Method of separating sludge sediments and production of biogas

FIELD: biotechnological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to anaerobic fermentation of manure, energetic biomass, and similar organic substrates. Method envisages providing organic material containing solid and/or liquid fraction and treating this organic material with lime at pressure and temperature between 100 and 220°C, which results in hydrolysis of organic material. Lime is composed of Ca(OH)3 and/or CaO and being added to trap evolving ammonia and to disinfect organic material it also precipitates dissolved orthophosphate.

EFFECT: reduced amount of viable microorganisms.

125 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The first aspect of the present invention relates to anaerobic digestion of animal manure (liquidation method of processing a control mass), energy biomass, and the like organic substrates. The technology provides for the recycling of nutrients contained in the fermented biomass, fertilizer commercial quality. Preferably, in the General concept of optimization of internal and external characteristics of livestock farms were combined system of separation of biogas and sludge according to the present invention and working cattle farms.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention may remove the animal waste in the form of animal carcasses, slaughterhouse waste, feed meat and bone flour, etc. At the facility waste is recycled into fertilizer for use on farmland. During processing, the possible content BSE (spongiforme (spongy) encephalopathy cows ("rabies cows")is a prion or other prion substantially reduced, or eliminated altogether. Livestock products in this case are not used as feed and as fertilizer. Decomposition of possible BSE-prions in biomass processed at the facility, together with the use of recycled biomass as fertilizer instead of fodder in EIT is sustained fashion degree decreases, or completely eliminates, the risk of infectious contamination of animals or humans BSE-prions or their modifications.

Internal characteristics are associated with quality aspects related to the management of livestock farms, and include industrial hygiene, animal welfare, control of emissions of gases and dust and food safety. External characteristics are associated mainly with the production of power and control over the release into the environment of nutrients and greenhouse gases and sale of high-quality food products, as well as alternative by removing animal carcasses, etc.

Background of invention

Department of ammonia

Chemistry of ammonia are well known, and separating ammonia from various liquids is a well-known industrial technology. For example, this technology is used in the sugar industry (Bonart and others, 1995, Chcuk and others 1994, Benito and Cubero, 1996) and municipalities in the processing of dumps landfills (Cheung and others 1997). Ammonia can also be separated from the sludge pig farms based on the same principles as in industry (Liao and others, 1995).

The basic principle, which is used for large-scale separation of ammonia, is the increase in pH and aeration and heating the wastewater or sludge. For the avicenia pH is often used CA(Oh) 2or Cao. Can use other bases NaOH or KOH. However, industrial scale production use lime, for example in the cement industry, which is cheap and always available as a mass product.

With the mission of the Department of ammonia by absorption with getting concentrate ammonia absorption columns are used, which is often used sulfuric acid. Sulphuric acid technical quality is a mass product used in industry, and is available for use in absorption columns for the separation of ammonia from sludge and other wastewater (for example, Sukuk and others, 1994).

Based on the experience obtained in the sugar industry, it was found that the most suitable are the following parameters: temperature 70°s; pH within 10-12; the ratio of liquid to gaseous fraction equal to 1:800, at an efficiency of 96%.

For the case of separating ammonia from the sludge at low temperatures were found to have the following optimal parameters: temperature 22°s; pH approximately 10-12; the ratio of liquid to gas is 1:1200, at 90% efficiency and work within 150 h (Liao and others, 1995).

Links

Benito, and Cubero MTG (1996) Removal of ammonia from the condensate streams beet-sugar production sistemaitalia-reabsorption. Sugar industry, 121, 721-726.

Benito G.G. and Cubero M.T.G. (1996) Ammonia elimination from beet sugar factory condensate streams by a stripping-reabsorbing system. Zuckerindustrie 121, 721-726.

Bunert U., Bucus R., Bruns, M., and K. bucholtz (1995) Department of ammonia. Sugar industry, 120, 960-969.

Bunert U., Buczys R., M. Bruhns, and Buchholz, K. (1995) Ammonia stripping. Zuckerindustrie 120,960-969.

Chcuk A., Zarzycki R. and ICIEC j. (1994) a Mathematical model of the absorption distant columns for removal of ammonia from the condensate. Sugar industry, 119, 1008-1015.

Chacuk A., Zarzycki R., and Iciek J. (1994) A mathematical model of absorption stripping columns for removal of ammonia from condensates. Zuckerindustrie 119,1008-1015.

The K.S. Cheung, Chu, L.M., Wong - (1997) Department of ammonia as pre-treatment to leach dumps. Pollution of water, air and soil. 1994, 209-221.

Cheung HP, Chu L.M., and Wong M. N. (1997) Ammonia stripping as a pre-treatment for landfill leachate. Water Air and Soil Pollution 94, 209-221.

Liao, PH, Chen A., and Lo C.V. (1995) nitrogen Removal from sewage farm by separating ammonia. Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology. 54, it-20.

Liao, R. N., Chen A., and Lo, K. V. (1995) Removal of nitrogen from swine manure wastewaters by ammonia stripping. Biotechnology &Applied Microbiology 54, IT-20.

Alkaline and thermal hydrolize

Preliminary thermal treatment of biomass before anaerobic digestion technology, which is well described in the literature, for example, authors of the Lee and the UUPC (1992). In recent years, the preliminary heat treatment of the city is such waste was also used on an industrial scale company Kampi SA Billingstad, Norway (Cambi AS, Billingstad, Norway).

Wang and others (1997 (a and b) found that the preliminary thermal treatment of municipal waste at 60°and stay in the water for 8 days lead to increased release of methane (52,1%). A similar result was obtained by the authors Tanaka and others (1997), however, the combination of this method with alkaline hydrolysis gave the largest increase in gas output (200%). McCarty and others performed a series of studies that showed that a combination of thermal and alkaline hydrolysis greatly increases the gas outlet. However, before chemical hydrolysis will significantly increase gas output, it is necessary that the pH was about 10-12, but preferably 11 or higher.

The results of research carried out by Wenham and others (1997) and described in section 2.1 showed that standard parameters of the separation of ammonia (pH approximately 10-12, preferably 11 or more and the temperature is about 70°or more per week) gas output increases.

Links

If UU and Noike T. (1992) Upgrading of anaerobic digestion of active sludge wastewater by pre-heat treatment. Science and technology of water 26, 3-4.

Li Y.Y. and Noike T. (1992) Upgrading of anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by thermal pre-treatment. Water Science and Technology 26, 3-4.

McCarty PP, Jung LI, J.M. Gossett, Stacey S and Healy Jr GB Heat treatment to increase the release of methane from organic materials. Stanford University, California 94305, USA.

McCarty P.L, Young L.Y., J.M. Gossett, Stuckey D.., and Healy JR.J.B. Heat treatment for increasing methane yield from organic materials. Stanford University, California 94305, USA.

Tanaka S., Kobayashi T., Kamiyama, K., Bildan MLS (1997). The influence of heat and chemical pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion removed activated sludge wastewater. Science and technology of water. 35, 209-215.

Tanaka, S., Kobayashi T. Kamiyama, K. and Bildan M.L.N.S. (1997) Effects of thermo-chemical pre-treatment on the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Water Science and Technology 35,209-215.

Wang, K., Noguchi, S., Hara, Y., Sharon K., Kakimoto K. and Kato, Y. (1997)studies of the mechanisms of anaerobic digestion: Effect of temperature pre-treatment on biodegradation removed activated sludge wastewater. Technology environment. 18, 999-1008.

Wang Q., Noguchi S., Hara Y., Sharon S., Kakimoto K., and Kato, Y. (1997a) Studies on anaerobic digestion mechanisms: Influence of pre-treatment temperature on biodegradation of waste activated sludge. Environmental Technology 18, 999-1008.

Wang, K., Noguchi S. Kaliev, Kuninobu M., Hara, Y., Kakimoto K., Ogawa HI, and Kato Y. (1997 (b)). The influence of residence time in the water on anaerobic digestion of pre-treated sludge. Biotechnology Techniques. 11, 105-108.

Wang Q., Noguchi S.:, Kuninobu M., Hara Y., Kakimoto K. Ogawa H.I. and Kato, Y. (1997b) Influence of hydraulic retention time on anaerobic digestion of re-treated sludge. Biotechnology Techniques 11,105-108.

Sanitization

Sanitary treatment of sludge before transport and use in the field is an important strategy for reducing the risk of spreading insects, viruses, bacteria and parasites (for example, Bendixen, 1999). Anaerobic digestion has been effective in reducing the number of insects in the silt sediments, but did not lead to the complete destruction of these organisms (Bendixen, 1999; Pagella and others, 2000). The use of Cao for disinfection sludge sewage sludge also showed that the number of Ascaris eggs and parasites (Eriksen and others, 1996) and viruses decreased significantly, but they have not completely disappeared (Turner and Burton, 1997).

Links

Bendixen Hg. Hygienic safety - the results of scientific research in Denmark (requirements disinfection Danish plants for biogas production). Seminar, March 1999. working group on bioenergy.

Bendixen H.J. Hygienic safety - results of scientific investigations in Denmark (sanitation requirements in Danish biogas plants). Hohenheimer Seminar IEA Bio-energy Workshop, March 1999.

Eriksen L., Andersen, P., Ilse B. (1996) Inactivation of Ascaris eggs during storage in sludge sewage sludge, treated with lime. Water Survey. 30, 1026-1029.

Eriksen L, from P. Ilsoe B. (1996) Inactivation of Ascaris suum eggs during storage in lime treated sewage sludge. Water Research 30, 1026-1029.

Pagella K.R., Kim, H., and Cheonnam So (200 g) Aerobic thermophilic and mesophilic treatment of waste pig farms. Water Survey. 34, 2747-2753.

Pagilla .R., H. Kirn, and Cheunbarn T. (2000) Aerobic thermopile and anaerobic mesopile treatment of swine waste. Water Research 34, 2747-2753.

Turner, S. and Burton, K. X. (1997) Inactivation of viruses in silt sediments pig farms. The overview. Technology of bioresources. 61, 9-20.

Turner, S. and Burton S. (1997) The inactivation of viruses in pig slurries: a review. Bioresource Technology 61,9-20.

Foam

The foaming associated with anaerobic digestion can cause a serious problem for the fermentation apparatus. There are many substances used to eliminate foam, including various polymers, vegetable oils (e.g. rapeseed oil) and various salts (for example, Vardar-Sukan, 1998). However, the polymers can harm the environment and are often the roads and inefficient.

Links

Vardar-Sukan F. (1998) Foaming: effects, prevention and destruction. The Success Of Biotechnology. 16, 913-948.

Vardar-Sukan F. (1998) Foaming: consequences, prevention and destruction. Biotechnology Advances 16, 913-948.

Flocculation

Calcium ions are known as a means of flocculation chemicals and particles due to the formation of bridges of calcium between organic and mineral substances in solution or suspension, which ensures the formation of particles in the "flakes" (for example, Sanin and Vesilind, 1996). For this reason calcium is used for dewatering sludge wastewater (Higgins and Novak, 1997).

Links

X is ggins M.J. and Novak J. T. (1997). The effect of cations on the settling and dewatering of active sludge: the Laboratory results. Study of the aquatic environment, 69, 215-224.

Higgins M.J. and Novak J.T. (1997). The effects of cations on the settling and dewatering of activated sludge's: Laboratory results. Water Environment Research 69, 215-224.

Sanin FD and Vesilind P.A. (1996) Synthetic silt sediments: physical/chemical model in understanding bio-flocculation. Study of the aquatic environment. 68, 927-933.

F.D. Sanin and Vesilind P.A. (1996) Synthetic sludge: A physical/chemical model in understanding bio flocculation. Water Environment Research 68, 927-933.

Separation of sludge using decantorului centrifuges, separation of phosphorus

Over the last 100 years desantiruemye centrifuges have been used in many industrial processes.

Among the recent examples of the use of decentrali centrifuges include installation Novo-Nordisk in the city of Kalundborg, in which process all the waste of large facilities for the fermentation of insulin. Using decantorului centrifuge is the dehydration of sludge municipal waste (Alfa Laval A/S). Desantiruemye centrifuges separate dry (particulate) matter from sludge or waste, while the water fraction or waste water is directed to a conventional wastewater treatment plant.

Experiments with separation of slurry cattle, pigs and degassed sludge osedc is in show what desantiruemye centrifuges can easily handle all types of manure. It was found that the centrifuge is removed from the pre-fermented, heated slurry to about 70% solids, 60-80% of the total phosphorus and only 14% of the total nitrogen (Muller and others, 1999; Moeller, 2000). The corresponding values for untreated slurry cattle and pigs were slightly lower. It should be noted that waste was removed only 14% of the total nitrogen.

Full estimated cost of treatment was 5 DKK per 1 m3sludge when the volume of sludge 20,000 tons or more. In those cases, when the amount of sludge exceeds 20,000 tons, using decentrali centrifuges for separation of dry matter and total phosphorus from sludge is more efficient (Muller and others, 1999).

Under normal conditions to handle silt sediments in decantorului centrifuge disadvantageous, because it is not associated with any reduction or other benefits for farmers. When making the treated sludge in the field as a result of increased infiltration rate in the soil can be reduced by the loss of ammonia (möller, 2000 (b)), but for farmers applying decantorului centrifuge is not a stimulus.

Links

Moller N. (2000a) Opkoncentrering af ngeringsstoffer i husdyrgodning med dekantercentrifuge og skrueprese. Notat 12. September 2000, Forskningscenter Bygholm.

Mller H.B. (2000b) Gode med resultater at separere gylle. Maskinbladet 25. august, 2000.

Möller JB, Lund U. and Sommer YEAR (1999) Separation of the solid fraction of slurry cattle from liquid: efficiency and cost.

Moller, NV, Lund I., and Sommer S.G. (1999) Solid-liquid separation of livestock slurry: efficiency and cost

Alfa Laval A/S Gylleseparering. Separeringsresultater med decantercentrifuge.

Precipitation of phosphorus

Almost immediately after the introduction of the calcium as calcium phosphate CA3(RHO4)2phosphorus is precipitated from solution (Cheung and others, 1995).

The K.S. Cheung, Chu, L.M., Wong - (1997) Department of ammonia as pre-treatment to leach dumps. Pollution of water, air and soil. 1994, 209-221.

Cheung HP, Chu L M., and M. Wong. (1997) Ammonia stripping as a pre-treatment for landfill leachate. Water Air and Soil Pollution 94, 209-221.

Prevention education struverite

Another important aspect is that the precipitation of phosphorus with the Department of ammonia prevents the formation struverite (MgNF4PO4). Struverite creates a serious problem in heat exchangers, when transporting pipes etc. (Krueger, 1993). The mechanism consists in the removal of phosphorus through education Saro4and also in the removal of ammonia through its branches. When removing phosphorus and ammonia struverite not formed.

Krüger (1993) Struvit dannelse i biogasfsellesanlaeg. Krüger WasteSystems AS.

Filtering the drawdown of water

Sist what we post-treatment sludge and membrane filtration water discharge in the last 10 years were presented in the form, for example, membrane systems (BioScan A/S, Ansager ApS) and plants based on steam compression (Funki A/S, Bjornkj r Maskinfabrikker A/S). These systems lead to gross cost at 1 m3sludge, equal to DKK 50-100. Moreover, these settings cannot handle other types of manure, in addition to the liquid fraction of pig manure.

The reduction obtained when using these facilities, often is not more than 50-60%, which means that any residues in the field in any case depends on conventional devices. Therefore, these facilities are not competitive because of the level of costs and/or limited volume reduction.

