Assembly for measuring resistance of punches to increased temperatures used for extrusion
FIELD: plastic metal working.
SUBSTANCE: assembly can be used for resistance of punches of different structures used at semi-hot and hot extrusion. Assembly has press and dies in form of top plate with sample-punch and of lower plate with heater. Millivoltmeter and thermocouple are connected with heater. Damping device is placed in lower part of press. Damping unit is connected with strike pivot by means of pusher; pivot is placed inside pusher. Sample-punch has working part in form of convex surface to have shape of spherical segment. Strike pivot is made with concave surface which matches to convex surface of sample-punch. Registering equipment is provided in the assembly. The equipment is connected to load-cell strain gauge fixed between sample-punch and top plate. Real conditions of extrusion process are created.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used to determine the resistance of punches of different designs in warm and hot forging.
Famous stamps, with which it is possible to determine the resistance of punches (Bryukhanov A.N., Rebelski AV Hot stamping. Design and calculation of stamps. - M: Motor Cycle"., 1952; Semenov E.I. Technology and equipment forging and hot stamping. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1999; Crimean I.I. Dies for hot stamping. Fabrication and commissioning. - M: motor cycle", 1963; Kuniavsky CENTURIES, Krutikov VK cast dies for hot and volumetric deformation. - Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1987; Evstratov, VA fundamentals of technology of extrusion and design of dies. - Kharkov: Vyscha SHKOLA, 1987).
The disadvantage of these stamps is that they are working and when determining the resistance requires a large physical and economic costs. When using these stamps determining the resistance is only possible for punches with a specific geometry of the working part.
The prototype is a device for determining the stability of punches designed for extrusion at elevated temperatures, containing press and stamp in the form of a top plate mounted on it with a sample-punch and the bottom plate installed on it nagrevatelnyesektsii, inside there is a shock heel (SU 734535 And 19.05.1980, G 01 N 3/34).
The prototype has the following disadvantages compared to the proposed invention is that it is impossible to create a real process conditions.
The objective of the proposed technical solution is the ability to determine the resistance of punches Polygonaceae and hot extrusion by loading the sample-punch.
Device for determining the stability of punches designed for extrusion at elevated temperatures, containing press and stamp in the form of a top plate mounted on it with a sample-punch and the bottom plate installed therein a heating device is located within the shock heel, it is equipped with a damping device, placed in the lower part of the press and connected by means of the pusher with shock fifth, millivoltmeter with a thermocouple associated with a heating device, mendozas mounted between the sample plug and the upper plate of the stamp attached to Mendoza recording equipment and the guide columns and bushings, punch-sample executed with the working part in the form of a convex surface having the shape of a spherical segment, shock heel made with a concave surface corresponding to the convex surface of the working part of the sample plug and the upper plate of the stamp feature x is ostolikom for attaching it to the press slide.
The drawing shows the General scheme of the setup for determining the stability of punches designed for extrusion at elevated temperatures. Top plate 6 of the stamp attached shank 7 to the press slide. To the top plate 6 of the stamp using poisonedwaters and screw attached a quick sample-punch 1. On the bottom plate of the stamp set of the heating device 3, inside of which is placed the heated drums heel 2 made of heat-resistant alloy, and the portion of the pusher 4. Mendoza 5 is fixed between the sample-punch 1 and hardened gasket top plate 6 of the stamp, for the registration of power loading (force extrusion) together with the amplifier 10, centostazioni 11 and high-speed recording device 12. The stamp is provided with guide columns and sleeves 8 to ensure the accuracy of the sample-punch. To the bottom plate of the stamp is attached, connected with the plunger, protonirovannoi damping device 9 designed to impact on the sample-punch 1 in the process of loading the specific force of resistance from the shock of the heel 2, is equal to the specific power of the extrusion. Temperature control of the heat shock heel 2 is carried out using a thermocouple 13, associated with the heating device 3, and millivoltmeter pyrometric with two-position regulating device 14 of the type Mr-64-02./p>
Pre-set process mode tests(the number of strokes of the press slide per minute; sustainable heating temperature shock heel, printed on its working surface is heat-resistant lubricant, such as grease KBZH; specific resistance force of the damping device, when developing a small course (4...5 mm) shock of heel under action of the sample-punch at the end of its stroke). Sample-the plug should be made of material and technology, identical to the material and technology working punches production.
The device operates as follows.
