrode included inductive-capacitive filter IY.

The work of the proposed pulse generator x-ray radiation consists of the following.

On the point of the cathode 1 x-ray tube through a high-voltage input 4 is fed a high-voltage pulse voltage of negative polarity from the high voltage pulsed generator. The anode-target 2 is grounded. The voltage pulse causes intense electron emission from the cathode 1 (emission current from the cathode And 10-100) and the subsequent formation of the electron beam between the anode-target 2 - cathode 1 in accordance with the geometry of the diode gap. Electron beam falling on the working surface of the anode target 2, interacts with the target material, resulting in about the falls generating x-ray radiation, leaving through the window 6.

The area of the focal spot of the x-ray emitter is determined by the cross-sectional area of interaction of electron beam with the target surface.

By construction, the proposed device is designed and constructed a working model. Model tests have shown its efficiency and the possibility of obtaining the above parameters, which confirms the relevance of the proposed utility model the criterion of "industrial applicability".

The generator of pulsed x-ray radiation, including x-ray emitter x - ray tube containing a vacuum-tight electrically insulating housing, the vacuum volume which is a high voltage diode system with a cathode attached to the electrical contact on the high-voltage bushing and installed in front of the anode target with a window for displaying x-ray radiation from the vacuum volume, and a generator of high-voltage pulses, consisting of a high-voltage voltage source with a cumulative electric capacity and high-voltage high-current pulse shaper, characterized in that the x-ray tube cathode and anode made a point, with surface area of not more than 10-6m2while the distance between the cathode and the anode is set to not less than 10-3m, and GE is erature high-voltage pulses of high-voltage high-current pulse shaper made in the form of high-voltage high-current vacuum or gas discharge switch, of which includes an electrode that controls the start switch, and the circuit of the control electrode includes an additional high-voltage filter.



 

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