However, it is important to discuss and understand the cost of using these facilities. It is also important to consider the use of energy in form of electricity, which provides mechanical steam compression, which is approximately 50 kW·h per 1 ton of processed sludge. This means that the use of membranes can be competitive in comparison with the technology of evaporation, assuming that the water fraction that is to be filtered, consists of salts and minimum amounts of dry matter, which do not cause problems mineralization.

Links

Argaman U. (1984) nitrogen Removal from sludge in the oxidation channel. Water survey. 18, 1493-1500.

rgaman Y. (1984) Single sludge nitrogen removal in an oxidation ditch. Water Research 18, 1493-1500.

Blouin M, Bisaillon JG, Beudet R. and ISAGO M. (1988) Aerobic biological decomposition of organic matter waste pig farms. Biological Waste. 25, 127-139.

Blouin, M., Bisaillon J.G., Beudet R., and Ishague M. (1988) Aerobic biodegradation of organic matter of swine waste. Biological Wastes 25,127-139.

Bohumila EH, Aime RB, Buisson X. (1998) Microfiltration active sludge using submerged membrane with bubbling air (used for wastewater treatment). Desalination. 118, 315-322.

Bouhabila E.H., Aim R.., and Buisson, H. (1998) Micro filtration of activated sludge using submerged membrane with air bubbling (application to wastewater treatment). Desalination 118, 315-322.

Burton AGRICULTURAL, Snit RU, Misselbrook TH and Payne B.F. (1998) Journal of research in management. 71, 203.

Burton S., Sneath R.W., Misselbrook T.H., and Pain B.F. (1998) Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 71, 203.

Camaro L, Diaz J.M. and Romero, F. (1996) Purification of anaerobic digested sludge farm. Biomass and Bioenergy. 11, 483-489.

Camarro L, Diaz J. M. and Romero F. (1996) Final treatments for anaerobically digested piggery effluents. Biomass and Bioenergy 11, 483-489.

Doyle d & De La Neue j. (1987) Aerobic purification of pig manure: Physical and chemical aspects. Biological Waste. 22, 187-208.

Doyle Y. and de la Noüe J. (1987) Aerobic treatment of swine manure: Physico-chemical aspects. Biological Wastes 22, 187-208.

Engelhard N., FIRC d & Warnken U. (1998) the Inclusion of membrane filtration in the process of cleaning the active sludge is x precipitation during the treatment of municipal wastewater. Science and technology of water. 38, 429-436.

Engelhardt N.. Firk W., and Warnken W (1998) Integration of membrane filtration into the activated sludge process in municipal wastewater treatment. Water Science and Technology 38, 429-436.

Garraway JL (1982) Studies on the aerobic purification sludge pig farms. Agricultural Waste. 4, 131-142.

Garraway J.L. (1982) Investigations on the aerobic treatment of pig slurry. Agricultural Wastes 4, 131-142.

Ginnivan M.J. (1983) Effect of aeration on the smell and solid waste fraction of pig farms. Agricultural Waste. 7, 197-207.

Ginnivan M.J. (1983) The effect of aeration on odour and solids of pig slurries. Agricultural Wastes 7.197-207.

Gaining IE and Harremoes P. (1985) Nitrification in rotating disk systems-1. The criterion of the transition from oxygen to limit the norm of ammonia. The study of water. 19, 1119-1127.

Gönenc I.E. and Harremoes, P. (1985) Nitrification in rotating disc systems-1. Criteria for transition from oxygen to ammonia rate limitation. Water Research 19,1119-1127.

Scott Ja; Neilson DJ., Liu d & Boone PN. (1998) System of a bioreactor with the double function of membranes for enhanced aerobic treatment of high strength industrial waste. Science and technology of water. 38, 413-420.

Scott J.A.; Neilson D.J. Liu W., and Boon P.N. (1998) A dual function membrane bioreactor system for enhanced aerobic remediation of high-strength industrial waste. Water Science and Technology 38, 413-420.

Silva, S.M., Riva D.U., Husian X., Rabbi HR and Wodehouse K.A. (2000) Journal of the science of membranes. 173, 87-98.

Silva S.M., D.W. Reeve, H. Husain, Rabie H.R., and K.A. Woodhouse (2000) Journal of Membrane Science 173. 87-98.

Viswanathan S., Yang, B.-C., Muttamara S., R. Mitamura (1997) application of a reverse purge of air in a membrane bioreactor. Science and technology of water. 36, 259-266.

Visvanathan C., Yang, B-S., Muttamara, S., and Maythanukhraw R. (1997) Application of air back flushing in membrane bioreactor. Water Science and Technology 36, 259-266.

Seyoum R., Coron-Ramstrom A-F., ger P. (1996) the Final clarification of the combined filter in the tank aerating the active sludge. Technology environment. 17, 1007-1014.

Zaioum R., Coron-Ramstrim A-F. R. Gehr (1996) Final clarification by integrated filtration within the activated sludge aeration tank. Environmental Technology 17, 1007-1014.

Heat treatment in lime

Thermal and chemical hydrolysis at temperatures less than 100°C and pressures of about 1 ATM increases the likelihood of obtaining biogas from organic matter. However, when such processing complex carbohydrates of the type of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin not completely hydrolyzed. Under this treatment the fibers of the straw, corn and other grain crops are not suitable for methane production (Pierre and others 1996; Schmidt and Thomsen, 1998; Thomsen and Schmidt 1999; Sirohi and Rai, 1998). Heat treatment of lime at moderate temperatures of about 100°With well suited for the preparation of these substrates to microbial decomposition (Corelli and others 1997; Chang and others 1997; Chang and others 1998).

This treatment of the cellulose fibers of sugar cane size of 0.5 mm (4% Cao, at 200°and 16 bar) provides a decomposition of cellulose takaosanguchi acid of light weight, as formic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, etc. In the processing of cellulose 70% of the corresponding amount of hydrocarbons of the type of pure glucose (Azzam and Nazaire, 1993) goes into methane. In addition, green crops can be treated with lime in the autoclave, but at lower temperatures. It is shown that optimal results are achieved when the water hyacinths were treated at pH 11 and a temperature of 121° (Patel and others 1993).

The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and substances that are inhibitors of bacterial methane, can be carried out at elevated temperatures (Waragi and others 1993; Patel and others, 1993). However, this phenomenon was not observed at relatively moderate temperatures used in heat treatment of lime compared to processing at temperatures of pyrolysis (Azzam and others, 1993). The temperature of pyrolysis is so high that the biomass decomposes directly on such gases as hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide, but unfortunately this form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other contaminants.

Links

Azzam A. M. and M.I. Nasr (1993) Dermopatico-chemical pre-treatment of waste food industry to enhance anaerobic digestion and fermentation of biogas. Journal of science and technology for OCD is ronment. 28, 1629-1649.

Azzam, A.M. and M.I. Nasr (1993) Physicothermochemical pre-treatments of food processing waste for enhancing anaerobic digestion and biogas fermentation. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering 28, 1629-1649.

Pierre A.B., Olsen A.B., Fernquist So, Ploger A., Schmidt, A.S. (1996). Pre-treatment of wheat straw with the use of oxidation in a humid atmosphere and alkaline hydrolysis with obtaining convertible cellulose and hemicellulose. Biotechnology and bioengineering. 49, 568-577.

Bjerre AV, Oiesen AV, Fernquist, T., A. Ploger, Schmidt A.S. (1996) Pre-treatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicelluloses. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 49, 568-577.

Chang BC, Nagani M., Holsapple M.L. (1998) Original article pre-processing Marc crop residues and straw of wheat lime. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Part a Enzyme engineering and biotechnology. 74, 135-160.

Chang V, S., Nagwani M., M.T. Holtzapple (1998) Original articles - Lime pre-treatment of crop residues bagasse and wheat straw. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Part A-Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology 74, 135-160.

The B.C. Chang, Barry B., Holtzapple M.L. (1997) Pre-treatment with lime of switchgrass. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Part a Enzyme engineering and biotechnology. 63-65, 3-20.

Chang V.S., Barry C., Holtzapple, M. T. (1997) Lime pre-treatment of switchgrass. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Part A - Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology 63-65, 3-20.

Corelli N., The fadda MB, Rescigno A., Rinaldi A.S., Soddu,, Solai E., Vaccari S.; Sanjust E., reed is LDI A. (1997) Pre-treatment of wheat straw alkaline/oxidative environment. Biochemistry Of The Process. 32, 665-670.

Curelli N., M. Fadda Century, Rescigno, A., Rinaldi, A. C., Soddu G., Sollai E., Vaccargiu S.; Sanjust, E., Rinaldi, A. (1997) Mild alkaline/oxidative pre-treatment of wheat straw. Process Biochemistry 32, 665-670.

Patel C., Desai, M. and Midmoor D. (1993) Preliminary thermo-chemical treatment of water hyacinth for improved bio-methanation. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 42, 67-74.

Patel V., Desai M., and Madamwar D. (1993) Thermo-chemical pre-treatment of water hyacinth for improved biomethanation. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 42, 67-74.

Schmidt, A.S., and Thomsen A.B. (1998) Optimization of pre-treatment of wheat straw using wet oxidation. Technology of bioresources. 64,139-152.

Schmidt A.S. and A.B. Thomson (1998) Optimisation of wet oxidation pre-treatment of wheat straw. Bioresource Technology 64, 139-152.

Sirohi S. Kaliev and Rai SN. (1998) Optimization of machining conditions wheat straw with lime: Influence of concentration, humidity and time of processing on chemical composition and in-vitro digestion. Science and technology of food, 74, 57-62.

Sirohi S.. and Rai, S. N. (1998) Optimisation of treatment conditions of wheat straw with lime: Effect of concentration, moisture content and treatment time on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 74, 57-62.

Thomsen A.B., Schmidt, A.S. (1999) Further development of chemical and biological processes for the production of byatesomega alcohol: optimization of pre-treatment and characterization of products. National Lab Is RISO, Roskilde, Denmark.

Thomsen V. and Schmidt A.S. (1999) Further development of chemical and biological processes for production of bio ethanol: optimisation of pre-treatment processes and characterization of products. Rise National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark.

Waragi,, Jada P., IOC USL and antal M.J. (1993) Kinetics of thermal decomposition of cellulose in sealed vessels at elevated pressures. Journal Compilation analytical and applied pyrolysis. 26, 159-174.

Varhegyi, G., Szabo P., Mok W.S.L., and M.J. Antal (1993) Kinetics of thermal decomposition of cellulose in sealed vessels at elevated pressures. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 26, 159-174.

Silage from energy biomass

Usually energy biomass is primarily used as a solid fuel for combustion (willow as wood wood, straw or whole seeds) or as fuel for engines (rapeseed oil). In experiments beet and straw are used for the production of ethyl alcohol (Barsby; Shem, 2001; Gustavsson and others, 1995; Wyman and Goodman, 1993; Heaps, 1998). Widespread use of biomass energy and other parts of the world, where extensive research. In the documents there is extensive use of terrestrial, marine and freshwater plants (Gunaseelan, 1997; Jewell and others, 1993; Jarvis and others, 1997). Some studies have shown that anaerobic fermentation of biomass energy is competitive in relation to another using aniu biomass (Chynoweth D.P., The Owen J.M. and Legrand, R., 2001).

The energy use of biomass has good incentives. The use of straw is organized in such a way that it will be noticeable for many years. Use wooden wood seems to be economically and practically viable. On the other hand, the burning of the grain raises ethical objections. Cereal production is also inevitably linked to the use of fertilizers and pesticides, and loss of nitrogen in the fields. Nitrogen is also lost when biomass burning.

Links

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Beck J. Co-fermentation of liquid manure and beets as a regenerative energy. University of Hohenheim, Dep. Agricultural Engineering and Animal Production. Personal communication.

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Gustavsson L., Borjesson P., Bengt J., Svenningsson P. (1995) reducing the allocation of CO2by replacing fossil fuels on bi is the weight. Energy, 20, 1097-1113.

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Jewell, W.J., R.J. Cummings, and Richards V.K. (1993) Methane fermentation of energy crops: maximum conversion kinetics and in situ biogas purification. Biomass and Bioenergy 5, 261-278.

Jarvis A., Nordberg A., Alsvik So, Mathiesen B. and Svensson KAPYSHEV (1997) Improving the technology of biogas production from silage clover adding cobalt. Biomass and Bioenergy, 12, 453-460.

Jarvis, A., Nordberg, A., Jarlsvik T., Mathiesen C., and Svensson NR. (1997) Improvement of a grass-clover silage-fed biogas process by the addition of cobalt. Biomass and Bioenergy 12, 453-460.

Heaps PG., Crosswait sea level (1998) Scheme of agricultural regulation and biomass production. Biomass and Bioenergy, 14, 333-339.

Kuch .J., Crosswhite W.M. (1998) The agricultural regulatory framework and biomass production. Biomass and Bioenergy 14, 333-339.

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Banks .J. and Humphreys P.N. (1998) The anaerobic treatment of a ligno-cellulosic substrate offering little natural pH buffering capacity. Water Science and Technology 38, 29-35;

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Hansen PHD, Angelidaki I., Ahring VK (1998) Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: inhibition by ammonia. Water Research 32, 5-12.

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Kayhanian, M. (1994) Performance of high-solids anaerobic digestion process under various ammonia concentrations. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 59, 349-352.

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Wang Q., Noguchi S. Kaliev, Kuninobu M, Hara Y., Kakimoto K., Ogawa H.I., and KatoY. (1997) Influence of hydraulic retention time on anaerobic digestion of pre-treated sludge. Biotechnology Techniques 11, 105-108.

System disposal of animal carcasses, etc.

The existing system of disposal of animal carcasses provides for the registration of facilities that are licensed to the processing of animal carcasses. First of carcasses of animals received feed meat and bone meal, which has traditionally been used as animal feed.

This BSE crisis stopped this practice in accordance with the decision of the Commission of the European Community, stating that the feeding of meat and bone meal cannot be used as animal feed.

Cattle and associated business in Europe was faced with a dilemma: to find alternative uses of the feeding of meat and bone flour or an alternative method of removal of this flour. However, it is a difficult task due to the limitations imposed by the risk of transmission of prion BSE or other prions that may be present in the flour or parts of animal carcasses.

The use of feeding meat and bone meal or animal carcasses on typical installations for biogas production is certainly not desirable and is possible only in part. Processing of animal carcasses at facilities licensed to handle these animals, usually performed at temperatures around 130°C, a pressure of approximately 2-bar and delay of 20 minutes Such conditions are not used on typical installations for biogas production.

Listed below are the patents and patent applications that describe the prior art.

