Multifactor method of diagnosing rotor, mechanical, bearing and reductor units

FIELD: measurement engineering.

SUBSTANCE: electric signal, being proportional to object's vibration, is conversed into spectrum. Amplitude components of spectrum are memorized and are subject to comparison with preliminary specified critical and evaluation levels. Technical condition is determined from results of comparison and period of non-failure operation of object being tested is determined. Prior to beginning of measurement of main signal, values of signals of associate factors are measured and memorized, namely period of actual operation of object and average meaning of environment temperature during actual operation of object. After that values of preliminary specified critical and evaluation levels of amplitude components are subject to correction depending on meanings of preliminary measured signals of associate factors.

EFFECT: improved truth of diagnostics.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to measurement techniques, in particular for the diagnosis of transportation facilities, including a rotary bearing and gear assemblies.

A device and implemented them the method according to A.S. the USSR # 142934 "Device for monitoring the state of friction rolling".

A device and method patent number 2036455 "Sensor diagnostics of friction rolling".

The known device can be implemented by methods that convert the measured signals in the spectra, the amplitude components are average, compared with acceptable levels entered control parameters and the comparison result is judged on the state of objects.

The disadvantages of the known methods are not taken into account when diagnosing operating conditions of the nodes in the period preceding their diagnosis, the neglect of external conditions when conducting diagnosis.

For the prototype accepted by the invention of the Russian Federation No. 2177607 "Method and device for diagnosing the cyclic functioning of objects.

The method provides a rapid method for the three gradations diagnosis: "normal", "exceeding the permissible standards and limitations, need for in-depth analysis of the state of the object.

The method comprises the steps of preliminary, primary and final stages, which are executed in sequence./p>

At the preliminary stage of the measured signals is converted into electric. Measurements are performed selectively in accordance with the operation cycle of the object. When this is chosen the same periods of operation of the object.

These signals are converted into amplitude spectra of the components, distributed over the frequency zones.

Distributed over the frequency zones of the amplitude components of the test does not exceed the permissible limits in each of the zones.

In the presence of excess of the allowable limits of the diagnosis object stop. The method involves averaging the first and then subsequent pairs of amplitude components of the spectra.

For averaging the levels of the amplitudes in the same areas summed and divided by the ratio, for example, equal to two.

The disadvantages of the prototype include:

- Lack of reliability of the diagnosis due to the lack of consideration when conducting diagnosis of operating conditions of the object in the years prior to his diagnosis,

- Not sufficiently accurate estimate of the time of trouble-free operation of the mechanism.

The objective of the invention is to increase the reliability of the diagnosis object more accurately predict the time of its trouble-free operation by taking into account when diagnosing contributing factors.

The implementation of the task status is it is that before the beginning of the measurement of the basic signal measure and memorize the values of the signals related factors, such as the time of the actual operation of the facility and the average ambient temperature at the time of his actual work, correct, critical, and evaluative levels of diagnosed object depending on the values previously measured signals related factors, then an electrical signal proportional to, for example, vibration of the object is converted into a spectrum, remember amplitude components of the spectrum, comparing the stored amplitude components with predetermined critical and evaluative levels, determined by the comparison of the technical condition and predict the time of trouble-free operation of diagnosed object.

The technical result is to increase the reliability of the diagnosis object, as well as a more accurate estimate of the time of trouble-free operation.

The method is applicable to various types of objects, including objects of railway rolling stock, for example, rotary components of locomotives.

The implementation of the invention.

The proposed method can be implemented using a device, for example, complex-operative diagnosis of "Forecast-1M".

Functional diagram of the device shown in the drawing, where:

1. The locomotive.

2. Diagnostic object, for example axlebox node.

3. Measuring temperature with the possibility of accumulation of measured values and their subsequent averaging.

4. The Registrar actual work time and traveled distance (speedometer).

5. The vibration sensor.

6. Amp electric signal.

7. Analog filter.

8. Switch.

9. Analog-to-digital Converter (ADC).

10. Signal processor.

11. A personal computer.

12. Monitor.

13. Printer.

14. Complex-operative diagnosis of "Forecast-1M".

The diagnostic object may be, for example, axle equipment wheel-motor block of the locomotive. On the axlebox housing site 2 locomotive 1 with magnetic fastening set sensor 5 acceleration (the "Forecast-1M sensors are used acceleration VDA). Information input 3 complex is combined with the Registrar 4 actual work time and traveled distance (located on the locomotive). As such Registrar on locomotives used, for example, the device efficiency-SV (means of collecting and recording of monitored parameters of the movement of locomotives). Information input 2 complex "Forecast-1M" connect the probe 3 temperature. Such a meter may use, for example, the device is and DS21L-F52 (accumulates the measured temperature values with a specified interval of time with their subsequent averaging). The meter is located on the locomotive during its operation.

Before the procedure diagnosis in complex operational diagnostics 14 Registrar 4 enter information on actual time of operation of the locomotive (or covered distance mileage), and with probe 3 temperature the average temperature over the same period of time.

This information is supplied respectively to the information inputs 2 and 3 of the signal processor 10. On the basis of this information, i.e. depending on the values previously measured signals associated factors in the signaling processor is, in accordance with the entered program, adjusting the predetermined critical and evaluative levels of vibration.

