Method for ecologically safe utilization of cold, generated during expansion of natural gas in cryogenic gas expansion machine with diversion of mechanical energy, and system for realization of said method

FIELD: power engineering, possible use in devices for using cold of natural gas at outlet of cryogenic gas expansion machine for ecologically safe cooling of air in chambers of refrigerator.

SUBSTANCE: method for utilization of cold, generated during expansion of natural gas in at least one cryogenic gas expansion machine with diversion of mechanical energy includes letting cold gas prior to feeding to consumer through at least one heat exchanger with cooling in this heat exchanger of intermediate fire and explosion safe liquid coolant. Heat exchanger is made with direct contact of substances. Cooling of air in cooling chamber is performed by letting cold liquid coolant through heat exchanger of refrigerator, which is returned to heat exchanger for cooling by natural gas. Draining of liquid coolant is compensated by natural gas by means of feeding liquid coolant into its circulation contour when level of liquid coolant decreases in heat exchanger. System for utilization of cold, generated during expansion of natural gas with diversion of mechanical energy contains at least one cryogenic gas expansion machine with device for receipt of mechanical energy, connected to source of high pressure natural gas, heat exchanger for cooling of liquid coolant, at least one chamber of refrigerator with heat exchanger and accumulating vessel for liquid coolant with device for controlling level of liquid coolant, connected to pipeline, connecting outlet for liquid coolant of heat exchanger for cooling of liquid coolant to at least one heat exchanger of refrigerator chamber. Vessel is made with possible connection to liquid coolant storage and through valve for discharging gas - to atmosphere when a signal is received by valve from device for controlling level of liquid coolant.

EFFECT: improved efficiency, increased ecological safety and explosion safety of cold utilization.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The technical field

The group of inventions relates to the field of engineering and is intended for use in tools, cold use of the natural gas at the exit of the expander for environmentally friendly cooling air in the chambers of the refrigerator for food storage and other purposes.

The level of technology.

In the known methods and systems of the cooling air in the cooling chambers are environmentally hazardous refrigerants, such as freon, ammonia, and others. Currently, a new less hazardous refrigerants and methods for these purposes.

One of the ways to solve this problem is used as a refrigerant natural gas, which is cooled by expansion in the expander with removal of mechanical energy, for example, to drive an electric generator.

Methods and technology of electricity generation and "cold" using expanders covered in a number of publications and patents. For example, in the book "energy Saving replacement installation", publishing house "Nedra", 1999, author - Stepanets A.A., article Aksenova DT "Production of electric energy and "cold" without burning fuel", the magazine "energy Saving", No. 3, 2003, and other publications, as well as in the patent of Russian Federation №2098713, CL F 16 H 41/00,1996

Closest to the proposed method is using cold obrazowej is camping with the expansion of natural gas in the expander with removal of mechanical energy for its implementation by the RF patent №2098713.

In existing solutions, chilled natural gas in the expander enters the heat exchangers placed in the chambers of the refrigerator (air coolers), where the gas passes its cold air, and then heated so the gas enters the pipeline delivering gas to consumers.

The main problem is that the gas is flammable and explosive agent and in its application it is necessary to implement a number of organizational and other measures that are governed by the rules and regulations for dangerous objects. These refrigerators is rational to apply for long-term (strategic) food storage, as in this case, it is possible to arrange for its maintenance staff, trained to work on gas hazardous objects. However, a large proportion of the refrigeration Park is used for online bookmarks and withdrawal of food with a short shelf life on the basis of their market implementation. In such cases, individual cells or groups of cells are leased to users who need to access the camera at any time and with any frequency to the personnel they have, i.e. not certified for dangerous objects. This circumstance put the technical problem to make the refrigerator security properties when using it cold natural gas, abrazos is gosia at its expansion in the expanders. Up to the present time, this problem did not arise, and therefore did not dare. This is due to the novelty of this direction of the comprehensive energy use excessive gas pressure in its preparation and delivery to consumers.

The essence of the invention.

The objective of the invention is the creation of technical solutions, providing efficient, environmentally friendly and fire - and explosion protection technology admission cold formed during the expansion of natural gas expanders in electricity generation and transmission in the cold air chambers of the refrigerator.

The method used in this technology, should be carried out using known processes and equipment for serial production, and the device used should be improved with the use of standardized elements of this equipment.

The objective of the invention is solved in that in the new technology uses environmentally, fire, explosion proof liquid intermediate (between cold gas after expanders and cooled air in the chambers of the refrigerator) refrigerant, for example one of the aqueous solutions of polypropylenglycol, ethylene glycol, etc.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of using cold formed during the expansion of natural gas in at least one of demand the re, with the removal of mechanical energy by passing ohladivshegosya gas before delivering to the consumer via at least one heat exchanger to increase the temperature of the gas and cooling air in at least one cooling chamber according to the invention by passing ohladivshegosya gas through the heat exchanger to provide cooling in the heat exchanger intermediate environmentally and fire - proof liquid refrigerant, and the cooling of the air in the refrigerating chamber is carried out by passing through the heat exchanger of the refrigerator, refrigerated liquid refrigerant which is returned back to the heat exchanger for cooling the natural gas.

This can be used as a heat exchanger for cooling the refrigerant liquid natural gas and a heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant from the pressurized medium separation walls or with direct contact environments.

When using heat exchangers for cooling the liquid refrigerant natural gas and for cooling the liquid refrigerant with direct contact environments it is preferable to use the liquid refrigerant, which is at operating pressures and temperatures shall not enter into chemical reactions with natural gas is not saturated with natural gas.

When using a heat exchanger for cooling fluid is first refrigerant natural gas direct-contact environments, it is desirable to compensate for the entrainment of liquid refrigerant natural gas by feeding the liquid refrigerant in the circuit of its circulation by decreasing the level of liquid refrigerant in the heat exchanger, as well as to carry out the degassing of the liquid refrigerant by passing it through an expansion tank before entering the heat exchanger.