In DE 3737747 describes how to install and method for separating nitrogen. To add manure Cao, which separates the ammonia, while the above-mentioned ammonia is absorbed by the aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid. In this example, is not described many aspects of the present invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, use of energy biomass in a solution of sulfur absorbed ammonia, precipitated phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In DE 4201166 describes a method for parallel processing of different organic waste, the waste is separated into three fractions containing various amounts of the solid components. Before fermentation and biogas solid fraction homogenizers. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improve conditions for animals used bio energy is ACCA in a solution of sulfur absorbed ammonia, precipitated phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In DE 4444032 describes how to install and method, in accordance with which silt sediments are mixed in the first reactor, aeronauts and with the mission of the Department of ammonia added to the lime to get the pH to 9.5. In the second reactor with the purpose of neutralization sludge and sedimentation of solids added salt containing iron and polymer. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, use of energy biomass in a solution of sulfur absorbed ammonia, precipitated phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In DE 196615063 describes the process whereby ammonia is separated from the fermented manure. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, is used biomass energy is deposited phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In EP 0286115 describes a method of producing biogas, according to which the manure is entered fatty acids or compounds containing fatty acids. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, is used biomass energy is deposited phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In EP 0351922 describes how to install and method, in accordance with which the liquid manure is separated ammonia, carbon dioxide and phosphate carbon. From farm manure tanks is transported to the installation, where silt sediments treated with hot air, and separates a portion of the ammonia and carbon dioxide. The remaining sludge heat and add lime to get the pH 10-11, while ammonia is separated and formed calcium phosphate. Detachable ammonia is absorbed by the acidic solution with the formation of ammonium salts, which is dried and used as fertilizer. To separate solids from sludge is used desantiruemaya centrifuge. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invented who I am. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, use of energy biomass, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In ES 2100123 describes how to install and method, according to which purified liquid manure. Organic components are decomposed and precipitated solid fraction is removed decanters by centrifugation. In the liquid acid is added and it is made in the ground or going through another phase purification by aeration and separation of ammonia. The purified liquid is directed to sewage treatment plant. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improve conditions for animals at an early stage is given to ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In FR 2576741 describes the process of producing biogas by fermentation of liquid manure. Silt sediments are treated with lime, and the resulting precipitate is removed. In this example, is not described many of the TSA is tov invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, is used biomass energy is deposited phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In GB 2013170 describes how to install and method for producing biogas. In the first reactor the organic material is acidified, and the solid fraction is removed. The liquid fraction is given in the second reactor, in which anaerobic digestion of obtaining methane gas. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, removes ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In DE 19644613 describes a method of obtaining a solid fertilizers from manure. In liquid manure together with Cao or CA(Oh)2added substrate from biogas production. The separated ammonia is collected. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis uses energy which I biomass, precipitates phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In DE 19828889 describes joint fermentation of biomass after harvest and organic waste to produce biogas. The homogenized material and fermented. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, is used biomass energy is deposited phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 4041182 describes a method for the production of animal feed from organic waste. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, is used biomass energy is deposited phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 4100023 describes the installation and process for production of methane gas and fertilizer. In the first reactor is an aerobic digestion of homogenized material. In the second reactor, which is heated, proishodit anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. Fertilizing is prepared in liquid form. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, separated ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 4329428 describes the installation for anaerobic digestion, in particular, material from a variety of green plants, and the use of biogas. The unit incorporates a decomposition caused by thermophilic or mesophilic anaerobic bacteria. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, ammonia is separated, precipitated phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 4579654 describes the installation and process for production of biogas from organic materials. Solid materials undergo hydrolysis, podcasts and are fermented. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type of shelo the aqueous hydrolysis, improve conditions for animals, separated ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 4668250 describes the process whereby using aeration is separated from the liquid ammonia. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, is used biomass energy is deposited phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 4750454 describes the installation for anaerobic digestion of animal manure and biogas obtained in this process. The unit incorporates a decomposition caused by thermophilic or mesophilic anaerobic bacteria and is used by local gas engine, equipped with a generator. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, ammonia is separated, precipitated phosphorus, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in a gas engine on site or in the line is the botflies natural gas.

In the US 5071559 describes how to handle manure. In manure is added water and the mixture is acidified. The liquid evaporates, then condenses again in another reactor and passes anaerobic digestion with biogas. Fermented liquid fractionized and then subjected to anaerobic treatment. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, separated ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5296147 describes the processing of manure and other organic components. Organic wastes are fermented, and then nitrophilous and denitrifiers. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, separated ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite, formation etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In US5389258 describes how to obtain BIOS is for semi-solid and solid organic waste. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, separated ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5494587 describes a process for catalytic treatment of manure with decreasing concentration of nitrogen. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, separated ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5525229 describes the General procedure of anaerobic digestion of organic substances in thermophilic and mesophilic conditions.

In the US 5593590 describes the separation and processing of liquid and solid organic waste after separation of these two fractions. The liquid fraction is fermented to biogas, followed by removal of components precipitated solids, which are partially circulating in the process. Solid fracc the Yu is treated using an aerobic process and get the compost, fertilizer or animal feed. Part of the obtained biogas containing methane and CO2reused to reduce the pH of the liquid fraction in the absorption of CO2. From liquids by sedimentation stands solid fraction, for example, using decantorului centrifuge and the ammonia is separated from the liquid at pH 9-10. Waste water can be used for cleaning stalls. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare through the straw, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5616163 describes a method for processing manure, the nitrogen of which is used in the manufacture of fertilizers. In the liquid manure is added WITH2and/or CaSO4with which separates ammonia. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare through the straw, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, is used biomass energy,preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5656059 describes a method for processing manure, the nitrogen of which using nitrification is used in the manufacture of fertilizers. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare through the straw, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5670047 describes the General process of anaerobic decomposition of organic substrates with getting gas.

In the US 5681481, US 5783073 and US 5851404 describes a process and device for the stabilization of sludge. To obtain pH≥12 added lime and the mass is heated to not less than 50°C for 12 hours. Separated ammonia and either vented to the atmosphere, or recycle in the system. In the scheme can be used preheating chamber, stage desantiruemogo centrifugation, and the step of mixing the sludge to maintain them in the liquid state. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other TSA is chami applies pre-processing type alkaline hydrolysis, improve conditions for animals using a straw, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5746919 describes a process in accordance with kotorii organic waste is processed in a thermophilic anaerobic reactor, and then in mesophilic anaerobic reactor. In both reactors receive gas - methane. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare through the straw, before the production of biogas is given to ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5773526 describes a process in accordance with which the first liquid and solid organic wastes are fermented in mesophilic mode, and then in thermophilic range. Solid components are hydrolyzed and oxidized. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, locayta conditions of the animals using a straw, before biogas production ammonia is separated, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5782950 describes the fermentation of biological waste using homogenization, aeration and heating the mass. Waste is processed fractionation with translation into liquid and solid fractions. Solids are converted into compost. Liquid fraction undergo fermentation in anaerobic mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures with biogas. Waste water recycle between the reactor for biogas production and the homogenization stage. Waste water at the outlet of the reactor for biogas production is processed at the facility clarification. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, is used biomass energy, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5853450 describes how to obtain pasteurized compost from organic waste and green plant material. The pH of ranicki increased to 12 and the temperature rises to 55° C. After the introduction of green plant material the pH is reduced to 7-9,5. The mixture is fermented. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 5863434 describes a method of stabilizing organic wastes by decomposition using psychrophilic anaerobic mode. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 6071418 describes a method and system for processing manure using ozone by creating aerobic and anaerobic zones within the material. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved services is via animals, before the biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In the US 6171499 describes an improved method for the fermentation of domestic and industrial waste. Waste mix in anaerobic process with biogas, which is used in a gas turbine with natural gas. The fermented material is dehydrated, and silt sediments are sent to the combustion plant. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In WO 8400038 describes the production of biogas and degassed and stabilized fertilizers. In the inner reactor is thermophilic decomposition, and in an external reactor mesophilic. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before biogas is separated and the MIAK, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In WO 8900548 describes the use of CA ions and Mg ions in the process of biogas production. Metal ions inhibit foaming. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In WO 9102582 describes how to install and method for the production of gas and prevent the spread of harmful compounds in the environment by a wet gas purification. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

In WO 9942423 describes a method and device for producing biogas. Fibers and particles of composted manure, and liquid fraction farms is ntinued in anaerobic mode and it separates nitrogen. Salt of phosphorus and potassium are used to obtain fertilizers reverse osmosis. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

On the website www.iqb.fhg.de/Uwbio/en/Manure.en.html describes the process of obtaining biogas from manure. Solid fraction degassed manure is used to obtain compost. From the liquid fraction is withdrawn nitrogen used as fertilizer. To separate solid components of the mixture can be applied desantiruemaya centrifuge. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

On the website http://riera.ceeeta.pt/images/iikbio mass.htm describes the production of biogas by anaerobic decomposition method. This system can be used to decanter the General centrifuge. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

On the website www.biogas.ch/f+e/memen.htm describes the reduction of a mixture of solid components. Considered a rotating disk reactor, membrane reactor, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

On the website www.biogas.ch/f+e/grasbasi.htm describes the anaerobic decomposition of biomass silage and manure with biogas production. Describes two processes: 1) the biomass of the silage is cut into pieces with a size of 1-3 cm and is directed into a liquid fraction containing manure. The mixture is fermented at 35°; 2) dry fermentation of manure and biomass silo without the use of liquids. In Dann is m example is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, Department of ammonia prior to biogas production, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

On the website www.biogas.ch/f+e/2stede.htm describes the production of biogas. In a rotating drum sieve are hydrolysis and oxidation of organic waste, the liquid fraction which is sent to the aerobic decomposition of biogas. In this example, is not described many aspects of the invention. Along with other aspects of the applied pre-treatment type alkaline hydrolysis, improved animal welfare, before the production of biogas is separated ammonia, preventing the formation of struverite etc. and the biogas is used in the gas engine in place, or in natural gas pipelines.

Summary of the invention

In the present invention shows a new way of utilization of biomass energy, namely anaerobic digestion of animal manure on the plants for biogas production on farms. The process also includes separating sludge, i.e. the recycling of nutrients from manure.

The invention may also use the SJ for digestion of animal carcasses, feeding meat and bone flour, etc. in conjunction with manure/energy biomass that allows you to remove animal carcasses and the like, while simplifying the manufacture of fertilizers from animal waste and agricultural crops, manure, etc.

Technology allows the use of forage crops annual turnover type of beet, corn or clover, the content of dry matter per 1 hectare, which is higher than that of cereals. Forage crops can also be used as "forage crops" and in rotation. In the present invention, or the use of uncultivated land for growing biomass energy.

In the center of attention is the idea that the biogas in the future will be competitive with natural gas and, thus, will be attractive from a commercial point of view and its production will not require subsidies. There is also the belief that energy production in Denmark should cover a significant part of energy consumption, i.e. it must be on the same level as the consumption of natural gas (about 150 PJ / year). In addition, the apparent benefits from the point of view of environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety.

Evaluation of Parsi potential energy production from the use of biomass energy, frequent in the spine of cereals, was 50-80 PJ / year. In the short term this will require approximately 150,000 hectares of land, and in the long term, about 300,000 hectares, However, is based dry matter content of 15 tons per 1 ha of sugar beet, including the tops that you want to brivati in installations for the production of biogas potential energy production will be approximately 100 PJ / year. It should be added that the energy derived from fermentation of manure (approximately 25 PJ). When using new varieties of sugar beet yield of dry matter may substantially exceed existing levels, you have to be 25 tons per hectare.

The essence of the invention consists in the combination of processes that can increase the production of biogas, to separate the ammonia and continue to use and process the remains of fermentation and separation of ammonia (waste water).

The invention is characterized in that it is simple and reliable technology can be combined with the Central idea of the invention. A simple and reliable power plant with energy and economic characteristics, significantly exceeding those of conventional plants. Power plant is integrated into the control system of animal breeding and agricultural land. Hence, the invention consists of many aspects.

In accordance with the laws the AI with the first preferred aspect of the present invention can be counteracted infections and the spread of microbial and parasitic pathogens, dangerous for animals, the type of Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia, Ascaris, and other microbial and parasitic organisms in the air and on agricultural lands. Thus, reduced, if not eliminated entirely, the threat of human infection.

In accordance with a second preferred aspect of the present invention can reduce the number of BSE-prions contained in manure, fodder, slaughterhouse waste, the feeding of meat and bone meal, etc. This is achieved by a combination of pre-treatment and fermentation. Partly this aspect of the present invention enables the processing of animal carcasses, slaughterhouse waste, etc. while using the nutrients contained in the carcasses of animals as fertilizer. The decrease in the number of BSE-prions contained in the carcasses of animals, the feeding of meat and bone meal, etc. and in manure, fodder, slaughterhouse waste, etc. and/or exclude them completely when using the process of the present invention is a necessary condition for waste treatment. In accordance with the present invention this is achieved by a combination of pre-treatment and fermentation. This procedure is an alternative to the existing procedure (however, now it is banned by the EU Commission) the processing of animal carcasses at the Central plant and produce different products the IPA feed meat and bone meal, which is mainly used as food.

In accordance with a third preferred aspect of the present invention from animal manure can be distinguished nitrogen and phosphorus and recycle these nutrients in commercial fertilizers.

In accordance with a fourth preferred aspect of the present invention, the biogas can be obtained in large quantities from the use of a wide range of organic substances, including all types of manure, biomass energy, biomass residues and other organic wastes.

In accordance with the fifth preferred aspect of the present invention can provide the optimal conditions for animals in the cattle yards while reducing emissions of dust and gases such as ammonia. This is achieved by flushing the farm households using water discharge or recycling.

In accordance with the sixth preferred aspect of the present invention it is proposed to benefit from the full range of benefits associated with various aspects of the invention.

In accordance with other preferred aspects of the present invention, it is preferable to any combination of the Central ideas of the invention with any aspect or a large number of aspects.

1 shows a preferred variant of this is part II of the invention. In this embodiment, the manure (litter), preferably in liquid form, obtained in the barnyard or stable (1) for the cultivation of animals, including such animals as pigs, cattle, horses, goats, sheep and/or poultry, including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, etc., served either in one or in both of the tank pre-treatment - the first (2) and/or second (3).

The principle of operation is that the manure, preferably in liquid form, including, in accordance with one variant, the water-type discharge of water used for cleaning livestock stables or stalls, served in the first pre-storage tank, including the tank Department of ammonia, where the ammonia is separated by introducing into the reservoir compartment of ammonia, for example, Cao and/or CA(Oh)2. However, Cao and/or CA(Oh)2may be injected into the liquid manure before application of liquid manure in the first pre-storage tank or tank compartment ammonia.

Simultaneously with the introduction of Cao and/or CA(Oh)2or at a later stage in the tank pre-treatment, including the tank Department of ammonia, is the separation of ammonia and/or is heated, and detachable nitrogen or ammonia, preferably before sending it to the storage is allocated in a separate tank (11). Before sending in a separate tank for storage is the detachable ammonia, including nitrogen, preferably translated into the column reservoir branch of ammonia in the first tank pre-treatment.

Before sending in the first tank pre-treatment (2), comprising a tank division of ammonia, as described above, organic materials that bad mix of microbial organisms during anaerobic digestion, it is desirable to process the second tank pre-treatment (3). Such organic materials usually contain significant amounts of, for example, cellulose and/or hemicellulose and/or lignin, for example more than 50% in mass ratio of the cellulose and/or hemicellulose and/or lignin in dry weight of organic material such as straw, grain crops, including grain, biomass waste and other solid organic materials. Ammonia, including nitrogen, subsequently separated from the pretreated organic material.

As in the first and second tank pre-treatment sludge is subjected to heat and alkaline hydrolysis. However, in the second tank pre-treatment, which in this connection is designed as a closed system, capable of maintaining a high pressure, temperature and/or pressure is much higher.

Finally, as described above, sludge, past PR is dwarfling processing preferably served at least one thermophilic reactor (6) and/or at least one mesophilic reactor for biogas production (6). In the reactor sludge undergoes anaerobic digestion and simultaneously produces biogas, i.e. a gas consisting mainly of methane, which may contain a small proportion of carbon dioxide. In accordance with a preferred variant of the invention the reactor (the reactor) to produce biogas is part of the power plant for the production of energy from a substrate made of organic material.

Biogas can be fed into the gas engine, and the energy produced by this engine may be used to heat the reservoir branch of ammonia. However, biogas can also be made into a commercial pipeline biogas, supplying domestic and industrial consumers.