The electrical signal from the vibration sensor 5 via the data input 1 complex 14 is fed to the input of amplifier 6 electrical signal, and its output to the input of the analog filter 7. From the output of the filter 7, the signal at the input 1 of the switch 8. From the output of the switch, the filtered signal is sent to an analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 9 continue with its output to the input 1 signal processor (SP) 10.

As SP in the complex Forecast-1M used chip ADSP 2181. The signal processor performs the following functions:

1. Stores evaluative and critical values for basically the on signal and the signals contributing factors.

2. Corrects the estimated critical values for the main signal depending on the values previously measured signals contributing factors.

3. Performs fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the received vibration signals.

4. Compares periodically flowing values of the components of the main signal with the corresponding values of critical and evaluative levels.

5. The results of this comparison determines the technical condition of the object being diagnosed (axlebox node).

6. Transmits the comparison results and determine the technical condition of the object being diagnosed in a personal computer (PC).

7. Receives from the PC team at the beginning and the end of the diagnosis.

8. Controls the operation of the switch, including starts and ends diagnosis, through its control input "u".

SP passes the diagnostics results to a personal computer 11, which in turn can send control commands to the joint venture.

The personal computer 11 performs the following functions:

1. Forms instructions for the signal processor.

2. Maintains a database of the results of diagnostics.

3. Generates reports on the results of diagnostics and sends them to the monitor 12 and the printer 13.

After preparatory operations (the hanging of a pair of wheels,the connection of supply cables) serves the supply voltage to the traction motor wheel-motor block locomotive, when it comes to the rotation of the pair of wheels with mounted on the axis of the inner rings of the axlebox bearings. The rotation also come rolling elements (rollers) and the cage of the bearing. The hull pan along with the outer ring axlebox bearing remains stationary. When the rolling bodies rolling on the rolling surfaces of the inner and outer rings occurs vibration which is transmitted to the axle box housing and, accordingly, is perceived by the sensor 5 vibration. Vibrate options healthy and faulty bearings differ by several parameters, for example, the amplitudes of the characteristic frequencies. The vibration parameters can be distinguished up to 12 types of bearing fault. During operation of the bearings the development of each of the 12 types of defects occurs under the law. For example, the most rapidly developing defects, leading to loss of efficiency of the bearing, are the defects of rolling elements and cage. Initially JV critical and evaluative levels for vibration signal is set in the expectation that the test subject is new, but run-bearing, i.e. the bearing with the lapped surfaces of the rolling elements. During operation occur naturally irreversible changes in the geometry of the bearing elements (wear). So, for example, rollers, external, and in the morning chargers lose a cylindrical shape. There are scratches, cracks and chips. On the dynamics of defects in a decisive influence, in addition to the quality of materials and Assembly of the bearing, provide conditions for its operation, namely: the time spent in operation and temperature during operation and the amount of load on the bearing. Thus, the speed of development of almost all of the detected defects increases with increasing time of operation, i.e. the magnitude of the mileage of the locomotive. Defects develop faster and deterioration of the conditions of lubrication. Conditions lubrication sharply deteriorate at low temperatures. Thus, when the ambient air temperature -25°C locomotive after long Parking (30-40 minutes) necessary to drive 25-30 minutes for lubrication of axlebox node warmed up and is evenly distributed over all the elements of the bearing. You are actually forced operation bearing in adverse lubrication conditions. Increased wear of the bearing elements is observed during operation at high temperatures (30-40°C ambient air). In this case, the viscosity of the lubricant decreases, and when the rolling of the rolling elements on the outer and inner hoops often is the so-called punching oil wedge that leads to increased wear of the surfaces of the rolling elements.

In order to properly op is adelite the degree of development of each of the determined defects and, what is particularly important to predict the time of trouble-free operation of the bearing during diagnosis, it is necessary to consider its operating conditions, for example, operation time and temperature for the same time.

In this case, such registration is suggested to by adjusting the predetermined critical and evaluative levels of vibration. The more the deviation from the optimal temperature regimes in the area of low or, conversely, high temperatures, the following must be installed critical and evaluative levels of vibration. The more time bearing life (mileage), the greater must be reduced critical and evaluative levels of vibration.

Produce adjustments critical and evaluative levels of vibration depending on the value of co-factors help to define the spectral model of development of certain types of defects and, consequently, to more accurately determine the type of defect and the degree of its development, as well as to more accurately predict the time of its trouble-free operation.

The proposed method is applicable to various types of rotating mechanical components, including the objects of railway rolling stock.

Multifactor method of diagnosing rotary, mechanical, bearing and gear units, which consists in the fact that electricity is practical signal, proportional, for example, vibration of the object is converted into a spectrum, remember amplitude components of the spectrum, comparing the stored amplitude components with predetermined critical and evaluative levels, determined by the comparison of the technical condition and predict the time of trouble-free operation of the object being diagnosed, characterized in that before the beginning of the measurement of the basic signal measure and memorize the values of the signals related factors, such as the time of the actual operation of the facility and the average ambient temperature at the time of his actual work, correct values predefined critical and evaluative levels of amplitude components depending on the values previously measured signals contributing factors.



 

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1 tbl

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