The shank 7 is attached to the press slide. During the stroke down the sample-punch 1 its working parts in the form of a convex surface having the shape of a spherical segment, is in contact with the corresponding concave surface of the shock of the heel 2 and is moved together with her 4...5 mm, subjected to heat and force for the time corresponding to the real process of contact of the tool and the workpiece at Polygonatum or hot extrusion. The movement is transmitted to the damping device 9 through the plunger 4. Heat is provided a heating device 3 and is controlled by thermocouple 13 and the millivoltmeter pyrometric with two-position regulating device 14 of the type Mr-64-02. Penny is the key movement of the sample-punch is the guide columns of the stamp 8. Convex spherical segment surface of the sample-punch 1 and the corresponding concave spherical surface of the shock heel 2 promotes their full contact and impact specific resistance forces normal to the sample surface-punch. Acting on the sample-punch 1 power is set by changing the stiffness of the damping device 9 and is registered with Mendoza 5 installed between the sample-punch 1 and the upper plate 6 of the stamp, the transmitting pulse power through the amplifier 10 to tantostanze 11. Values of force impulses are recorded graphically on high-speed recording instrument (N)12.
After one hour of operation in automatic mode (approximately 2400 cycles) press off. Sample-the plug 1 is removed from the installation, the work surface is cleaned from grease and inspected under a microscope to detect razgonnyj cracks. If cracks are emerging in nature, the tests are terminated and it is concluded that full resistance with increasing number of cycles 1.85 times. If cracks have developed character (depth, length), the test time a new sample is reduced to 30 minutes. If cracks are not detected, the test shall be extended for another hour.
The proposed setup allows for a known or pre-calculated characteristicimpedance mode extrusion at elevated temperatures (the temperature of the workpiece during deformation; the maximum specific force acting on the working surface of the punch at the moment of contact of the tool and workpiece; performance) to determine the resistance of the sample-punch. The working part of the sample punch is made in the form of a convex surface having the shape of a spherical segment, and is a model of a real punch extrusion. Thus, it becomes possible to establish the real resistance of the working punches Polygonaceae hot extrusion with different geometry of the working part.
Device for determining the stability of punches designed for extrusion at elevated temperatures, containing press and stamp in the form of a top plate mounted on it with a sample-punch and the bottom plate installed therein a heating device is located within the shock heel, characterized in that it is equipped with a damping device, placed in the lower part of the press and connected by means of the pusher with shock fifth, millivoltmeter with a thermocouple associated with a heating device, mendozas mounted between the sample plug and the upper plate of the stamp attached to Mendoza recording equipment and the guide columns and bushings, sample-the punch is made with working parts in the form of a convex surface having the shape of a spherical segment, udarn what I heel is made with a concave surface the corresponding convex surface of the working part of the sample plug and the upper plate of the stamp is equipped with a shank for attaching it to the press slide.
FIELD: engineering of testing equipment, in particular, engineering of devices for testing durability of flat ribbon cables.
SUBSTANCE: device has vertical posts, hydro-cylinder, lower and upper bearing plates and loading plate. To upper bearing plate and to loading plate heating blocks are connected, between which sample for testing is positioned. To upper bearing plate heating block is connected through rotary rollers. Onto flat surfaces of sample on both sides bars are glued of body material, wherein cables are wound, and upper bar of sample is bracketed by moving plate, ending with threaded pin and nut, by means of which shifting of upper bar relatively to lower bar abutting on stop, made on loading plate, is performed.
EFFECT: conditions of testing approach natural conditions due to simultaneous effect on sample from compression conditions and displacing shifts at increased temperature.
FIELD: measurement engineering.
SUBSTANCE: electric signal, being proportional to object's vibration, is conversed into spectrum. Amplitude components of spectrum are memorized and are subject to comparison with preliminary specified critical and evaluation levels. Technical condition is determined from results of comparison and period of non-failure operation of object being tested is determined. Prior to beginning of measurement of main signal, values of signals of associate factors are measured and memorized, namely period of actual operation of object and average meaning of environment temperature during actual operation of object. After that values of preliminary specified critical and evaluation levels of amplitude components are subject to correction depending on meanings of preliminary measured signals of associate factors.
EFFECT: improved truth of diagnostics.
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises rotating one of the races of a lubricated bearing with the operational speed, circulation radial loading of the race to be tested with operation speed, and loading the untested race locally.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: testing of machine parts.