In accordance with a preferred variant of the present invention remains of anaerobic fermentation, still in liquid form, including solid and liquid fractions are directed at least in dicontinuous centrifuge (7) for separation of solid and liquid fractions. One result of this separation is at least semi-solid fraction, consisting almost exclusively of P (phosphorus), consisting, for example, more than 50% in mass ratio of phosphorus (12). At this stage (7), or at another stage of separation by decantorului centrifuge (8) at least one semi-solid fraction consists almost exclusively Scalia (K), is, for example, more than 50% in mass ratio of potassium (13). These fractions, preferably in granular form, obtained after the stage of drying, including spray drying or drying sludge sludge preferably contain P and/or To commercially acceptable purity, ready to use as fertilizer (10)of commercial importance. These fertilizers can be processed crops or land. Liquid fraction (9), we obtain at the output of the phase separation fractions using decantorului centrifuge, type discharge water can also be made in agricultural land, go back to the pens or stalls or treatment system sludge.

In accordance with another variant of the present invention in the first tank pre-treatment may be made of organic material from the tanks silage (4)containing fermentation of organic materials. The filing of such organic materials in the first tank pre-treatment may include the step of anaerobic fermentation, which is carried out, for example, in the tank thermophilic fermentation, in which the removal of gases from the silo. In addition, straw and, for example, biomass waste remaining in fields after harvest (5), can also go to a stall or on Katie yards, and then, in the first and/or second tank pre-treatment.

Figure 2 shows a variant implementation of the present invention of figure 1 with the only difference that after step desantiruemogo centrifugation is collected only phosphorus (P), and the water in the form of discharged water is collected in a separate tank for further purification, including subsequent nitrogen removal, removal of odors and most of the remaining solids. This can be accomplished, for example, by aerobic fermentation. At this stage, the liquid may be separated potassium (K).

Figure 3 shows a variant implementation of the present invention, including a simplified solution of a system of biogas production and separation of sludge. Not used in this scenario fermenter for generating biogas and solid fraction with a pre-processing step in the pre-treatment tanks (2) and/or (3) is split using the stage (stages) separation using decantorului centrifuge (4 and 5), after which there is separation of ammonia, including nitrogen, and its collection in a separate reservoir (8). This way, one individual and at least semi-solid fractions, including P and K (9 and 10).

Figure 4 shows a variant implementation of the present invention, according to which after the separation using the receiving decantorului centrifuge potassium is not separated, as described in the embodiment of the present invention, is shown in figure 3. However, the Department of potassium (K) from the drawdown of the water on the other stage.

Figure 5 and 6 shows the preferred implementation of the present invention. Described in detail the individual elements of the system.

Below are described the preferred embodiments of the present invention.

Detailed description of the invention

The following are various distinctive features of the present invention.

The first aspect (decontamination)

The first aspect includes a system comprising a first device, barnyard or stalls for animals, including domestic animals like pigs and cattle, and/or a second device, mainly for the separation of ammonia and pre-treatment of the substrate, and/or the third device, mainly power plants for enhanced production of energy of the substrate.

In accordance with a preferred variant of the present invention, the system may consist of barnyard and tank Department of ammonia and reactor for the production of biogas. Additional elements include an input device in sludge Cao or Ca(OH)2absorption column, which operates, for example, based on the chamois is th acid, the storage tank concentrate ammonia and the storage tank fermentation sludge sludge.

The resulting biogas can be used to produce electricity and heat in the gas engine and the generator, electricity is sold to the grid, and the heat is used for heating the sludge to the sludge and/or heating a cattle-yard. Energy installation according to the present invention has outstanding characteristics in terms of energy production per unit substrate processed at the facility. Outstanding features are achieved by a combination of pre-treatment fermentation substrates, whether manure or another organic substrate, separating ammonia from the substrate prior to anaerobic digestion.

The following steps detail the advantages associated with the present invention. One of the Central aspects of the present invention is the aspect of pre-processing that includes not connected, or linked, separate stages of pre-processing, described in detail below.

Pre-treatment sludge sludge after removal of farm households may include any one or more of the following steps: 1) separation of ammonia, 2) hydrolysis of organic matter, 3) disinfection of silt Deposit, 4) reduction of proobrazov the Oia, 5) flocculation, (6) deposition of phosphorus (P) and 7) to prevent the formation of struvite.

The principle of operation is that the sludge is directed from the output of the first device in the tank Department of ammonia, where the introduction of Cao or CA(Oh)2separated ammonia, produces heat and before storing the ammonia is sent to the absorption column. At the same time sludge is treated by thermal and alkaline hydrolysis, preferably, using an autoclave with lime. Finally pre-treated sludge is sent to the third device, consisting of one or two thermophilic/mesophilic reactor for biogas production, where sludge is anaerobically fermented to biogas, i.e. gas consisting mainly of methane with a small amount of carbon dioxide. The biogas is sent to the gas engine and the heat from this engine is used to heat the reservoir branch of ammonia. The obtained electric current sale outlet.

As straw, may, and sawdust make up a significant proportion of the waste content of cattle and poultry, this raises the need for pre-treatment of manure prior to best use it as a substrate for methane production at facilities floor for the treatment of biogas. In this regard, the heat treatment in lime under pressure is the preferred method of pre-processing. Waste treated by this technology can thus more effectively to ensure the production of methane with high biogas yield. Furthermore, it enables the decomposition of uric acid and urea with obtaining ammonia, and the dissolution of proteins and other substances. In the process of separation of ammonia allows translation of inorganic nitrogen from animal waste in a concentrated nitrogen.

Thus, increased use of nitrogen from animal waste and droppings of birds on farmland. It is estimated that in the case of manure, processed for separation units of biogas and sludge according to the present invention, the potential efficiency of nitrogen can be increased to approximately 90%.

In another case before the treatment in the tank Department of ammonia bird droppings can sbrasyvatsya in the first thermophilic or mesophilic reactor. It depends on the quality of manure and to what level degrades uric acid in the process of two different types of processing. It will be possible to find out after the experience gained in the operation of the facility for some time the. It is important to emphasize the versatility of the setup that can handle all kinds of manure and biomass energy.

The installation is arranged relatively simple, because the screw conveyor, equipped with a crusher and is made from corrosion and acid resistant steel, transporting biomass in the autoclave with lime, where the biomass is heated by steam injection to 180-200°C. for 5-10 minutes required for processing biomass, the pressure increases up to 10-16 bar.

In the apparatus, which will be created will be high temperature and pressure, the temperature will vary in the interval from 100 to 200°C. thus it will be possible to adjust the processing parameters depending on the type of processed biomass, fermentation in the installation according to the present invention, when selecting options for the use of energy, tar and technical parameters.

Foaming is a common problem for plants to produce biogas. In accordance with one preferred regulatory option foaming at the plants for biogas according to the present invention, in particular when applying large quantities of biomass, such as energy biomass is added rapeseed oil, which, apart from the effect on foaming, is also a substrate for receiving gas m is Tana. Calcium ions are also very effective at controlling foaming. In addition to the effects of CA(Oh)2and/or Cao, as was mentioned earlier, the introduction of CA(Oh)2and/or Cao is one of the preferred options control foaming. Obviously, the introduction of sludge of calcium ions stimulates the formation of flakes and the adhesion of bacteria to organic particles and, thus, improves the performance of anaerobic digestion.

Accordingly, if necessary, implement additional control for frothing and/or flocculation because of the very large gasification in the fermenters may be submitted to the Sa and/or rapeseed oil. Enter CA(Oh)2or Cao will also provide deposition bicarbonates such as caso2. This reduces the concentration of CO2in solution and in the gas fraction and contributes to the reduction of foaming by reducing the discharge of carbon dioxide.

Enter CA(Oh)2or Cao in connection with the separation of ammonia and disinfection sludge sludge also leads to precipitation of orthophosphate, that is,in the solution. These particles of phosphorus can be in the silt Deposit in the form of mist as well as other cereals. The use of Sa also leads to limit nomu reduction of chemical oxygen demand, that means that Sa besieging other salts, not only orthophosphate.

It is obvious that regardless of the chemical composition of different organic wastes simple heat treatment, in particular heat treatment in combination with alkaline hydrolysis, leads to an increase in gas output. In addition, the combination of high temperatures and high level of pH during pre-processing leads to more effective decontamination of organic material compared to the treatment, which is used only anaerobic digestion, whether it is a thermophilic or mesophilic digestion.

It should be noted that in the state order No. 823 of the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, noted that the managed disinfection should be carried out for 1 hour at 70°C. In this connection, it is obvious that before will be consistently implemented two anaerobic digestion (thermophilic or mesophilic), which will be completely destroyed all known pathogens of animals and/or humans, according to a preferred variant implementation of the present invention should be processed within one week at 70°C. Preferably also completely remove BSE-prions or at least significantly reduce their number.

The main result of the bookmark is included, all infectious organisms contained in the silt Deposit, destroyed, and therefore, when the fertilizer in the ground do not apply in the environment. It also allows the use of digested sludge precipitation to flush the first device (farm houses) and to keep pens clean. Thus preventing cross infection among animals. It also allows you to use the water for washing animals and pigs, to carry out extraction of air, etc. by preventing the spread of odors, dust and infectious agents. This is possible because sludge with added water does not have to save up for when it can be used to make in the earth. Sludge that does not contain nitrogen, can be used to make the earth throughout the year.

However, in accordance with the first aspect applies pre-processing and thus the sterilization of silt Deposit, which is preferred in the case of its use for subsequent submission to the agricultural land.

It is clear that the present invention applies to a number of different aspects, each of which by itself or in combination with other aspects constitutes a patentable invention. The section below contains a description of the various individual the selected parts (elements) of one aspect of the present invention. Figure 5 and 6 shows these elements.

It should be understood that the selected elements can form the basis of other aspects of the present invention. The invention is in no way limited to the combination of the elements below. From the description it will be clear communication aspects of the invention with certain elements described below. Examples of such aspects, which, however, is not limited to the scope of the present invention include a device for concentration of nitrogen (N), and/or phosphorus (P), and/or potassium (K); energy production on the basis of the elements of the tank compartment ammonia, autoclave with lime and fermentation apparatus; and processing the drawdown of the water to ensure the animals ' living conditions.

It should also be understood that the following aspects, among other things, to the aspect of disinfection, do not necessarily include all of the following elements. It should also be understood that aspects of disinfection include a combination of only some of the elements described below.

Stockyards

Stockyards (item No. 1) provide optimal food safety and food quality, optimal animal welfare and working conditions for staff, the optimal treatment of sludge precipitation processed on installation and the production of energy from biomass and minimising emissions into the environment (ammonia, dust, odour, methane, nitrous oxide and other gases).

The system may consist of one building or more buildings with a total number of 10 sections, designed to produce 250 units of livestock annually. Each section is, for example, 640 pigs (weighing at 7-30 kg) or 320 fattened for slaughter pigs (weighing 30-98 kg).

It is expected that the number of annually produced sludge can be approximately 10000 m3. In addition to this volume through buildings can go from 5000 to 10000 m3technical water. System buildings must meet the following basic conditions.

1) a System of two climatic regimes: it is preferable that the pigsties were designed as declinations system. The rear part of the pig must be equipped with an adjustable roof, providing pigs the opportunity to choose between a relatively warm environment under the roof and a relatively cold environment in the rest of the pigpen. The temperature difference must be in the range of 5-10°C.

When the piglets will grow to approximately 30 kg, the roof must provide colder temperatures in the barnyard as a whole. Pigs can warm up under the roof. In colder periods, accompanied by lower temperatures, can increase the ventilation.

2) Placement of pigs, it is preferable to give the straw from the machine. It stimulates the behavior of the yaw and digging, because they have to pick up a straw from the machine. Straw is also a source of energy for the power plant.

3) Heating: it is desirable that the heat from the power plant was submitted to the pens. Heat may be supplied by two separate circulation systems. One of them is located under the roof and creates heated to 30-35°s, which gives pigs a comfortable microclimate, dries the floor and reduces the growth of bacteria on the floor. The second system gives warmth to all airspace barnyard pipes located within the walls of the barnyard. The second circulation system associated with a system of ventilation control.

4) shower: shower it is advisable to install over the lattice, which is1/4the floor area. This encourages pigs to defecate on the lattice and not on a hard floor. Shower water washes away the manure channels, preventing the stench of ammonia losses etc. Clean hard floors greatly reduce the possibility of infection by pathogenic organisms manure type Salmonella, Lavsonia etc.

5) Blanket: several times a day channels manure washed. It is provided with flushing channels technical water from power plants. The manure through the valve is directed into the Central channel.

6) channel Design: the area of the manure reduces energy is done by use of the V-shaped channels and simultaneously the optimal flushing channels. It is important to reduce emissions in the barnyards.

7) Ventilation: ventilation is designed so that 20% of air at maximum performance played down under, and through the grate, Central ventilation box, between the double V-channels. For 60-80%, the performance of ventilation is 20% of the maximum.

8) Feeding: food is served equipment wet feeding, which delivers food ad libitum (optional).

Collection tank sludge

Collection tank sludge (item No. 2) provide a daily collection of sludge from the wash plant with cattle yards and operates as a holding tank prior to pumping waste into the main receiving tank. Silt sediments come into a collecting tank under the action of gravity. The volume of the collecting tank may be, for example, 50 m3. The tank can be made of concrete and placed under the floor of a cattle-yard, so that silt sediments could be directed into a collecting tank under the action of gravity.

The main receiving tank

In accordance with a preferred variant of the present invention sludge from the collecting tank is pumped into the main receiving tank (item # 3). Additionally from other farms/facilities in the main receiving tank may be sent to each the e types of liquid manure/waste. As options waste can be used silt sediments formed during the breeding mink, cattle, molasses, waste wine production, silage, etc. These wastes are transported to the receiving tank truck and loaded directly into the tank. The volume/capacity of such a tank may be approximately 1000 m3. It is desirable that the level in the tank Department of ammonia was maintained by a pump which pumps silt sediments of the receiving tank. The flow is adjusted manually or automatically. Maximum capacity is selected based on the circumstances.

Enter Cao

When pumping sludge from the inlet tank 1 tank division ammonia liquid waste to increase the pH level of added lime. The collector supply of lime takes 30-60 grams of Cao per 1 kg TS. Preferably, the lime was in powder form that can be filled into the hopper of the truck. The volume/capacity of the hopper can be, for example, approximately 50 to 75 m3. The dose of 30-60 g/kg TS corresponds to approximately 6-12 kg Cao per hour when applying sludge 3.5 m3/h and 6% TS.

When applying directly in silt sediments (6% TS) dose of lime is approximately 60 g/kg TS (about 8.8 kg Cao per hour). However, it is desirable to add the lime directly the NGOs in the installation alkaline sterilization under pressure and hydrolysis. If lime is added directly in this setting (TS e-environment is maintained at the level 20-70%), the dose of lime is approximately 30-60 g/kg TS. 60 g/kg of dry matter of approximately 342 kg Cao to boot, while 30 g/kg of dry matter of approximately 171 kg Cao to load.

Libra

E-environment (organic material containing energy) should be weighed in the balance (item No. 5). It is desirable that the suppliers have agreed on the type of environment that comes on the installation, such as litter, biomass of various types, etc.

On the remote control in accordance with the type of the e-environment is selected job. Data providers, the mass of the obtained e-environment and characteristics of the environment are logged.

Thus, for each e-environment is defined (see alkaline hydrolysis):

energy potential;

- the necessary heating time;

- the processing time.