When connecting to a single or group of parallel expanders gas reducing station (GDS) rate of flow of natural gas when changing the operation mode of the refrigerator regulate by changing the power expander, if he is one, or by changing the number of running expanders, or by combinations of these methods.

It is advisable to maintain constant the pressure of the gas supplied to the consumer by changing the number of included reducing lines at GDS.

When using more than one camera of the refrigerator heat exchangers, at least, part of them miss the cooled liquid refrigerant in series with the provision of different levels of temperature in the chambers of the refrigerator and subject to the conditions that the temperature at the exit of the last heat exchanger exceeds the temperature of the cooled natural gas at the outlet of the heat exchanger where it is cooled.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the system for use of cold formed during the expansion of natural gas for the removal of mechanical energy, containing at least one expander device for receiving mechanical energy directly connected to the source of natural gas high pressure, and at least one chamber of the refrigerator with a heat exchanger according to the invention provided with a heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant, the inlet of which gas piped to the output, at least one expander, the exit gas from the pipeline gas supply to the consumer, liquid refrigerant pump, which is connected to the input of at least one heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator, the output of which is connected by a pipeline with the entrance of liquid refrigerant heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant.

A heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant and the heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator can be either a heat exchanger with a pressurized medium separation walls, or the heat exchanger with direct contact environments.

The system can be equipped with a storage tank for liquid refrigerant to the device level control of liquid refrigerant connected to the pipeline connecting the output liquid refrigerant heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant with at least one heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator, and made with the possibility of connection with the storage of liquid refrigerant through the valve for gas with the atmosphere when entering the valve signal from the level control device of the liquid refrigerant.

The system can t is the train to be equipped with a surge tank, installed at the entrance of liquid refrigerant heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant and provided with a device to control the level of liquid refrigerant and a valve for gas, made with the possibility of connection expansion vessel with the atmosphere when receiving his signal from the level control device of the liquid refrigerant

A heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant with direct contact environments made in the form of housing, in the upper part of which carries a spray nozzle for supplying liquid refrigerant in the lower part of the tub is to collect the cooled liquid refrigerant, connected to a pump placed over the bath means entering chilled natural gas, and the upper part of the housing has an outlet for the heated natural gas and placed before him the eliminator to reduce entrainment of liquid refrigerant.

The heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator with direct contact environments made in the form of housing, in the upper part of which carries a spray nozzle for supplying cooled liquid refrigerant in the lower part of the tub is for collecting the heated liquid refrigerant, connected to the pump, above the bath posted by the input means of heated air, coupled with the compressor and with the catcher molecules of water, and the upper part of the body meetingone hole for cooled air and placed before him the eliminator to reduce entrainment of liquid refrigerant.

The system is equipped with pressure sensors and temperature of the gas, are installed on the pipeline gas supply to the consumer, and at least one air temperature sensor in the refrigerator associated with the block matching operations (SSR), one or a group of expanders connected in parallel to the existing gas reducing station (GDS), SSR is made with the possibility of changing power expander or expanders or change the number of running expanders, as well as changes in the number of connected lines reduction GDS when the deviation of the values measured by these sensors, from the given values.

At least one air temperature sensor in the refrigerator, is associated with a controllable shut-off bodies ability to regulate the flow of cooled liquid refrigerant into the heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator and/or cooled air into the chamber of the refrigerator if the temperature of the air in the chamber of the refrigerator from the specified value.

Specified temperature in the chambers of the refrigerator is maintained and regulated by temperature changes and the amount of liquid refrigerant that passed through the coolers. Changing these parameters on liquid refrigerant causes a change in the mode of operation of the heat exchanger where it is cooled gas is m after the expander. The temperature change of the gas which is passed through gas-liquid heat exchanger to regulate the change in the degree of expansion of the gas in the expander, and the amount of gas which is passed through the heat exchanger, regulate managed system automatic shut-off and regulator installed at its input.

From this it follows that the modes of operation cooling system the refrigerator and expanders are interrelated and mutually determine the validity of the system of regulation. In addition, the modes of expanders and GDS are also interrelated and they should automatically be changed so that the pressure and temperature of the gas in the supply line to customers was maintained within the specified limits. For example, when the additional expander or by increasing its capacity at GDS must be derived from one or more reducing "threads" (reducing lines).

When working energy refrigeration complex at GDS must clearly and interdependent to change time-varying modes of the gas supply system to the GDS systems, gas consumption, the cooling system of the refrigerator, delantero-generator unit, gas-reducing GDS nodes and the external power grid, in which he transmits electric power.

The property of the claimed system is butylenediamine gas, supplied to consumers within the specified limits, regardless of any changes in the gas, refrigeration systems and in the external power grid, and this property must provide SAU. This task is solved in that in the supply line gas sensors are pressure and temperature of gas, which, when the deviation of these parameters generate pulses that are converted in a program block in the new impulses that affect the management system delantero-generator unit and the control system reducing GDS nodes, while the required glatonbury refrigerator regardless of changes in the parameters of the gas fed to the GDS. In addition, the application block includes the operation for selecting the number and specific rooms as delantero-generator units, and reducing GDS nodes that you want to enter or withdraw from work. This is because, as a rule, some of them are in repair and preventive maintenance.

Brief description of drawings

The group of inventions is represented by the drawings, where:

figure 1 - functional diagram of the claimed system - gas energoholding complex (AHC);

figure 2 - functional diagram of the air cooling chamber of the refrigerator liquid refrigerant;

figure 3 - functional block diagram the automatic control system (ACS) gas energoholding complex.