SUBSTANCE: bench comprises shaft with is provided with driving pulse turbine and is mounted in the housing provided with passages for supplying fluid to the turbine wheel and discharging it from the turbine and bearing to be tested provided with the coating to be tested. The bearing is mounted in the race mounted on the shaft of the pulse turbine and on flexible members. The bench is provided with loading device, temperature sensor, and pickup for measuring torque. The reference bearing is set in the race that is suspended inside the housing by means of flexible members. The driving pulse turbine is mounted on the shaft in its central part. The shaft is set on two bearing that receive the reference and tested bearings symmetrically to the pulse turbine. The loading device is connected to the bottom section of the races of the reference and tested bearings to provide the same load on both of the bearings. The separating heat screen is interposed between the turbine and tested bearing. The reference bearing may be additionally provided with heater and temperature sensor, and it may be provided with a tested coating. The structures of the tested and reference bearing may be the same, or different.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and simplified structure.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: specimens for simulating worm turn are made of rotation body whose axial profile of the active surface is in coincidence with normal profile of the turn and outer diameter is equal to the diameter of the worm, and specimens for simulating tooth of the worm wheel are made of the worm wheel tooth whose dividing diameter is equal to that of the worm to be simulated. The specimen simulating the worm turn is made of the turn of the worm whose rise angle is equal to that of the turn worm to be simulated. The specimen simulating the tooth of the worm wheel is made of the tooth of the worm wheel with sloping angle of the worm wheel equal to the rise angle of the worm turn.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: batching liquids.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises batcher with openings for discharging the product to be batched, outlet valve, piston, rod of the piston, drive, inlet valve, forming tube, two air-operated drives rigidly connected with the rod of the piston by means of rocker, and controlled stop mounted for permitting cooperation with the rocker. The batcher is made of a sleeve mounted inside the forming tube. The piston and the rod of the piston are provided with the space for the product to be batched. The space receives outlet valve and rod of the outlet valve connected with the drive. The inlet valve is mounted for permitting supply of the product to be batched to the space in the piston rod and piston.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: test equipment; engine construction.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for optimization of operation of crankshaft of internal combustion engine lubrication system. According to the method, during critical modes of operation of internal combustion engines, oil discharge through connecting rod and main bearings of crankshaft is measured. When measuring oil discharge through main bearing, oil channel of connecting rod bearing is plugged. When measuring oil discharge through connecting rod bearing, oil channel of main bearing is plugged. Amount of oil pumped through main bearing should equal or be bigger than amount of oil pumped through connecting rod bearing of crankshaft. Precision of estimation is provided to prevent non-uniform wearing of connecting rod and main bearings caused by pauperization of lubricant for numbers of cylinders at all exploitation modes till complete work-out of engine's motor resource.
EFFECT: improved reliability of estimation.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: electric signal, which is proportional to object's vibration, is converted to spectrum. Amplitude components are memorized, the memorized values are compared with critical and estimation levels and after that condition of object is determined and indicated. Simultaneously with measurement and memorizing of basic signal, meanings of signals of accompanying factors are measured and memorized as well as temperatures of diagnosed object and environment temperature. Then the values are compared with corresponding critical and estimation levels with ones preset before. Diagnostics with diagnosis "not available for operation" is stopped when values of signals of accompanying factors simultaneously exceed critical levels and when components of main signal exceed estimation levels. Technical condition is determined and trouble-free operation time of object to be diagnosed is predicted when values of components of main signal and values of signals of accompanying factors do not exceed corresponding critical values.
EFFECT: reduced time; improved truth of results; higher reliability.
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of electrotechnique and may be used in industry and agriculture for carrying out stand testing of the bearings of electric engines.
SUBSTANCE: stand for testing bearings of electric engines on longevity has a bed with an opening for passing the rod of a stretched arrangement, pillars with fixed in them rotating centers and a tested engine. An eccentric is fastened on the shaft of the tested electric engine. It consists of two plates fixed between each other and from the inner side having cut-outs in which inserts are placed. From the outer side pins with carving are fastened to the plates. On each pin a balancing element is stringed whose position can be fixed.
EFFECT: creation of regulated rotating radial loading impacting on the bearings of the shaft of the electric engine, suitability to test electric engines of various dimensions.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: test engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises loading member, mechanism for converting the load to the torsion moment that acts on the vibration insulator to be tested, and means for applying force at a given site. The mechanism consists of three supports. One support is a unmovable central bearing, and two other ones are side bearings mounted on the common shaft. The vibration insulators are interposed between the side bearings. The means for loading at a given site are made of sleeves provided with the inner cylindrical thread. The first sleeve has threaded pin which is screwed in the port in the unmovable central bearing through the opening in the common base. The second sleeve has the lug from the side of the base. The lug is mounted for permitting rotation in the intermediate section of the rocker by means of the fastening axle.
EFFECT: improved design.
FIELD: turbine manufacture.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to methods of reduction of vibration of turbo machines and it can be used in aviation gas-turbine engines which have rotors equipped with elastic supports. Method is based upon changing elastic properties of its support and upon measurement of bends of shaft and frequency of rotation of rotor. Upon achieving frequency of rotation being equal to 0,85-0,95 of critical frequency of rotation, axial load is applied to rotor. Upon achieving bend which corresponds to frequency of rotation being equal to 0,85-0,95 of critical one, the axial load is released.
EFFECT: reduced dynamic bends of rotors; reduced vibration loads.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes determining shape and frequency of natural oscillation of rotor with taking into account gyroscopic moments.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.