The receiving station for bedding livestock farms and biomass energy,

The receiving station (item No. 6) receives a litter of livestock farms, such as farm poultry or other animals, as well as biomass energy. Preferably as a receiving station to use a large hopper, the bottom of which are a few of screw conveyors. The trucks dumped the e-environment direct the military in the bunker. The volume/capacity of the hopper is selected according to the circumstances, depending on the annual volume of e-environment (approximately 51.5% of TS), which may be, for example, approximately 9,800 tons. The tank volume can be from a few cubic meters to about 100 m3and to meet the three-day loading (65 h). It is desirable to produce such a bunker of concrete/steel.

Hopper for energy biomass

Hopper for energy biomass (item No. 7) serves as a repository of energy biomass. It is desirable to keep the biomass in the form of silage. The volume/capacity of the hopper can be approximately 5000-10000 m3. The hopper can be made in the form of a closed chamber, the juice of the silo from which it is collected and pumped into a receiving tank.

Transport system and homogenization litter zhivotnovodcheskogo farms and biomass energy

Preferably, the transport system and homogenization (item No. 8) litter zhivotnovodcheskogo farms and biomass energy received the e-environment from the screw conveyors in the bottom of the receiving station. E-environment can be submitted optional screw conveyors to the autoclaves and preferably at the same time, to simultaneously ground in a built-in grinder. Volume/performance system is selected depending on obstajate STV and can go up to 1.5 m 3E-environment in an hour or 8200 t e-environment in the year. It is desirable that the performance of the transportation system and homogenization was approximately not less than 30 m3/hour. The receipt of the e-environment is controlled by three main parameters: volume, weight and time. These parameters are determined by the volume per time unit, time, and total volume and mass.

Installing alkaline sterilization under pressure and hydrolysis

Installing alkaline sterilization under pressure and hydrolysis (item No. 9) serves two important purposes: first, to remove pathogens from the e-environment, especially from litter poultry or other animals and, second, hydrolysis of the structural components of the litter, which gives the opportunity to provide microbial decomposition in the fermentation apparatus.

It is also desirable that the device was removed BSE-prions of waste sent to the installation, or at least significantly reduced their content. Such waste is feed meat and bone meal, animal fat or something like that, resulting from the processing of animals not implemented.

Of the transportation system and homogenization of e-environment enters the sterilizer, with e-environment is served depending on its type, which is determined on the scales.

The autoclave consists of two identical mouth is set, i.e. two elongated, horizontal cylindrical chambers with a screw in the center. These two cylindrical chambers are attached one to the other, allowing easy loading of the lower chamber. Bottom installation are closed by the lid. Cover removes heat from the steam down.

In the top of the autoclave bin Cao arrives lime, i.e. 342 kg load.

From the top chamber into the bottom of the e-environment comes in the form of hot.

The contents of the lower chamber is supplied into a small mixing tank 25 m3. Here e-environment mixed with silt sediment of the receiving tank 1, and then the mixture is pumped into the reservoir compartment of ammonia.

In the pipe Cao has an outlet through which the Cao can go directly into the mixing tank under these two cameras. Mixing sterilized e-environment with raw sludge sludge coming from the receiving tank, with the aim of homogenization biomass and heat use e-environment is used the mixing chamber.

The main parameters of the process is the dry matter content of the e-environment, temperature, pressure and pH. Optimal installation options are the following parameters: temperature 160°C, pressure 6 bar, dry matter content of approximately 30% and a pH of approximately 12.

Exposure period in the module sterilization consists of not is how many phases: 1) filling time; 2) warm-up time in the upper chamber; 3) heating time in the lower chamber; 4) the exposure time at a selected temperature and pressure; 5) reset time pressure; 6) time of discharge; (7) cleaning time.

Fill stage includes the time required for the transportation of e-environment in the autoclave and its mixing with the added thereto silt sediment. The period of filling should last approximately 10 minutes After filling out the e-environment is heated to 160°at a pressure of 6 bar. Heating occurs in the upper chamber, and a final heating at the bottom. The calculated heating time is approximately 30-40 minutes

The exposure time at the required temperature and pressure should be approximately 40 minutes (at 160°and a pressure of 6 bar).

The pressure relief takes approximately 10 minutes, the pressure is in the tank Department of ammonia.

Emptying occurs during operation of screw conveyors.

Cleaning time. The cleaning is done from time to time and is not regulated.

The volume of the autoclave is 10 m3on the module, and the degree of filling is about 75-90%. The volume of the mixing tank 25 m3.

Example operating conditions

RangeThe selected valueUnits
TS10-3030% of the total mass
Temperature120-160160°
Pressure2-66bar
The pH level10-1212pH

In the journal for suppliers registered e-environment will be subject to the following data that enables the control module sterilization: mass, volume, and appearance of the e-environment. Thus, for each e-environment, are fed into the autoclave, you can define:

- potential energy;

- the necessary heating time;

- the processing time;

- the time needed for mixing with sludge sludge;

- essential energy use depending on the form of e-environment;

the degree of filling at a signal from the radar/microwave sensor;

- empirically obtained values depending on visual inspection by the operator.

A mixing tank for mixing the sterilized under pressure e-environment and raw sludge sludge

After sterilization and hydrolysis in the module under pressure-treated biomass, extending, enters the mixing tank (item No. 10), which is in accordance with a preferred variant of the present invention is located under the module, which is the medium under pressure. Excessive pressure (steam) discharged into the reservoir compartment of ammonia to raise the ammonia and to transfer heat to the biomass of the reservoir branch of ammonia prior to its expansion in the mixing tank.

The task of the mixing tank is the mixing of cold raw sludge sludge coming from the receiving tank, hot sterilized e-environment, with heat transfer (re-use of heat) and the mixing of the two media.

The volume/capacity of the tank is approximately 25 m3. For its manufacture may be used any suitable material, including fiberglass insulation. Operating temperature is typically 70-95°C.

A reservoir for liquid biomass

Liquid biomass contained in the tank for liquid biomass (item No. 11), is used to secure production of biogas in the initial phase of operation of the entire installation. However, it can also be used and only when such liquid biomass is available. Liquid biomass can include, for example, fish oil and animal fats or vegetable fats. Can also be used and waste wine and molasses, although this option is not preferred due to the relatively high content of water and, therefore, the low potential supplying energy to birds n is 1 kg of product.

The volume/capacity of the tank is usually about 50 m3and the most suitable material for the manufacture of the tank is stainless steel. The contents of the tank are liquid and solid fractions with a maximum particle size of 5 mm Provided system mixing and heating to control the temperature, and the supply pump (pumps) for fermentation apparatus (apparatuses). Preferably, the minimum temperature was 75°for oily or greasy biomass could be pumped into the fermenter (AIDS).

Tank separation of ammonia and disinfection

In accordance with a preferred variant of the invention in the tank Department of ammonia and disinfection (item # 12) into the following environment:

silt sediment of the receiving tank 1, and/or

- E-environment of the autoclave, and/or

possibly liquid biomass from the reservoir of liquid biomass, and/or

- waste water from the sump or possibly after separation of the potassium (K).

The task of the tank is heat recovery used in the autoclave by heating the sludge sediment coming from the receiving tank 1, the mixing of the e-environment with silt sediment and, therefore, obtaining thus a homogenized mixture at the entrance to the fermenters in regulation is assured a pH before serving in the fermenters, and disinfection of sludge sludge.

Tank separation of ammonia and disinfection separates ammonia (phase I), and the gas is directed in the absorption column, the presence of which usually for the final separation of ammonia (phase II). Pathogens are removed, and the environment/sludge is ready/willing to anaerobic digestion.

Below are described the preferred construction of the reservoir separation of ammonia and disinfection:

Bottom/bottom

- cone-shaped, downward at an angle of 20°from insulating concrete;

- with the weakening of the mixing - removal of sand deposited on the bottom, using the airlift;

- installation in the lower part of the tank sand filter, which can be emptied out through summed up the pipeline. Similarly, through the filter can be drained and the tank.

Top

in the form of a conical design of the exterior insulation and finish polyesters softlevel acid (sealing foam). The angle of the cone is approximately 10°;

- installed sprinkler, precluding the formation of foam in the mixing;

in the upper part of the cone is installed slow mixing for optimum homogenization, the optimal evaporation of ammonia and optimal distribution of heat in the environment;

- AMM the AK on the pipe with the moist air is transported in the absorption module.

Wall

- in the form of a cylindrical structure of a multilayer insulating polyesters softlevel acid (sealing foam);

for heating of the medium inside the tank along the cylindrical wall installed approximately 600 meters annular heating pipes with a diameter of 5/4 inch;

for heat control set temperature sensors;

- to regulate the flow of acid into the environment sensors pH;

- on the pipeline from the pump at the bottom of the tank not on the cylindrical wall has a shut-off valve;

in the middle of the tank has a cone of ammonia vapors. A pair of ammonia generated in the module alkaline sterilization and hydrolysis, is diffused into the environment.

Volume/capacity: inner diameter of cylindrical wall is about 12 m at a height of 9 m, This means that the working volume of the reservoir is approximately 1000 m3including the cone of the bottom.

The exposure time of silt Deposit and e-environment in the aquatic environment is approximately 7 days, and the absolute minimum time is approximately 1 hour.

In accordance with one preferred embodiment of the present invention the bottom, mainly made of concrete, reinforcing iron and insulation that can withstand the pressure. Behavior is knost, contact with the medium are coated with a complex polyester softlevel acid, which prevents corrosion fracture of concrete and reinforcing iron. All pipes installed in the bottom made from either polyester or stainless steel. Top and bottom are made, mainly in the form of a multilayer structure of insulating complex of the polyester softlevel acid (sealing foam). All pipes are made from either polyester or stainless steel.

Other items

- stirrer made of stainless steel;

- the heating elements are manufactured from mild steel with a coating and/or stainless steel;

- all other items are placed in the tank, made of stainless steel.

In accordance with one preferred embodiment of the present invention adopted the following values for the system parameters for the separation of ammonia from sludge sludge: the temperature is about 70°s; pH approximately 10-12; the ratio of liquid to gaseous <1:400, the exposure time is 1 week, with efficiency greater than 90%.

An example of a valid operating conditions of the installation.

WednesdayAll kinds of liquid manure
and sterilized under pressure is
solid or liquid fraction uh-
environment, various liquid
organic waste, Cao
Operating temperature70-80°
The combination of working gases80% of NH4, 15% CO2, 3% O2, 2% other gases
Coefficient of thermal conductivity
insulation0.20 W/m2To
The maximum absolute
working pressure+20 mbar (without vacuum)
The maximum viscosity of the medium15%TS
The pH level5-10
Abrasive particles in the environment
(e.g., sand)1-2%
The maximum temperature
heating elements90°
Maximum power
heating elements600 kW
Applied power7.5 kW at about 20-25./min

Tank separation of ammonia and disinfection of supplies to the input of the fermentation apparatus (apparatuses) processed materials on Fe is the documentation. The material is fed into the fermenters at a time. Material consumption depends on the fermentation process taking place in the fermentation apparatus. Can be used one, two, three or more fermentation units.

Tank separation of ammonia and disinfection regularly filled silt sediment and e-environment, coming from the stage alkaline hydrolysis under pressure. Finally, to obtain ˜15% (15% TS) dry matter content of the tank is controlled by level switches. The unit of measurement TS regulates the content of TS. Every hour after filling the tank silt sediment and e-environment, e-environment can be pumped into the fermenter (AIDS).

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention the top of the tank for the separation of ammonia and disinfection connected with the module, absorption of ammonia (phase I), and the unit of measurement pH regulates the flow of Cao.

The temperature of the e-environment is controlled by temperature sensors. To prevent foaming in the system of watering time water/sludge.

The fermenters to produce biogas

Digestion of biomass is a multi-system, fermentation system, which consists of three fermentation apparatus (items 13, 14 and 15). Can also be applied to systems with less or bolsamania.com fermentation apparatus.

In accordance with a preferred variant of the present invention fermenters are connected to each other, which ensures maximum flexibility and optimum biogas production. The fermenters must be designed to operate at thermophilic (45-65°), as well as mesophilic (25-45°C) temperatures.

The digestion process can be optimized in terms of the magnitude of the load of organic substances, the exposure time and the maximum attenuation (minimum 90% of VS). To heat the biomass to the working temperature coiled heaters are used.

Optimal homogenization and heat distribution in biomass is slow stirring, fixed in the upper part of the tank.

Regulation of pH is provided by the introduction of organic acids (liquid) in the required amounts.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention in the fermenters comes in the following environment:

E-the medium from the reservoir to the separation of ammonia and disinfection;

liquid biomass from the reservoir, the liquid biomass;

the acid from the acid tank.

In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention the design of the tanks could be next.

Bottom/bottom

- in the form to the Noosa, the downward angle of 20°from insulating concrete;

- with the weakening of the mixing - removal of sand deposited on the bottom, using the airlift;

- installation in the lower part of the tank sand filter, which can be emptied out through summed up the pipeline. Similarly, through the filter can be drained and the tank.

Top

in the form of a conical construction of low-carbon steel. The angle of the cone is approximately 10°;

- installed sprinkler, precluding the formation of foam in the mixing;

in the upper part of the cone is installed slow mixing for optimum homogenization, the optimal distribution of heat in the environment;

- biogas through the pipe with the moist air is transported into the receiver.

Wall

in the form of a cylindrical construction of low-carbon steel;

for heating of the medium inside the tank along the cylindrical wall installed approximately 600 meters annular heating pipes with a diameter of 5/4 inch;

for heat control set temperature sensors;

- to regulate the flow of acid into the environment sensors pH;

- on the pipeline from the pump at the bottom of the tank not on the cylindrical wall has a shut-off valve.

The volume/capacity of each the tank can be any/any, including the effective volume of approximately 1700 m3.

For the manufacture of fermentation apparatus can be used, for example, the following materials.

The bottom

- the bottom is made mostly of concrete, reinforcing iron and insulation that can withstand the pressure;

- surface contact with the environment, is covered with a complex polyester softlevel acid, which prevents corrosion fracture of concrete and reinforcing iron;

- all pipes installed in the area of the bottom, made of either polyester or stainless steel.

The top and the wall

- top and wall are made primarily from low-carbon steel;

- all installed pipes are made from either polyester or stainless steel or of mild steel,

Other items

the paddle is made from low-carbon steel;

- heating elements made of low-carbon steel;

- all other items are placed in the tank, made of stainless steel or mild steel.

An example of a valid operating conditions of the installation.

WednesdayAll kinds of animal manure,
silt sediments pig farms.
Crushed energy is a mini
the biomass. Some types
organic waste, Cao,
organic acids
Operating temperature35-56°
The combination of working gases65% of CH4, 33% CO2, 2% other gases
Coefficient of thermal conductivity
insulation0.25 W/m2To estimated losses
heat 10 kW
The maximum absolute
working pressure+20 mbar (without vacuum)
The maximum viscosity of the medium12% TS
The pH level5-10
Abrasive particles in the environment
(e.g., sand)1-2%
The maximum temperature
heating elements80°
Maximum power
heating elements600 kW
Applied power7.5 kW at about 20-25./min

The fermentation should be at about 55°C. the Estimated t is plovie loss of approximately 10 kW. The biomass in the tank can be heated from 5°C to 55°C for 14 days and there is the possibility of introducing acid to adjust the pH level.

The reservoir of organic acids to adjust the pH in the fermentation apparatus

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides a reservoir of organic acids (item No. 16) to adjust the pH in the fermentation apparatus (apparatuses).