Figure 1 presents the scheme of the claimed system - gas energoholding complex, including a cooling system that implements the proposed method, showing the relationship of its components among themselves and with the GDS. As can be seen, this complex includes GDS 100, unit 101 with delantero-generator units, refrigerator 102 and system cooling chambers of the refrigerator. All these objects are related to one of the gas flow. Each object constituting a power-refrigeration complex, produces a positive effect:

- GDS 100 - regulates the process of reducing gas in collaboration with the unit;

- Generating unit 101 generates electricity and cold;

- Refrigerator 102 provides refrigerated storage of food products;

The cooling system 103 selects cold from the gas after the expander and passes it to the air chambers of the refrigerator;

- Automatic control system (ACS) ensures consistent over time functioning of technological processes occurring in complex objects based on the conditions of gas supply to consumers with the given parameters and the desired cooling of the refrigerator.

GDS unit 100 and 101 are connected in parallel to an external source of high pressure gas and pipeline gas supply to consumers. Cold gas after de is anderew (if parallel) enters the collector, from which the gas is supplied into the cooling system, which ensures the reception of the cold gas and transfer it to the air in his chambers.

Thus, the system that implements the method is a block-selection of cold gas and transfer the liquid to the intermediate refrigerant and connected to the circulation system with pump unit, which delivers the liquid refrigerant in the heat exchangers (air coolers) cameras refrigerator for transmitting brought cold air and then returns the liquid refrigerant back into the heat exchanger for selection of cold gas. This system is shown in Fig. 1 together with the unit and GDS.

The unit selection of cold gas is arranged as follows: the exit gas from the expander or to the manifold 1 pipeline, equipped with shut-off and regulator 2, is connected to the heat exchanger 3 for cooling the liquid refrigerant, the output of which the pipeline is equipped with a shut-off body 4 and connected with the pipe 5 exhaust gas to consumers when closed, the locking body 6. The amount of gas that must pass through the heat exchanger 3, depends on cladophorales refrigerator and regulated by the controlled shut-off and regulator 2. With this block interacts circulating system of cooling of the refrigerator through the heat exchanger 3. E is from the heat exchanger 3 through the pipeline, equipped with shut-off and regulator 7, enters a heated in air coolers intermediate liquid refrigerant. The amount of liquid refrigerant passing through the heat exchanger is controlled by the controlled body 7. After cooling in the heat exchanger 3 through the pipeline, equipped with a shut-off body 8, take the pump 9 and is fed to the collector 10 of the refrigerator. Of the collector 10, the liquid refrigerant through the shut-off and control device 11 enters the heat exchangers 12 chambers 13 of the refrigerator, where he gives brought gas from the cold air. Then warmed in heat exchanger 12, the liquid refrigerant is diverted to the reservoir 14 and further through the pipeline, equipped with a shut-off body 15, when closed, the locking body 16, is fed through controlled valves body 7 again in the heat exchanger 3 for selection of cold gas. Thus the temperature difference between the gas and the liquid refrigerant at the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger 3 is adjusted by changing the ratio of the number of environments that pass through it.

The required temperature difference between the gas at the inlet of the heat exchanger 3 and the air in the chamber 13 of the refrigerator is determined by summing the set temperature differences in heat exchangers 3 and 12 between the heat transfer media and the loss of temperature driving force in connecting the m their pipeline. The absolute value of the temperature gas enters the heat exchanger 3 is determined by summing the set temperature of the air in the chamber 13 of the refrigerator with the specified temperature difference, i.e. the loss in temperature difference in heat exchangers and piping. The required level of this gas temperature is achieved by regulating the degree of expansion of the gas expanders. The value of the stream of cold gas fed into the heat exchanger 3, is controlled by varying the power expander (if there is one) or change the number included in the work of the expanders. And the flow of liquid refrigerant supplied to the same heat exchanger 3, is controlled by the controlled shut-off and regulating body 7 on the basis of the conditions required cladophorales refrigerator 102.

The cooling system provides for maximum use temperature pressure liquid refrigerant. With this purpose he served first in the first group of heat exchangers 12 to maintain in the chambers 13, where they are placed, the lowest air temperature. For this purpose, the manifold 10 is attached not all of the heat exchangers 12, but only part of them - half, and the other is connected to the manifold 17 and the collector 14. The liquid refrigerant through controlled shut-off and regulating bodies 11 in the desired mode of operation of the chamber 13 the number p is given in the heat exchangers 12 and after them, enters the collector 14, and then from the reservoir 14 through controlled shut-off and regulating bodies 18 (when open shut-off and regulating bodies 18a) enters the collector 17 and then (when you open the locking body 16 and a closed shut-off body 15) is fed via a pipeline through valves body 7 into the heat exchanger 3. When this locking body 19 on the pipeline connecting the reservoir 10 and 17 closed. This scheme piping for liquid refrigerant allows as specified serial connection groups coolers - heat exchangers 12 and, under certain conditions, their parallel connection with the purpose of making them liquid refrigerant at the temperature at which it enters the collector 10. The temperature of the air in the chamber 13 of the refrigerator in the direction of its increase can be adjusted by reducing the supply of liquid refrigerant in the air, reducing the number of enabled coolers, disabling one or more fans on the coolers and the speed of their rotation.

In the heat exchanger 3 cold from gas to liquid refrigerant can be passed through a sealed dividing wall, and also by direct contact Teploobmennik environments. In this case, the properties of the liquid refrigerant are SL is blowing requirements: it must be environmentally and fire - proof, should not be satisfied, the gas must be chemically inert to natural gas, have a long time to maintain the physico-chemical properties at operating pressure and temperature. In the system with heat exchangers with dividing walls for cooling air to a predetermined temperature required significantly greater temperature pressure due to inevitable losses in these heat exchangers, that is created cold under-utilized. In the case of a cold transfer through direct contact Teploobmennik environments loss of thermal head is sharply reduced, and created the cold is used with high efficiency.

Using contact heat exchanger inevitable some entrainment of liquid refrigerant gas stream and in the process, it is necessary to feed the system. For this purpose provides for the connection of a storage tank 20 to the pipeline at the outlet of the liquid refrigerant from the heat exchanger 3 through a controlled stop valve 21 which is triggered by the receipt of pulses from the device 22 to control the level of liquid refrigerant in the bath heat exchanger 3, in which he merges after cooling by spraying the oncoming flow of cold gas after the expander. A storage tank 20 is connected with the storage of liquid refrigerant pipeline, equipped with a shut-off of the gun 23. In addition, the container 20 is connected with the gas collector 1 capillary equipped with a shut-off body 24 and with the atmosphere via a stop valve 25.

By direct contact of gas with liquid refrigerant may be some saturation of its gas. In this regard, for degassing the liquid refrigerant enters the heat exchanger 3 is passed through the surge tank 26. In this capacity supported in the specified interval, the level of liquid refrigerant through discharge gas degassing managed through a stop valve 27 which is triggered by the receipt of pulses from the unit 28 of the control level.

In case of exceeding the set pressure of the liquid refrigerant downstream of the pump 9 due to the inconsistency of the flow and the flow through the heat exchangers 12 is a bypass to the input of the heat exchanger 3 through the pipeline with the valve 29.

Contact heat exchanger 3 (figure 2) is a vertical cylindrical vessel body 30. In the upper part of the housing 30 has an outlet for gas, before you installed the drip pan 31 of traditional design to prevent entrainment of gas-liquid refrigerant, and below the drip pan 31 is installed, the device 32 for spraying liquid refrigerant for irrigation oncoming stream of cold gas, which is introduced through the tool 33 in the lower part of the vessel 30. The device 32 for p is sbrazhivanija heated in the chambers 13 of the refrigerator, the liquid refrigerant is supplied through its input channels. In the lower part of the body vessel 30 has a tub to collect ohladivshegosya in contact with the gas-liquid refrigerant, from which it is drawn by the pump 9a and forth, as previously described, is fed into a manifold 10 of the refrigerator. In this bath, as noted, is supported within the specified limits the level of liquid refrigerant. When the gas inlet is located above the liquid refrigerant level in the bath.

In the invention, as a variant solution, it is suggested to use the touch method of cold transfer from the liquid refrigerant to the air chambers 13 of the refrigerator instead of using coolers traditional type, i.e. heat exchangers with airtight walls separating Teploobmennik environment. In the same way as in the above-described method of cooling the liquid refrigerant cold gas, cooling the oncoming vertical air flow is carried out by spraying a cold liquid refrigerant in the same heat exchanger 12, which also merges into a collecting tub, and out he pumped by pipeline is returned to the heat exchanger 3 for cooling the cold gas after expanders.

In Fig. 2 shows a functional diagram of the system intake air from the chamber of the refrigerator, cooling it in the contact heat exchanger liquid refrigerant and return cold air back into the camera cold is lenica.

The air from the chamber of the refrigerator 13 through the channel 34 is pumped by the compressor 35, the front of which has an interceptor 36 microcrystals of molecular water exported from the flow of air from the chamber 13 of the refrigerator. This trap 36 is a device, which has a meandering along the air channels providing multiple touch of the breath in its movement with the walls. The walls of these channels have a temperature several degrees below air temperature, which ensures the adhesion thereto of microcrystals of molecular water, i.e. their capture. Such a temperature of the walls of the channels may be achieved by cooling them with liquid refrigerant. Further, "drained" so the air is fed into the input pin of the heat exchanger 37 in which it is moved upwards, irrigated cold liquid refrigerant and is cooled. Cold air through the exit, before you installed the drip pan 31, and 38, equipped with a controlled regulatory body 39, is fed into the chamber 13 of the refrigerator. Circulation of air in the chamber 13 provides traditionally fans.

In the lower part of the housing of the heat exchanger 37 is arranged in bath, which is going to spray the liquid refrigerant. The level in the bath is maintained within predetermined limits by varying the feed. The air entering the pin is ctny the heat exchanger 37 is located above the specified level. Essentially, this heat exchanger is similar to the heat exchanger, which is described above for the cooling of the liquid refrigerant cold gas. The liquid refrigerant after heated by contact with the air is drawn from the bath pump 9a and through pipes to the heat exchanger 3 for cooling the gas.

In the cooling system of the refrigerator can be applied to any combination of the following methods of Gladiola between gas and liquid refrigerant.

Energoholding the complex consists of several objects, United by a common gas flow. Moreover, this complex is associated with the gas and external electrical systems, modes of operation which significantly change over time (seasonal, for each month, week, month and by hour during the day). To ensure stable and efficient operation of such complex complex having as a main goal of maintaining the pressure and temperature of gas supplied to consumers within the specified limits and guaranteed glatonbury refrigerator, necessary automatic control system (ACS), which is capable of consistently and directional impact on defining the processes and characteristics of objects, merged into a complex.

Figure 3 presents the scheme energoholding complex and the technology of its control. As noted, the heads of the th specific aim of this system is the accurate maintenance of the gas at the outlet of energoholding complex. The pressure sensor 40 and the sensor 41 and the temperature of gas supplied to the consumer, and the sensor 42 and the temperature of the air in the chamber 13 of the refrigerator control of these settings and when the deviation is within the permissible limits, they give their impulses in the block matching operations (SSR) 43. In turn SSR 43 on the program converts them into new impulses that act simultaneously on the operation mode of the power unit from delantero-generator units 44 through their automatic systems 45 and on the mode of operation of the GCF. This unit produces a directed search of an impact (to turn the expander and at the same time: disable-enable "thread" (line reduction) at GDS), select the number of the expander and the number of "threads", which are in operation or in reserve, then, takes the team on their respective triggers.