A holding tank for degassed sludge sludge before settling tank

After digestion of biomass in the fermentation apparatus and before separation in a settling tank of degassed biomass is pumped into a small storage tank (item No. 17).

Sump

The function of the sump (item No. 18) is extracted from the biomass of suspended solids and phosphorus (P).

In the settling tank fermented biomass is divided into two fractions: (i) a firm, including P, and (ii) waste water.

The solid fraction contains 25-35% dry matter. From fermented biomass is removed approximately 90% of suspended solids and 65-80% R. When introduced before separating the tank into the storage tank of the drug PAX (the company Kemira, Denmark) you can retrieve approximately 95-99% of R. the Solid fraction is transported in containers with screw conveyor.

In the RBU is red water contains 0-1% of suspended solids and dissolved K. The presence of suspended solids depends on the input of the drug PAX. The main component of the drawdown of the water is dissolved, the contents of which approximately 90% of the initial content of potassium in the biomass. Waste water is pumped into the tank discharge water.

Transport system P-fractions and processing

From the sump by means of screw conveyors and conveyor belts, forming a transport system P-fractions (item No. 19), solid fraction (usually called the P-fraction) may be supplied in a number of capacities.

Conventional conveyor belt transports the P-fraction in the repository where it is stored in a heap and covered. In the composting P-fraction dried and the dry matter content increases, thus, up to 50-60%.

The second stage of separation of the nitrogen (N)

It is desirable to provide efficient separation of ammonia from the drawdown of water and bring the residual levels of NH4-N to approximately 10 mg/l or less.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention in the second step steam separation of ammonia under ambient pressure. Department of ammonia is due to the difference of the boiling points of ammonia and water. Ammonia removal is most effective at temperatures of about 100°C. Use the W heating power supplied boot material is an important characteristic. Therefore, at the entrance to the column separation of the ammonia separation module of ammonia heats the boot material to a temperature close to 100°C. This is accomplished by a pair (or possibly warm water and steam) from the engine-generator in the steam-water heat exchanger.

After heating the boot material is fed into the column separation of ammonia and passes through the column is heated up to operating temperature countercurrent freely the current pair. Then gaseous ammonia are condensed in a two-stage capacitors.

Now on the bottom of the column of water that does not contain ammonia, is supplied to the pump level control on the output.

Detachable ammonia is given in the lower part of the two-stage condenser scrubber, where a pair of ammonia are condensed in a counter chilled condensate of ammonia. Unfused gaseous ammonia is subsequently condensed in a counter clean water (possibly with the final stage reverse osmosis). If you want to use acid at this stage, apply sulphuric acid. Thus, it is possible to obtain a higher final concentration of ammonia.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention the condenser scrubber is made of a polymer that allows the use of acid.

Absorption to the pubic ammonia (for use on the first and/or second stage separation of nitrogen (N))

The scrubber condensate is used to provide maneuverability when entering acids. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention the column (item No. 21) contains two sections, the fraction of ammonia that is not condensed in the first section, then condenses in the second section. This is carried out in countercurrent, with the addition of water as limited as possible. Thus, in the condensate at the outlet reaches the maximum concentration of ammonia (greater than 25%). Ammonia can be pumped by a separate pump or may be selected from valve circulation pump. With the introduction of a counter-current water sulphuric acid it is possible to achieve increased absorption.

Tank sulfuric acid

Tank sulfuric acid is used to store sulfuric acid used in the process of separation N (item # 22).

Tank NS

Tank NS (item No. 23) is used to store the detachable N.

Gas storage

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention gas storage (item No. 24) is used as intermediate storage for gas supply, for example, on the engine-generator.

The tank vent water

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention from the output of the sump of the RBU is SNA water is pumped to the inlet of the tank vent water (item No. 25).

The tank vent equipped with submersible water microfilter static actions. The microfilter removes particles larger than 0.01 and 0.1 microns. The membrane creates a pressure below atmospheric, equal to 0.2 to 0.6 bar. Therefore, the permeate is drawn through a membrane, retaining the particles on its surface. To prevent mineralization membrane is applied backwashing the membrane surfaces.

Removing the permeate and backwash are controlled by the microprocessor in the automatic mode. Removing the permeate is interrupted by periodic backwashing, which is performed, for example, within 35 with every 300 from work. Total consumption is 2-6 m3an hour.

To improve the microfiltration is used aeration. Aeration creates shear stresses on the membrane surface, reducing, thus, the mineralization. Aeronauts also waste water, which stimulates the aerobic decomposition of organic matter, nitrification and denitrification. Thus, during the process of microfiltration can leave the remaining smell, nitty etc.

The permeate from this reservoir is used for:

- wash the cattle yards, channels, gratings, etc.;

further separation. Dissolved By concentrated using reverse osmosis, the fraction is stored in the CTD is enom the storage tank. Water for washing livestock stables can also get from this thread permeate;

- potassium may also be concentrated by other means type of mechanical or steam compression. This depends on the particular choice for each individual installation and the amount of excess heat for steam compression.

To remove concentrate detained particles tank discharge water containing concentrate from microfiltration should be delivered at uniform intervals. The concentrate is added to either the potassium or phosphorus from the sump.

Tank potassium

The function of the tank potassium (item No. 26) consists in storing the concentrate of potassium (K).

Gas cleaning

The biogas produced in the fermentation apparatus may include a negligibly small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)that before burning biogas in combined heat and power, you must remove (item No. 27).

The gas is cleaned with the help of some aerobic bacteria that oxidize H2S in sulfate. Bacteria must belong to the genus Thiobacillus, which is widespread in terrestrial and aquatic environment. Can also be used and the bacteria of a different kind, for example Thimicrospira and Sulfolobus.

The tank is made of fiberglass with bits of plastic tubes with large surface area is rinsed with discharged water, which helps to maintain the nozzle in OTL the author state. Biogas is directed through the Packed column and the flow of biogas is added to a flow of air (atmospheric air). To ensure that the oxygen concentration in the gas stream at the level of 0.2%, i.e. at a level sufficient to oxidize the H2S, which prevents the formation of explosive mixtures of biogas and oxygen, is added to the atmospheric air. Applied lateral annular ventilator.

Combined heat and power

The main element of the combined heat and power (item No. 28) can be, for example, a gas engine connected to a generator to produce electricity. The main priority cogeneration is the production of more electricity, not heat. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the engine is cooled by water (90°in the cooling circuit), and the heat is used in a process installation for heating, for example, a cattle-yard.

The exhaust gas used in the heat exchanger to produce steam. Steam is used as the heat source in the technological processes of installation, i.e. in the module sterilization under pressure and in a module separate nitrogen phase II (priority one). Depending on the amount of steam it can also be used for concentration in discharged water (evaporation).

is between the steam circuit and the heating circuit is set to the heat exchanger, with the help of which you can remove heat from the steam circuit in a heating system.

In addition to the above-mentioned heat exchanger is installed steam boiler. This boiler is used to produce heat to start the process, and, in addition, as a means of reserving recuperator.

If the couple is more than is necessary for the technological process of the installation, the excess steam is supplied into the refrigerator.

To start a process in the installation (heating tanks fermentation apparatus)that uses the heat from the liquid fuel boilers. As soon as production begins gas instead of diesel burners begins using gas burners. As soon as it starts gas production in quantities sufficient to start the engine, the main heat source is the engine.

Department potassium

Potassium can be separated from the discharged water is not less than two ways (item No. 29). When relatively high levels of production of biogas engine generator produces an excess of heat (steam at 160° (C)that can be used for concentration of potassium (K). The distillate contains no nutrients, can be used for irrigation purposes or re-used in the installation.

With relatively low levels of biogas production in order to remove particles of RA is Merom more of 0.01-0.1 μm of the discharged water can be used in the particle lter, allowing for the processing of the permeate in the standard filter reverse osmosis. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the concentration of potassium in the solution should be reported to 10-20%.

The second aspect (BSE-prions)

In accordance with a second preferred aspect of the present invention can largely reduce the content of BSE-prions in manure, fodder, slaughterhouse waste, the feeding of meat and bone meal, etc. and/or to exclude them altogether. This is achieved by a combination of pre-treatment and fermentation. As mentioned above, this is the device additional pre-treatment of the substrate containing BSE-prions, for example an autoclave with lime. Treatment with lime under pressure can be used for hydrolysis of a whole range of organic substrates, including material containing prions.

BSE-prions - proteins, resistant to proteases. However, in the processing of lime, preferably at temperatures of 140-180°C, a pressure of 4-8 bar and a pH of about 10-12, prions partially hydrolyzed and, thus, be degradable by enzymes of microbes such as proteases, amides etc. Microbes present in the bioreactors and, because the substrate is separated ammonia and, thus, the content of nitrogen is small relative to the content of the carbon, microorganisms have the ability to additionally produce extracellular proteases and protease capable of hydrolysis BSE-prions. The duration of exposure also contributes to the effective expansion of the BSE-prions.

The third aspect (the concentration of N and P)

In accordance with a third preferred aspect of the present invention from animal manure can be separated main nutrients - nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and recycle these nutrients in commercial fertilizers or organic quality. This is achieved by a combination of elements of the first aspect with decantorului centrifuge.

N and P are the main nutrients silt Deposit, which are often in abundance in animal husbandry. As described in the first aspect, the nitrogen is separated and collected, digested sludge sludge remains phosphorus. However, when using decantorului centrifuges, phosphorus is removed from sludge sludge with organic and inorganic solid fractions.

As a result over 90% of N and P silt sediment collected in separate fractions. The remaining waste water contains some amount of potassium (K) and negligibly small amounts of N and P. Thus, the waste water can be made to the land during the whole year.

Potassium (K) of the discharged water can be extracted additionally joint member is owned by aeration and filtration. In short, ceramic microfilters are used simultaneously as diffusers and filters. Filters are immersed in the waste water and alternate mode of aeration and filtration. Aeration provides the decomposition of the remaining organic matter and sludge inorganic flakes. Thus, the treated water becomes suitable for membrane filtration, because salinity is prevented. Also, aeration through the same membrane (cleaning countercurrent air) prevents mineralization membranes.

The finished product is a concentrate mainly containing It), and the filtered water may be amended in the earth.

As in accordance with the first aspect may also be organized circulation discharge of water through farmyards.

R-fraction can be dried to obtain granules having commercial value. Fractions of nitrogen and potassium also have commercial value.

In accordance with a third preferred aspect of the present invention can, in particular, to concentrate nutrients such as N and P (and K), is contained in the silt sediment and other organic substrates, fertilizers that have commercial value.

However, if desantiruemye centrifuges combined with other elements of a plant for producing biogas and system p is selenia sludge sludge in particular, the separation module of nitrogen, it may be important for farmers. The Association phase separation of nitrogen from decantorului centrifuge means that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus contained in the silt Deposit, is separated and collected in separate fractions. It is important to note that the phosphorus in cereal is in a bound state and must be separated using decantorului centrifuges.

Nutrients can be used and recorded in the land in accordance with the need for these nutrients. You can also organize the circulation discharge of water through the stockyards at the fence on exit decantorului centrifuges. Cleaning of floors and gratings in pigsties is an additional advantage, which provides a good internal climate, the reduction of ammonia and other gases discharge, frequent rinsing of the channels of silt Deposit, etc.

Waste water may contain the bulk (K)and a smaller share will be in fractions of phosphorus. This means that if scenario, according to which sludge from the sludge is separated ammonia and phosphorus, N and P may be stored and used according to the needs, while the waste water can be used as waste water.

Can be calculated so that each year sludge will be made on the1/4the art of the total area of land and 4 years sludge will be made on the total area of the plot.

Regardless of whether or not waste water to be processed additionally, some farmers will undoubtedly want to increase the output of nitrogen and phosphorus discharge using only one reactor for sludge digestion sludge. You can even eliminate the phase separation of phosphorus using decantorului centrifuges, because it is necessary to concentrate only nitrogen with only diluted sludge sludge without nitrogen, which can also be made in the ground at any time of the year, unless the ground is not frozen.

Therefore, farmers may be offered only a separate part of the overall system and their combinations depending on the needs. In any case, for most farmers interested in using decantorului centrifuge for the separation of nitrogen.

In the presence of market waste water outlet of the whole technological process can be subjected to purification.

Thus, the task is to process the drawdown of the water, providing the possibility of using membrane filtration, and reducing its volume by more than 50-60%, as mentioned previously. This task should be solved using well-known, cheap and proven technologies.

The solution consists in the following.

Aeration sludge sludge is known, and aeration in the atmospheric air within 2-4 the components provides aerobic digestion.

Aeration provides the following issues.

First, the remaining ammonia is separated and collected in the absorption column (probably the same as it does on the pre-processing step) in the process of so-called low-temperature separation at approximately 20°C. At this stage, it is required that the ratio of liquid to gas was not less than approximately 1:2000 (Liao and others, 1995).

Secondly decompose the remaining organic matter and elements, emits a smell (Camarero and others, 1996; Burton and others, 1998; Doyle and Noyer, 1987; Garraway, 1982; Ginnivan, 1983; Blouin and others, 1988).

Thirdly, remaining after separation of ammonia nitrifiers with the formation of nitrate (Argaman U., 1984; Genenc, Harremoes, 1985).

Aeration is combined with filtering by using the new technology of processing of sludge, i.e. microfiltration, combines aeration and filtration using ceramic filters (Bohumila and others, 1998; Scott and others, 1998; Slom and others, 1996; Engelhardt and others, 1998). Energy-saving aeration and filtering are performed in a single operation. Aeration is also used for cleaning ceramic membranes "counterflow of air" (Viswanathan and others, 1997; Silva and others, 2000).

If necessary, this allows separation of water fraction using standard osmotic membranes, since mineralization membranes is minimal. This suggests that it is possible to obtain a greater reduction at lower energy consumption, although aeration will need some amount of energy.

Even if membrane filtration is not used, the motive for aeration can serve as the Department of ammonia in the final step, and removing the remaining elements, emits a smell.

A fourth aspect (renewable energy)

In accordance with this preferred aspect of the present invention, the main devices are installed pre-treatment consisting of a tank for the separation of ammonia and autoclave with lime and bioreactors, providing a flexible and multi-stage (at least 3 stages) processing.

In accordance with a fourth preferred aspect of the present invention it is possible to produce more biogas using a wide range of organic substrates, including all types of manure, energy biomass, crop residues and other organic wastes.

Apply pre-treatment in accordance with the first and second preferred aspects of the present invention allows the use of a large variety of organic substrates, while the use of multistage who stop to produce biogas that can be used to biochemical burning of the substrate and, thus, to maximize the energy output.

Enriched with nitrogen and recalcitrant substrates of the type of bird droppings and litter livestock farms are pre-processed in the autoclave with lime. The thus treated substrate before entering the reservoir separation of ammonia and behind him reactors undergo preliminary digestion under mesophilic reactor.

Pre-fermentation provides a decomposition of the readily available organic substances and the transport of nitrogen in form of ammonia in the solution. Thus, most of the nitrogen is collected in the tank Department of ammonia and recalcitrant organic substrate is decomposed into a set consistently reactor power plant. In another embodiment, depending on the quality of the substrate, it before the fermentation in the reactor can be directly fed into the tank compartment ammonia. The result is a large amount of biogas that is usually 5-10 times more energy than is contained in the silt Deposit.