"Line" connects the collector 46 of high pressure gas manifold 47 low pressure gas. It is a pipeline, equipped with two reducing valves 48 and 49, one of which is working and the other is backup. Backup valve 48 is always in the open state. This valve 48 has a diaphragm control head. If you apply gas under pressure in the cylinder, the valve 48 will be closed and the thread will be deactivated. For this purpose the crown is set two controlled shut-off body is and 50 and 51. One (POS) for compressed gas in the cylinder when the command to switch "thread", and the other (POS) for discharge of gas out of it when you receive the command for opening the "thread" with the simultaneous closing of the locking member 50. The gas in the head reducing valves 48 or 49 is supplied by a gear 52 at the required pressure. Here we describe one of the possible embodiments of reducing "thread".

When the temperature of the air in the chamber 13 of the refrigerator from the sensor 42 temperature simultaneously receives a pulse in SSR 43 and the block 53 of the regulation of the cooling system of the refrigerator. SSR 53 controls using the sensor 50, the temperature of the liquid refrigerant at the outlet of the heat exchanger 3 where it is cooled by the cold gas after expanders 44, flowing through the controlled shut-off and regulating body 2. This body 2 changes the gas flow in the heat exchanger 3 pulse, which is fed to it from SSR 53 after converting it pulse from the sensor 50 temperature. SSR 53 can program to apply the pulses to the control valves body 11, which regulates the flow of liquid refrigerant into the heat exchanger 12 and to control the bypass body 29.

Energoholding complex system operates and is regulated as follows.

When working GDS gas from an external source enters the call is ctor 46, and through reducing "thread" it comes under reduced pressure in the manifold 47, which is connected to the pipeline gas supply to consumers. This pipeline is installed sensors 36 pressure and 37 temperature.

To the manifold 46 is attached common to all delantero-generator units collector 55, from which the gas enters the expanders and then he goes into the reservoir low pressure 1. Then the gas through the open shut-off and regulating body 2 enters the heat exchanger 3, in which it cools the intermediate liquid refrigerant. This heat exchanger 3 gas pipeline is diverted into the pipe 43 gas supply to consumers.

The regulation and management of the gas complex on the deviations of the sensors 36 and 37, as mentioned, by using pulses of them that come in SSR 53, converted to new impulses and served in systems of automatic control delantero-generator units 44 to change the operation modes of the unit and GDS.

In the heat exchanger 3, through which the cold gas collector 1, the counter flow of the liquid refrigerant is cooled and then fed to the heat exchanger 12 camera 13 of the refrigerator. At the exit of the heat exchanger 3 operates is controlled by the temperature sensor 50, and when the deviation from the setpoint is momentum in the FROM 53 to change the passage of the gas through the body 2 or the flow of the liquid refrigerant through the body 11.

The temperature of the air in the chamber 13 of the refrigerator is controlled by the sensor 42. When the deviation from the target value, it generates a pulse in SSR 53, which converts it to new impulses and sends them to the body 11 for targeted impact on the supply of liquid refrigerant to the heat exchanger 12 or to regulate the size of his pass through the body 29.

Material given above gives grounds to conclude that the proposed technical solution in the amount of two inventions (method and system for its implementation) allows us to overcome a number of problems stand in the way of increase of efficiency of use of cold formed when electricity delantero-generating units due to the energy of the technological changes of natural gas at GDS to create a highly efficient environmentally friendly refrigerators.

Industrial applicability.

The present invention can be applied in distribution systems industrial-residential centres, compressor stations of main gas pipelines and gas fields.

1. The way of using cold formed during the expansion of natural gas in at least one expander, removal of mechanical energy by passing ohladivshegosya gas before delivering to the consumer via at least one heat exchange is IR with increasing the temperature of the gas and cooling air, at least one cooling chamber, wherein the heat exchanger is made with direct contact environments, by passing ohladivshegosya gas through the heat exchanger to provide cooling in the heat exchanger intermediate fire-proof liquid refrigerant, and the cooling of the air in the refrigerating chamber is carried out by passing through the heat exchanger of the refrigerator, refrigerated liquid refrigerant which is returned back to the heat exchanger for cooling the natural gas, this will compensate for the entrainment of liquid refrigerant natural gas by feeding the liquid refrigerant in the circuit of its circulation by decreasing the level of liquid refrigerant in the heat exchanger.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use a heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant from the pressurized medium separation walls or with direct contact environments.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that use liquid refrigerant, which is at operating pressures and temperatures shall not enter into chemical reactions with natural gas is not saturated with natural gas.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that carry out the degassing of the liquid refrigerant by passing it through an expansion tank before entering the heat exchanger.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the expander or a group of detente is s connected in parallel to the existing gas reducing station (GDS), while the magnitude of the flow of natural gas when changing the operation mode of the refrigerator regulate by changing the power expander, if he is one, or by changing the number of running expanders, or by combinations of these methods.

6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the support the constant pressure of the gas supplied to the consumer by changing the number of included reducing lines at GDS.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when using more than one camera of the refrigerator heat exchangers, at least, part of them miss the cooled liquid refrigerant in series with the provision of different levels of temperature in the chambers of the refrigerator and subject to the conditions that the temperature at the exit of the last heat exchanger exceeds the temperature of the cooled natural gas at the outlet of the heat exchanger.

8. System for use of cold formed during the expansion of natural gas for the removal of mechanical energy, containing at least one expander device for receiving mechanical energy, connected to a source of natural gas, high pressure, and at least one chamber of the refrigerator with a heat exchanger, characterized in that it is provided with a heat exchanger with direct contact medium for cooling the liquid refrigerant, the inlet of which gas is connected to Truboprovod output, at least one expander, the exit gas from the pipeline gas supply to the consumer, liquid refrigerant pump, which is connected to the input of at least one heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator, the output of which is connected by a pipeline with the entrance of liquid refrigerant heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant, and a storage tank for liquid refrigerant to the device level control of liquid refrigerant connected to the pipeline connecting the output liquid refrigerant heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant with at least one heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator and configured to communicate with the repository liquid refrigerant through the valve for gas with the atmosphere when entering the valve signal from the level control device of the liquid refrigerant.