Processing systems for biogas and separation ensures the return of nutrients to agricultural land. Energy biomass sbrazhivaetsya in a separate reactor, and fermented biomass is directed into the reservoir compartment of ammonia. In this tank the ox is the Korean people's army, not decayed during your stay in a separate reactor, will be subject to hydrolysis, and the ammonia is collected in fractions of nitrogen. The nitrogen contained in biomass energy can be returned to earth and used for growing a new crop. You can reuse approximately 1-3 kg of nitrogen per 1 ton of silage.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention from the organic material is separated ammonia, which, in particular, at temperatures of thermophilic regime is an inhibitor of the process of biogas production (Hansen and others, 1998; Cricova and others, 1997; Kashanian, 1994). The ammonia is separated during pre-processing, where the biomass is subjected to hydrolysis, etc.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention process can be divided into thermophilic and mesophilic stages (Tugba and Zhang, 1999; Han and others, 1997; Ghosh and others, 1985; Colleran and others, 1983). This provides a higher energy output and stability during operation of the plant, which is among other things also because biomass is longer in bioreactors, which allows the methane bacteria to break down the substrate. It should be noted that in this case requires more energy to heat, as well as the larger reactor volume.

In addition duratan the th circuit in the installation, you must use another reactor for pre-digestion of poultry droppings and similar nitrogen-containing biomass. In addition, biomass energy should be brozena in the reactor before further processing in the plant. During the first fermentation a major fraction of readily available organic material is decomposed and the nitrogen in the ammonia form goes into solution. Now the nitrogen can be separated in the tank Department of ammonia and assembled in the N-fraction.

Fermented beets, corn, clover, etc. contain approximately 1 kg N per 1 ton of wet mass, and therefore it is important to collect this N in N-faction. Poultry manure contains more nitrogen and before further digestion in the main unit for the production of biogas can also be sbrasyvatsya at the stage of preliminary digestion.

The separation of ammonia and hydrolysis doing recalcitrant fiber capable of fermentation, as described when considering a pre-processing step. Further digestion in the main unit for the production of biogas provides maximum gas output.

The fifth aspect (animals)

In accordance with the fifth preferred aspect of the present invention can be provided with optimal conditions of the animals in the cattle yards while reducing emissions of dust and gases such as ammonia. This is achieved by flushing or circulation discharge of water through farmyards with the purpose of cleaning imita pig, floors, gratings, channels with manure, etc. This reduces the area of surface emission, where odour, ammonia and dust can be emitted into the environment.

The use of this system also allows the use of straw, without increasing the emissions of dust and ammonia. Straw is an essential element, providing favorable conditions, in particular, pigs, and other animals. Its use allows the animals to do the digging and it is used as a structural fodder.

Waste water is taken at the output decantorului centrifuges (the third aspect) or possibly at the output of the first stage of fermentation (the first aspect), is well suited as a means of washing the cattle-yard. In the washing process with the grilles removed the straw and manure.

In accordance with other preferred aspects of the present invention, the preferred may be any combination of the basic idea of the invention with other mentioned aspects. The first aspect, it is desirable to include in all combinations.

Accordingly, from the above descriptions of the preferred aspects and embodiments of the present invention it is obvious that features

An improved method of producing biogas comprising the steps:

1) Department of ammonia containing N from organic materials, including Navo and its sludge, and possibly the phase of the hydrolysis of organic material;

2) feed thus obtained organic material in the fermenter for generating biogas and

3) biogas by fermentation of organic material.

The aforementioned method may also include the step of separating solid fractions obtained in the fermentation process, phase separation is used desantiruemaya centrifuge. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention in the separation of individual fractions P and/or To get in granular form.

In accordance with another embodiment of the present invention, the aforementioned method includes another step of feeding the liquid fraction from the output fermentation installation stalls or farmyards, possibly after another cleanup step.

In accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the phase separation of ammonia, including nitrogen, occurs simultaneously with the step including the step of thermal hydrolysis and/or stage alkaline hydrolysis, or after it, or in any order, at any stage, or both stages are performed at elevated temperatures and/or at elevated pressure, as described above.

Thus, in accordance with one embodiment this is the first invention to solve problems associated with environmental contamination by unwanted microorganisms, including Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, and/or prions associated with BSE, which are present in organic materials, including manure and sludge.

In accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention can solve the problems associated with achieving a sufficiently high level of disinfection in the stall or in the barnyard. This is achieved by reducing the number of unwanted microorganisms and/or prion-related cow disease, which are present in organic materials, including fertilizers and liquid solutions, and/or their complete elimination.

In accordance with another embodiment of the present invention resolves the problems associated with excessive consumption of expensive water in the stall or in the barnyard. This problem is solved by repeated use of the drawdown of the water obtained from the output of the phase separation using decantorului centrifuges used to separate solid and liquid fractions, i.e. from the output of any stage of preliminary processing of organic material and/or phase separation of nitrogen, including the separation of ammonia and/or anaerobic fermentation, leading to the formation of biogas. At the same time can reduce and/or eliminate owls who eat the emergence of micro-organisms in discharged water through further stages of purification.

The present invention also provides for obtaining a cheap fertilizer that meet commercial standards. This is achieved by separation of nitrogen, including the separation of ammonia and separation of granules containing phosphorus and potassium, by desantiruemogo centrifugation after pre-treatment, preferably including thermal and alkaline hydrolysis.

In another aspect of the present invention, a method for reducing the number of viable microorganisms and/or BSE-prions contained in the organic material, comprising the following steps:

i) receiving organic material, including solid and/or liquid fraction;

(ii) reduction in the above-mentioned organic material in the number of viable microorganisms and/or BSE-prions, directing this organic material

a) at the processing stage lime under pressure and/or

b) the step of heating to a predetermined temperature, and/or processing a given pressure, and/or treatment with base or acid, and/or

C) at least partial hydrolysis,

these processing steps a), b) and C) can be performed simultaneously or sequentially in any order, and

iii) receiving the processed organic material including at least reduced the number of viable microorganisms and/or BSE-prions.

Prima is giving way, proposed in the present invention allows to reduce the number of different microorganisms, including microorganisms, animals, infectious microorganisms and parasitic pathogens and any combination of them. Among the examples, which, however, is not limited to the scope of the present invention include bacteria type Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia, Ascaris, like microbes and parasites, and viruses, viroids, etc.

At the stage of processing lime is sterilization of organic material and all viable microorganisms die at this stage of processing. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention the lime comprises or essentially consists of Cao or CA(Oh)2. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention all BSE-prions or other prions found in organic material, also destroyed or destroyed in the process of sterilization. After completing the above processing steps, the number of microorganisms and/or prion is reduced, for example, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% or not less than 50%.

In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention before phase separation of nitrogen in the biogas is used for processing, organic mA is Arial lime under pressure. However, before phase separation of nitrogen organic material treated with lime under pressure, may also be subjected to fermentation.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention before processing plant before phase separation of nitrogen organic material can be stored in the silo. And before separating the nitrogen of organic material can undergo fermentation. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention an organic material which is laid down for storage in the silo consists of forage crops type beets, corn, clover, and may include only the tops of the plants.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the step of processing organic material lime under pressure is performed at a temperature of from about 100°, 250°under the pressure of 2-20 bar, with the addition of lime, providing a pH of approximately 9 to 12, and during the processing time from not less than 1 minute to less than 60 minutes.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the amount of added lime, including Cao ranged from approximately 2 to approximately 80 g per 1 kg of dry matter, from approximately 5 to approximately d is 80 g per 1 kg of dry matter, from about 5 to about 60 g per 1 kg of dry matter, from about 10 to about 80 g per 1 kg of dry matter, from about 15 to about 80 g per 1 kg of dry matter, from about 20 to about 80 g per 1 kg of dry matter, from about 40 to about 80 g per 1 kg of dry matter, from about 50 to about 80 g per 1 kg of dry matter, from about 60 to about 80 g per 1 kg of dry matter.

An example of the operating conditions of the autoclave with lime are the following conditions: a temperature in the range from about 120°With approximately 220°C, a pressure in the range from about 2 bar, preferably to a value of less than 18 bar and the exposure time is not less than 1 minute, preferably up time less than 30 minutes.

As another example, the operating conditions can cause the following conditions: a temperature in the range from about 180°With approximately 200°C, a pressure in the range from about 10 bar, preferably to a value of less than 16 bar, the pH in the range from about 10 to about 12, and the exposure time of approximately 5 minutes to approximately 10 minutes.

The aforementioned method may include many additional stages. In accordance with one embodiments of the present invention Pres is provided and other stages, changing the route of the processed organic material and direct it to the input of the fermentation apparatus to produce biogas, which is treated with an organic material is fermented and produces biogas. Another step is to make the processed organic material into the environment, including agricultural lands. At this stage in the external environment, including agricultural land, may be the remains of the material treated after fermentation of organic material.

Even at one stage before the direction of organic material in the fermenter for generating biogas from it separates nitrogen, including ammonia. This leads to increased and sustainable biogas yield. It also allows the use of enriched nitrogen biomass during removal of nitrogen and further fermentation in the fermentation apparatus. Biogas is produced in the fermentation of organic material released from at least part of the ammonia containing nitrogen.

In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention possible before sending it to the storage tank separated ammonia containing nitrogen (N), is absorbed in the absorption column. In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention before who's the one being sent to the storage tank separated ammonia, containing nitrogen (N), is absorbed in the absorption tower containing water or a solution of acid, preferably sulphuric acid.

In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention features a method that includes the following steps:

i) removing, inaktivirovanie and/or reducing the number of viable microorganisms and/or BSE-prions in the above-mentioned organic material, directing this organic material

a) at the processing stage lime under pressure, and/or

b) the step of heating to a predetermined temperature, and/or processing a given pressure, and/or treatment with base or acid, and/or

c) at least partial hydrolysis,

these processing steps a), b) and C) can be performed simultaneously or sequentially in any order, and

ii) separating ammonia containing nitrogen (N), from the processed organic material;

iii) the direction of the organic material from which removed the nitrogen in the fermenter for generating biogas;

iv) digestion of organic material, from which the removed nitrogen, and

v) production of biogas and digested organic material containing at least reduced the number of viable microorganisms and/or BSE-prions.

It is desirable that the organic material, receiving the nom after digestion, it was not essentially no BSE-prions.

In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention, the phase separation of the ammonia-containing nitrogen (N), begins by adding to the organic material of lime in sufficient quantity, for example, to increase the pH above 9 at a temperature preferably above 40°With sufficient, for example, to increase the pH above 10 at a temperature preferably above 40°With sufficient, for example, to increase the pH above 11 at a temperature preferably above 40°With sufficient, for example, to improve pH to about 12 at a temperature preferably above 40°C.

In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention, the process temperature is above 50°With, for example above 55°With, for example above 60°C.

In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention, the exposure time is from 2 to 15 days, for example from 4 to 10 days, for example from 6 to 8 days. In accordance with one example implementation of the present invention the process is characterized by the following parameters: pH is from 8 to 12, the temperature is from 70°C to 80°C, the ratio of liquid to solid is less than 1:400 and the exposure time faced the t approximately 7 days. Alkaline environment can be created by the introduction of any Foundation. However, it is desirable to increase the pH by adding Cao or CA(Oh)2.

The organic material may contain solid and/or liquid fraction, such as manure and sludge, crop residues, silage crops, animal carcasses or parts thereof, slaughterhouse waste, the feeding of meat and bone meal, including any combination. In accordance with one embodiments of the present invention the organic material contains a maximum of 50% of solid fractions, for example a maximum of 40% of solid fractions, for example a maximum of 30% of solid fractions, for example a maximum of 20% of solid fractions. The organic material may also be in a liquid state and can contain a maximum of 10% of solids.

The organic material may also contain straw, fiber or sawdust, and in accordance with one embodiments of the present invention the organic material may contain a lot of fibers, preferably more than 10% in mass ratio. Organic material can also contain a lot of complex carbohydrates, including cellulose and/or hemicellulose and/or lignin, for example, preferably more than 10% in mass ratio. Processing organic material containing cellulose, lime under pressure leads to the degradation of cellulose organic acid is the red mass, for example formic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, etc.

The organic material may also contain bedding livestock farms or manure (litter) of animals, especially cattle, pigs and poultry. In addition, can be used such organic material, such as animal carcasses or parts thereof, slaughterhouse waste, feeding meat and bone meal, blood plasma or any other product of animal origin, dangerous or not dangerous from the point of view of possible content BSE-prions or other prion.

In accordance with one embodiments of the present invention the organic material contains or essentially consists of solid fractions of length less than 10 cm, for example from solid fractions of length less than 5 cm, for example from solid fractions of length less than 1 cm

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention before processing in an autoclave with lime organic material should be split, preferably using a screw conveyor, equipped with crusher, preferably made of stainless and acid resistant steel. The conveyor transfers the organic material in the autoclave with lime, where the organic material is preferably heated by steam injection or steam in the casing around the autoclave and the news, or using any combination of these options.

The organic material may also contain proteins or similar organic molecules, including elements such as amino acids and their combinations included in the BSE-prions or other prion, while BSE-prions or other prions directly destroyed or destroyed, or their destruction is made possible by using treatment with lime under pressure and/or subsequent fermentation, including anaerobic fermentation. It is desirable that the organic material of animal origin contain a lot of nitrogen (N), preferably greater than 10%.

Organic material in the form of silt Deposit can be obtained by adding water and/or water containing organic material of low concentration, with the content of the solid fraction is preferably less than 10%. The added water can be re-used water, water containing organic material of low concentration, obtained from the silos, and/or water collected after cleaning stalls and/or washing Pets, and/or water obtained from the output of the stage of fermentation before separating the nitrogen and/or water obtained from the output of one unit or more units for production of biogas, and/or water obtained in the process of kontsentrirovanija phosphate fertilizers, and/or water obtained in the process Konz is tiravanija potash fertilizers, and/or collected rain water.

In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention, it is waste water obtained from a plant for producing biogas or waste water obtained in the process of concentrating phosphate fertilizers, or water obtained in the process of concentration of potash fertilizers, or collected rain water.

In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention any number of or most of the urea and/or uric acid present in the organic material is converted into ammonia, and the ammonia can be assembled after absorption in absobtion column.

As additional steps in addition to treatment with lime under pressure can be applied mesophilic and/or thermophilic fermentation. Accordingly, before or after separation of the organic nitrogen material, which was treated in an autoclave with lime, may subsequently be directed to the installation of mesophilic and/or thermophilic fermentation.

Each fermentation is performed by a population of bacteria capable of mesophilic or thermophilic fermentation, respectively. In accordance with one embodiments of the present invention is anaerobic fermentation.

In accordance with a preferred variant of the m implementation of the present invention, the fermentation is carried out at a temperature of from about 15° With approximately 65°With, for example, at a temperature of from about 25°With approximately 55°With, for example, at a temperature of from about 35°With approximately 45°C.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the fermentation is performed for about 5 to 15 days, for example within about 7 to 10 days.

In accordance with one embodiments of the present invention biogas is produced using a single installation or a larger number of plants with microorganisms, preferably with populations of bacteria, and anaerobic fermentation of organic material. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention in the process of fermentation bacteria produce mainly methane and carbon dioxide, which constitutes a smaller part. Biogas can be obtained on the same installation or on a larger number of plants, preferably in bacterial anaerobic fermentation of organic material.

In accordance with one embodiments of the present invention biogas is produced in two plants anaerobic bacterial fermentation of organic material, original fermentation with thermophilic bacteria in the first installation, and then fermented in thermophilic conditions of the organic material is sent to the second setting, in which fermentation with mesophilic bacteria.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention thermophilic reaction conditions include a reaction temperature in the range of 45°C to 75°With, for example, the reaction temperature in the range of 55°C to 60°C.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention mesophilic reaction conditions include a reaction temperature ranging from 20°C to 45°With, for example, the reaction temperature in the range from 30 °to 35 °C. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention thermophilic reaction as well as mesophilic reaction proceeds for about 5-15 days, for example, within about 7-10 days.