9. The system of claim 8, wherein the heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator is a heat exchanger with a pressurized medium separation walls.

10. The system of claim 8, wherein the heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator is a heat exchanger with direct contact environments.

11. The system of claim 8, characterized in that it is provided surge capacity installed at the entrance of liquid refrigerant heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant snabjennoi device level control of liquid refrigerant and a valve for gas made with the possibility of connection expansion vessel with the atmosphere when receiving his signal from the level control device of the liquid refrigerant.

12. The system of claim 8, wherein the heat exchanger for cooling the liquid refrigerant is made in the form of housing, in the upper part of which carries a spray nozzle for supplying liquid refrigerant in the lower part of the tub is to collect the cooled liquid refrigerant, connected to a pump placed over the bath means entering chilled natural gas, and the upper part of the housing has an outlet for the heated natural gas and placed before him the eliminator to reduce entrainment of liquid refrigerant.

13. The system of claim 10, wherein the heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator is made in the form of housing, in the upper part of which carries a spray nozzle for supplying cooled liquid refrigerant in the lower part of the tub is for collecting the heated liquid refrigerant, connected to the pump, above the bath posted by the input means of heated air, coupled with the compressor and with the catcher molecules of water, and in the upper part of the housing has an outlet for cooled air, and placed before him the eliminator to reduce entrainment of liquid refrigerant.

14. The system of claim 8, Otley is audacia fact, it is fitted with pressure sensors and temperature of the gas, are installed on the pipeline gas supply to the consumer, and at least one air temperature sensor in the refrigerator associated with the block matching operations (SSR), one or a group of expanders connected in parallel to the existing gas reducing station (GDS), SSR is made with the possibility of changing power expander or expanders or change the number of running expanders, as well as changes in the number of connected lines reduction GDS when the deviation of the values measured by these sensors, from the given values.

15. The system of claim 8, wherein the at least one air temperature sensor in the refrigerator, is associated with a controllable shut-off bodies ability to regulate the flow of cooled liquid refrigerant into the heat exchanger chamber of the refrigerator and/or cooled air into the chamber of the refrigerator if the temperature of the air in the chamber of the refrigerator from the specified value.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: refrigeration equipment, particularly used to utilize secondary energy and natural source energy having low potential, namely for combined heat and cold production.

SUBSTANCE: refrigeration plant comprises body, turbine, compressor, supply pump, evaporative and condensation chambers and capillary system for working liquid throttling. The body is separated into power and cooling sections by solid partition. Evaporative, working and condensation chambers are created in the power section. Inside surfaces of side evaporative chamber walls and partition are covered with wick. Inner surface of end wall is provided with grooves and covered with thin porous material layer. Shaft extends through body walls, power and cooling sections, solid partition and wick layers. Feed pump rotor is put on shaft end so that the pump is communicated with working liquid reservoir. Arranged in cooling sections are low-temperature evaporative chamber and compressive condensation chamber communicated by compressor to which vapor flow is fed. Compressor rotor is put on shaft.

EFFECT: increased performance.

1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering; power generating installations.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of power engineering, in particular, to the power generating installations utilizing the energy of the overpressure of the rock gas with realization of the gas-turbine-expansion effect. The gas-turbine-expansion installation for utilization of the compressed rock gas energy contains in series mounted on the high-pressure rock gas mains: the electric heater for preheating of the gas; the turbo-expander kinematically linked with the electric power generator; the power storage battery with a capability of its recharge from the electric generator at the turbo-expander operation in the recharge mode and at connection to the heater in the initial moment of the installation operation with the subsequent switching-off from the heater at the turbo-expander reaching its operational mode. The electrical heater is the resistive heater and connected to the electric power generator through the control unit, which is electrically connected to the temperature sensing devices mounted on the inlet and the outlet of the turbo-expander. Utilization of the invention ensures simplification of the design chart of the power gas-turbine-expansion installation and the capability to regulate the preset temperatures of the gas at the inlet and the outlet of the turbo-expander.

EFFECT: the invention ensures simplification of the design chart of the power gas-turbine-expansion installation and the capability to regulate the preset temperatures of the gas at the inlet and the outlet of the turbo-expander.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: pipeline systems for gas distribution, particularly with the use of excessive gas pressure reduced in gas-distribution stations and adapted to obtain electric energy, cold and ice without fuel combustion.

SUBSTANCE: method involves using gas cooled by expanding thereof in expander without external work performing as cooling agent to cool air in refrigerator compartments and in ice generator. Part of cold gas passes in ice generator heat-exchanger connected to energy-cooling plant outlet or to collector linked with outlet of each energy-cooling plant to obtain consumer-demanded gas temperature at ice generator outlet. System for above method implementation includes gas refrigerator with compartments and heat-exchangers arranged in each compartment. The heat-exchangers are connected one to another in series. Outlet of above heat-exchangers is connected to pipeline which conveys gas to consumer. The system is provided with at least one ice generator having heat-exchanger linked to outlet of corresponding energy-cooling plant or with collector connected to outlet of each energy-cooling plant and with pipeline adapted to convey gas to consumer. Energy-cooling plant has turboexpander and electric generator, energy drive with impeller machine, gas refrigerator and ice generator used in the system.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of gas cold usage and environmental safety.

31 cl, 5 dwg

Cooling turbine // 2263858

FIELD: cooling and heating equipment; devices used for cooling and heating atmospheric air fed to domestic or industrial rooms.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cooling turbine includes casing, centrifugal multi-stage compressor, multi-stage peripheral-admission turbine whose blades are located between cover shields provided with circular projections over periphery and cover disks. Centrifugal compressor is provided with straightening apparatus at its inlet which has spiral blades with intake holes over periphery of rotor. Multi-stage peripheral-admission turbine is provided with outlet apparatus at its inlet which has spiral blades with outlet holes over periphery of rotor; rotor is mounted on revolving shaft. Working blades are secured on cover shields of rotor. Located in initial row of immovable disks as far as middle one are immovable straightening apparatus with spiral blades of diffuser which are located on fixed axle inside rotor. Located in subsequent row of immovable disks, after middle one, are immovable nozzle sets provided with spiral blades of contraction and secured on fixed axle inside rotor. Middle dividing disk is non-rotating and is rigidly secured on the same axle inside rotor. Rotating blades located on opposite sides of dividing disk are also secured on cover shields of rotor. Fixed axle has hole for passage of additional cooler or heater. On side of drive unit, end tenon of rotor is located between two bearings.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency under any climatic conditions.

4 dwg

FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly refrigerators including turbo-expanders operating within wide range of cooling temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: turborefrigeration plant comprises turbo-expander, multi-compartment dynamic heat-exchanger, user of refrigeration, power source and centrifugal turbocompressor. Centrifugal turbocompressor is divided into low-pressure and high-pressure centrifugal stages. Low-pressure stage is mechanically linked with power source. High-pressure stage is mechanically connected to turboexpander. The first heat-exchanger compartment inlet communicates with outlet of user of refrigeration through channel, outlet thereof communicates with atmosphere. The second heat-exchanger compartment inlet is connected to low-pressure turbocompressor stage outlet and outlet thereof is linked with high-pressure turbocompressor stage inlet. The third heat-exchanger compartment inlet is connected to high-pressure turbocompressor stage outlet, outlet thereof is linked with turbo-expander inlet.

EFFECT: increased refrigeration performance, increased reliability of plant actuation and operation, simplified structure, increased operational economy.

2 dwg

FIELD: device adapted to reduce pressure in main gas pipeline, particularly for excessive gas energy utilization.

SUBSTANCE: used as electric machine is multipolar induction motor operating in generator mode and performing recovery of energy into supply main. Turbine, electric machine and velocity pickup are arranged in sealed chamber including bushing insulators connected with electric machine and velocity pickup from one side and with supply main through commutator from another side.

EFFECT: increased reliability and energy data.

2 dwg

FIELD: wave expander-compressors, possibly used in compression systems and plants with expansion machines.

SUBSTANCE: expander-compressor includes housing in which rotor is mounted on shaft. Rotor has energy-exchange ducts communicated at rotor rotation with branch pipes for supplying and discharging gas through gas supply nozzles and diffusers for discharging gas in respective gas distributing devices. Housing is in the form of stator having electric winding. Rotor having energy-exchange ducts is provided with short-circuit winding whose rods are arranged between outer surface of rotor and its energy-exchange ducts.

EFFECT: simplified design of wave type expander-compressor.

2 dwg

FIELD: refrigerating engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes setting the turbine outlet temperature and continuous measurement of pressure and temperature after air bleed stages of engine compressor. Air temperature and pressure at turbine inlet, temperature and pressure at turbine outlet and rotational speed of rotor are calculated by means of system modulating unit. Then, degree of reduction of pressure in turbine, present magnitude of corrected rotational speed of rotor and optimal magnitude of corrected rotational of rotor corresponding to maximum efficiency of turbine are determined. Braking torque of rotor is changed by acting on braking unit till optimal and present magnitudes of rotational speed of rotor get equal. In case rated magnitude of air temperature at turbine outlet exceeds preset magnitude, flow rate of purging air is decreased or increased till magnitudes get equal. When these temperatures are equal, consumption of fuel is determined for each bleed stage and is analyzed for obtaining minimum consumption of fuel. Then, air temperature and pressure at turbine inlet, temperature and pressure at turbine outlet and rotational speed of rotor are determined by means of sensors. According to results thus, obtained, above-mentioned parameters are determined and processes are repeated till optimal and present magnitudes of corrected rotational speed of turbine rotor and preset and measured magnitudes of air temperature at turbine outlet get equal after which actual consumption of fuel is determined.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel.

6 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to a device for lowering the pressure in the main gas pipelines and can be used for the disposal of surplus energy gas

The invention relates to the field of turbine construction, such as control systems seals and the oil supply device of turboexpanders

FIELD: power engineering; power generating installations.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of power engineering, in particular, to the power generating installations utilizing the energy of the overpressure of the rock gas with realization of the gas-turbine-expansion effect. The gas-turbine-expansion installation for utilization of the compressed rock gas energy contains in series mounted on the high-pressure rock gas mains: the electric heater for preheating of the gas; the turbo-expander kinematically linked with the electric power generator; the power storage battery with a capability of its recharge from the electric generator at the turbo-expander operation in the recharge mode and at connection to the heater in the initial moment of the installation operation with the subsequent switching-off from the heater at the turbo-expander reaching its operational mode. The electrical heater is the resistive heater and connected to the electric power generator through the control unit, which is electrically connected to the temperature sensing devices mounted on the inlet and the outlet of the turbo-expander. Utilization of the invention ensures simplification of the design chart of the power gas-turbine-expansion installation and the capability to regulate the preset temperatures of the gas at the inlet and the outlet of the turbo-expander.

EFFECT: the invention ensures simplification of the design chart of the power gas-turbine-expansion installation and the capability to regulate the preset temperatures of the gas at the inlet and the outlet of the turbo-expander.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in gas transporting systems for producing electric power, cold resource and liquid fractions of heavy hydrocarbons from natural gas. Feed-power set has vortex regulator to which high-pressure gas main is connected, turbo-expander with generator, condensate collector and mixer. Vortex pipe is made in form of phase-selected vortex pressure regulator. Vortex pipe has supply pipeline connected with screw channel to provide internal positive "hot"-circuit feedback. Height-adjusted tangential nozzle is connected with temperature selection cylinder and with main stream discharge pipeline through diaphragm. Discharge pipeline is connected with pilot unit where temperature selection cylinder is closed with brake chamber. It has cross-piece with profiled blades, which smoothly straighten gas flow and it also has "hot" gas pass-by unit to let gas flow after cross-piece into center of "cold" vortex at axis of temperature selection cylinder. There are phase selectors onto surface of cylinder made in form of adjustable slits disposed along its length according to higher efficiency of removal of heavy hydrocarbons. Cold" output of vortex regulator is connected with separating section and with turbo-expander connected in turn with generator, condensate collector and gas mixer. Output of phase selectors of vortex regulator is connected in series with other input of condensate collector and then with throttle. Output of throttle and the other output of condensate collector are connected with gas mixer. Outputs of liquid fraction of separating section and condensate collector are connected with liquid fraction mixer.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of usage of pressure drop energy.

2 dwg

FIELD: gas-distributing stations.

SUBSTANCE: device uses useful energy released during process of expansion at throttling of gas (agent) before it was supplied to user. Device has gas-main cock disposed at tap of main gas pipeline, pressure controller, turbo-expander, user main distribution cock, connecting coupling half and sync generator connected with coupling half. Turbo-expander is made according to principle of using of useful energy released during gas expansion to provide preset pressure and temperature drop. Working wheel of turbo-expander is disposed onto shaft mounted in cantilever. Wheel has specially profiled, involute, blades. Shaft is fixed at two bearings. Connecting coupling half is disposed at end of shaft with segment self-sealing labyrinth seal. Device is intended for partial coverage of self-need electric energy.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: gas production industry, particularly service pipelines adapted to connect wellhead equipment with manifold for gas and gas condensate collection, to supply methanol into wellhead fittings and to connect cementing unit.

SUBSTANCE: well connections made in accordance with the first embodiment comprise seventeen units and include T-joints, adapters, branches, connection pipes, pipes, flanges, manifolds, gate valves, valves and check valves. All above components constituting the units are connected one to another in different way. In accordance with the second embodiment some above components are substituted for other ones. In accordance with the last embodiment the well connections comprise methanol distribution unit and may isolate well fluid from common manifold after production tree shutting-off.

EFFECT: decreased time of well connections assemblage in field conditions, increased operational safety and possibility to supply methanol into production tree annuity and into production tree.

2 cl, 26 dwg

FIELD: pipeline systems for gas distribution, particularly with the use of excessive gas pressure reduced in gas-distribution stations and adapted to obtain electric energy, cold and ice without fuel combustion.

SUBSTANCE: method involves using gas cooled by expanding thereof in expander without external work performing as cooling agent to cool air in refrigerator compartments and in ice generator. Part of cold gas passes in ice generator heat-exchanger connected to energy-cooling plant outlet or to collector linked with outlet of each energy-cooling plant to obtain consumer-demanded gas temperature at ice generator outlet. System for above method implementation includes gas refrigerator with compartments and heat-exchangers arranged in each compartment. The heat-exchangers are connected one to another in series. Outlet of above heat-exchangers is connected to pipeline which conveys gas to consumer. The system is provided with at least one ice generator having heat-exchanger linked to outlet of corresponding energy-cooling plant or with collector connected to outlet of each energy-cooling plant and with pipeline adapted to convey gas to consumer. Energy-cooling plant has turboexpander and electric generator, energy drive with impeller machine, gas refrigerator and ice generator used in the system.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of gas cold usage and environmental safety.

31 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: methods or apparatus for filling pressure vessels.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises investigating gas in a gas analyzer, supplying gas to the unit of the input cocks, removing droplet moisture and admixtures from the gas in a low-pressure gas filter, supplying the purified gas alternatively to one of the drying contours, purifying gas in the outlet gas filter, supplying gas to the inlet of the control unit, investigating gas in the gas analyzer, purifying gas in the filter-separator and in the filter which is composed of detachable filtering members, supplying purified gas to the flow meter, and supplying low-pressure purified gas to the inlet of the unit of the additional pressurization. A part of gas is reduced and supplied to the operator box at a pressure of 0.02 kg/cm2. In the additional pressurizing unit, the gas is supplied to the space of the air-operated cylinder of the first stage through the inlet valve. The gas is compressed and discharged to the unit of the accumulation of low-pressure gas where it is cooled and supplied to the pressure line. The compressed gas with a pressure of 15-20 kg/cm2 is then compressed and cooled in the air-operated cylinder of the second stage and intermediate-pressure accumulation unit up to a pressure of 60-80 kg/cm2 and temperature lower than 40°C. A part of the gas is analyzed and supplied to a consumer at a pressure of 15-20 kg/cm2. The compressed gas from the intermediate-pressure accumulation unit is compressed and cooled in the air-operated cylinder of the third stage. The compressed gas is additionally purified in the gas filters.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of gas.

4 cl, 5 dwg

Gas filling station // 2244205

FIELD: pipeline systems.

SUBSTANCE: station has compressor, pipeline for supplying gas, device for purifying gas, and flow meter.

EFFECT: expanded function possibilities.

28 cl, 4 dwg

The invention relates to gas industry

The invention relates to a power system and can be used to improve the efficiency of electricity generation for own use gas compressor stations of main gas pipelines

The invention relates to the field of power engineering and can be used in systems of transport gas for electricity generation, obtaining glatorians and liquid fractions of heavy hydrocarbons from natural gas

Gas filling station // 2244205

FIELD: pipeline systems.

SUBSTANCE: station has compressor, pipeline for supplying gas, device for purifying gas, and flow meter.

EFFECT: expanded function possibilities.

28 cl, 4 dwg

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