Any potential foaming can be reduced and/or eliminated by adding polymers, and/or vegetable oil, and/or one salt or more salts, preferably as vegetable oil, use canola oil. It is desirable that the salt was included or essentially consisted of Cao and/or CA(Oh)2.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the desired flocculation chemicals and particles in the process of biogas production is achieved by adding calcium ions, sposobnastyami bridges calcium between organic and inorganic substances in solution or suspension, these bridges calcium contribute to the formation of flocs of particles. Adding calcium ions also leads to precipitation of orthophosphate, including dissolved (RHO43-), which is in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention precipitates as calcium phosphate CA3(RHO4)2while precipitated calcium phosphate remains suspended in the silt Deposit.

The resulting biogas can be discharged to the gas engine, capable of generating heat and/or electricity. Heat can be used for heating of the autoclave with lime and/or fermentation apparatus, and/or reactor separation of nitrogen and/or one or installation of a larger number of plants to produce biogas for barnyard and/or for heating of residential premises, and/or to heat water used in the household or in a residential installation. The electricity can be sold to the commercial power grid. In accordance with one of preferred embodiments of the present invention remaining the separated nitrogen, sterilized and fermented organic material may be introduced into agricultural land.

In addition: (i) reduce and/or eliminate undesirable microorganisms, (ii) improvement of the method of producing biogas and (iii) provide a very convenient is about to use, sterilized and fermented organic material separated from the nitrogen, in another aspect, the present invention proposes a method of obtaining nitrogen-containing fertilizers from organic materials containing nitrogen source, while the above-mentioned method includes a step (i) collection of ammonia, nitrogen-containing, separated from the organic material on the phase separation of ammonia, phase ii) absorption of the above-mentioned ammonia containing nitrogen, in water or an acid solution, preferably sulfuric acid, and phase iii) receiving nitrogen fertilizer, which can be made in agricultural land.

In another aspect of the present invention, a method of obtaining phosphorus-containing fertilizers from organic materials, including the source of phosphorus, while the above-mentioned method includes a step (i) removal of silt sediment from fermentation apparatus for producing biogas at the entrance of the separator, phase ii) separation of digested organic material and inorganic material into solid and liquid fractions, phase iii) obtain a solid fraction comprising part of P, preferably in the form of calcium phosphate CA3(RHO4)2and organic phosphates, suspended silt Deposit, these solid fraction can be used as phosphate fertilizers and entered into farmworkers who built the earth.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention as a separator, in which the fermented organic material and an inorganic material are separated into solid and liquid fractions is used desantiruemaya centrifuge. Phosphorus-containing solid fraction may be dried to obtain granules containing phosphate fertilizer, for example, by composting involved in phosphorus-containing fraction in the compost under the breathable film or coating.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention waste water obtained in the production of biogas and separated from the solid components can be reused in the silage, and/or during the processing of lime under pressure, and/or in the separation of nitrogen and/or installation, to produce biogas, and/or when cleaning stalls, and/or may be entered into the land, and/or be allocated on a normal installation processing of sludge.

Therefore, in another aspect, the present invention proposes a method of obtaining essentially pure water discharge, with the above-mentioned method includes a step (i) obtain from the output of the separator, preferably decantorului centrifuges, liquid fraction containing waste water with a very limited content of N and P, preferably Maniche% in mass to volume for example, less than 1% in the ratio of mass to volume, for example less than 0.1% in mass to volume, for example less than 0.01% in the ratio of the mass to volume, and essentially does not contain any sources that contribute to the spread of zoonoses, animal viruses, infectious bacteria, parasites or other infectious agents, including BSE-prions and other prions. In accordance with some of the options for implementation of the present invention waste water may contain less than 10% of the N and P originally present in the silt Deposit.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a method of obtaining potassium fertilizers from organic materials, including source of potassium, while the above-mentioned method includes a step (i) drain the liquid fraction from the first stage separation (used in the separation of phosphorus-containing organic materials, as described above) on the second stage of separation, phase ii) separating the remaining organic and inorganic composition of the fluid phase iii) obtaining potassium solids, while the solid fraction can be used as fertilizer and entered into agricultural land.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention in the second stage, potassium fraction is passed through the ceramic is th microfilter, operating in the alternate mode of aeration and filtration of the drawdown of the water, these aeration promotes the decomposition of organic material and inorganic sludge flakes.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a method of obtaining pure water discharge, with the resulting waste water is processed in the system aerobic treatment capable of removing nitrogen and phosphorus and/or reduce their content in water and decomposing remains of organic material and elements, emits a smell, obtaining the drawdown of the water, not containing essentially N and P, in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention waste water, if necessary, be made in agricultural land or circulates through farmyards.

The above-mentioned aeration can be performed using atmospheric air for 2-4 weeks at a temperature of approximately 20°and With respect to liquid to gaseous approximately 1:2000. All of the removed nitrogen may be collected and drained to considered here the absorption column.

Given the possibility of cleaning the cattle yards processed in such a way discharge water in another aspect of the present invention, a method for improving sanitary the conditions of detention livestock stables or stalls, this improvement consists of cleaning stalls receive discharged water. Cleaning includes cleaning and washing, for example, pigsties, floors, gratings, channels with manure, ceilings, ventilation ducts, exhaust air purification, etc. and reduced surfaces of emission of odour, ammonia and dust emitted into the environment of a specific place, including the stall.

Cleaning stalls in accordance with one embodiments of the present invention is preferably discharged water obtained after fermentation of biomass energy or obtained after fermentation for biogas production and separation of solid and liquid fractions, or discharge water received in the later stages of the system.

In accordance with this aspect of the present invention can improve the stabling of animals, using straw as a stable material and structural fodder. In accordance with one of the preferred variants of the present invention, it is desirable to direct the straw containing organic material out of the stall in the autoclave with lime and before further processing to perform the hydrolysis of organic material. Another task of improving conditions for the stabling of animals is to provide spraying animals to reduce the number of microorganisms and dust and fur animals and at the same time to reduce the animals ' body temperature.

We propose a method that combines anaerobic digestion of animal manure, energy biomass and similar organic substrates, as well as the recycling of nutrients contained in the fermented biomass in commercial fertilizer quality, and obtaining clean water discharge.

For this integrated method, described above, requires a system of elements or selection of elements, described in more detail in another place.

The system in one aspect includes:

i) the first device, preferably the pens or stalls for keeping and/or breeding of animals, preferably of farm animals, including cows, pigs, cattle, horses, goats, sheep and/or poultry and the like, and/or

ii) a second device, preferably at least one module for pre-processing of the organic material with the aforementioned organic material preferably includes animal manure and/or silt sediments livestock, and/or parts of plants, and plant parts preferably include one kind or more kinds of straw, grain crops, crop residues, silage, energy biomass and possibly animal carcasses or parts thereof, slaughterhouse waste, the feeding of meat and bone meal, blood plasma, or any product of animal origin, dangerous or not is safe from the point of view of possible content BSE-prion or other prion, and/or

iii) the third device, preferably a power plant producing increased amounts of energy from biomass containing organic material,

this part of the first device includes:

a) cleaning floors, grills, pig, channels with manure channel with liquid waste, animals, and vents barnyard or stable, this Shoe incorporates the use of water for cleaning, and/or

b) the system of transporting water for cleaning may be in the form of sludge sludge containing cleaning water and organic material from the barnyard or stable in the second device,

this part of the second device includes:

a first tank pre-treatment, preferably the reservoir branch of ammonia (i) to separate the ammonia-containing nitrogen from sludge sludge discharged from the output of the first device and applied to the input of the second device, or ii) for the Department of ammonia, nitrogen-containing, organic material discharged from the outlet of the additional tank pre-treatment of the second device while the first tank pre-treatment can also be used for hydrolysis of organic material, and/or

b) a second tank pre-treatment, preferably an autoclave with lime for hydrolysis of elowah the sludge, containing organic material discharged from the outlet of the first device and applied to the input of the second device, with the above-mentioned hydrolysis leads to destruction, iactiveaware and/or reducing the amount of any viable microorganisms and/or pathogenic organisms in the silt Deposit, or part thereof, and/or

c) at least one tank, preferably a tank silage to obtain silouanos plant material containing grain/corn, biomass energy, beet, crop residues, and/or

d) at least one second tank, preferably a tank of pre-fermentation to fermentation of silage and/or organic material after treatment with lime under pressure, in which you can choose fermentation conditions - mesophilic fermentation conditions and/or thermophilic fermentation conditions,

this part of the third device includes:

a) at least one fermenter for generating biogas, on which input from the output of the second device is sludge and/or organic material for fermentation of organic materials at mesophilic conditions of fermentation and/or thermophilic conditions of fermentation, these fermentation leads to the production of biogas, containing mainly methane and/or

b) at least one reservoir for collection of Biga is a, this reservoir can choose to connect to the distribution network of biogas or gas engine, and/or

c) at least one first separator, in which it is preferable to use decanters a centrifuge, in which the fermented material from the output of at least one fermentation apparatus for producing biogas is separated into a liquid fraction in the form of discharged water and solid fraction, these solid fraction contains solid phosphorus-containing organic and inorganic material, and/or

d) at least one second separator, in which it is preferable to use ceramic microfilter, in which preferably the aeration and filtration undergoes further processing waste water output at least one first separator, with the result of the above processing, removes at least some, but preferably a large part of one component or more components, emits a smell, nitrogen compounds (N) and potassium (K), these separation also leads to the formation of discharged water containing a reduced amount of any one component or more components, emits a smell, nitrogen compounds (N) and potassium (K) compared with the number before the separation.

In accordance with a preferred variant the implementation of the present invention, the system includes a pipeline, constituting a closed system that prevents or reduces the emissions of dust, microorganisms, ammonia, air, liquid or any other component within the system.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention liquid fraction or waste water from one or more reservoirs including at least one reservoir silage, at least one container for pre-fermentation, at least one fermenter for generating biogas, at least one first separator and at least one second separator is recycled to clean barnyard or stable.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention liquid fraction or waste water from one or more reservoirs including at least one reservoir silage, at least one container for pre-fermentation, at least one fermenter for generating biogas, at least one first separator and at least one second separator is re-used at any stage of separation sludge sludge system and biogas production for organic material in an appropriate liquid state.

Before applying the mentioned organic material in the tank Department of ammonia to separate the ammonia content is total nitrogen, to the organic material you can add lime, including Cao and/or CA(Oh)2, this can be done in combination with heating and aeration sludge sludge, including organic material, it is desirable to add such quantity of lime to increase the pH to about 10 to about 12.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention the organic material remains in the tank Department of ammonia within 5-10 days, for example 7 days. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the temperature in the tank Department of ammonia maintained at from 60°C to 80°C. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention in the tank Department of ammonia or before the filing mentioned organic material in the tank Department of ammonia per 1 kg of dry matter, organic material is added from about 30 to 60 grams of Ca(OH)2.

It includes a collection of separated ammonia containing nitrogen, from the reservoir to the separation of ammonia, and his challenge to the inlet of the column, in which the ammonia-containing nitrogen is absorbed in water or a solution of acid, preferably sulphuric acid, and may also be provided for the storage of absorbed ammonia in the tank. According the preferred embodiment of the present invention the nitrogen, absorbed in water or acid solution, can be used as fertilizer.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention as autoclave with lime in the system is a device that is capable of separating organic material into parts and then to direct the split of organic material in the chamber, where it is divided organic material is heated and simultaneously subjected to high pressure due to high temperature. Before or after the filing of organic material in the autoclave is added to the lime, including Cao and/or CA(Oh)2.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention in an autoclave is added Cao in an amount of 5-10 g per 1 kg of dry matter organic material. The system operates at a temperature of from 100°With up to 220°With, for example, at a temperature of from 180°to 200°C. the Temperature depends on the kind of organic material processed: choose the higher the temperature, the higher the content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in organic material; or select a higher temperature indicates that there is a higher risk of infection by micro-organisms or disease-causing organisms, including BSE-prions.

the accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention the pressure is at a level of from 2 to 16 bar, for example from 4 to 16 bar, for example from 6 to 16 bar, for example from 10 to 16 bar. The system operates at high temperature for about 5-10 minutes, but can also be used, and longer processing time.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ammonia containing nitrogen, remote autoclave with lime, is collected and given in the column and is absorbed in it, as it was described.

In accordance with one embodiments of the present invention before the presentation of the material in the tank Department of ammonia in the system has a feed silo, such as corn, biomass energy, beets, and/or crop residues, to the input of the tank mesophilic or thermophilic fermentation.

Before the presentation of the material in the tank Department of ammonia in the system may also provide for the supply of organic material from the autoclave with lime at the entrance of the tank mesophilic or thermophilic fermentation.

The system also provides for optimization of the fermentation process of organic material and biogas installation using pre-processing, which consists of unit of ammonia, nitrogen-containing, and/or alkaline hydrolysis under given technological parameters, including pH, temperature, aeration, lifespan is here, suppression of foam formation and flocculation of suspended material.

In accordance with another embodiment of the present invention in the system provided optimal conditions for populations of microorganisms contained in the fermentation apparatus, to produce biogas. These conditions are achieved, for example, by feeding the sterilized or past medical treatment sludge sludge from the output of the tank Department of ammonia to the input of at least the first fermentation unit to produce biogas, while sterilized or decontaminated sludge does not suppress the population of microorganisms that produce biogas from the fermentation unit to produce biogas. In particular organic material from which it is separated nitrogen-containing ammonia, can be directed into the reactor to produce biogas, which supports the conditions mesophilic fermentation. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, after the organic material is subjected to mesophilic fermentation, it is sent to the input of another reactor system to produce biogas, which supports the conditions of thermophilic fermentation.

Conditions of thermophilic reaction include a reaction temperature in the range from about 45°C to 75°With, for example, a reaction temperature within the app is siteline 55° With up to 60°C. mesophilic Conditions of the reaction include a reaction temperature in the range from about 20°C to 45°including a reaction temperature in the range from about 30°to 35°C.

As thermophilic and mesophilic reaction is carried out in the system approximately at least 5-15 days, for example at least approximately 7-10 days, preferably for at least 7 days.

The system includes a device capable of preventing foaming, while these devices can enter, for example, polymers and/or vegetable oils, including canola oil, and/or various salts, including salts containing Cao and/or CA(Oh)2.

The system allows to reuse at least a portion of the fermented organic material from a reactor to produce biogas in the same reactor, while the fermented organic material is used as microbial seed material of a population of microorganisms, providing fermentation.

In accordance with one embodiments of the present invention sludge, comprising a liquid containing solids, can be fed to the input of the first separator for separating solid materials, including limited share of liquid from the main part of the liquid fraction. Mentioned solid fraction contains posford Rashi organic and inorganic material. Mentioned, the solid fraction can also be dried and be included in the fertilizer. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention as the first separator system is used desantiruemaya centrifuge.

In the proposed system, the waste water from the first separator is processed in the second separator, in fact the second separator comprises a ceramic microfilters, in which waste water from the first separator is treated by aeration and filtration, this can be removed the remains of any component that emits the smell, the remains of any of the compounds of nitrogen and/or any potassium components, leaving an extremely clean waste water not containing essentially the remains of any of these components.

The system allows you to take waste water from the output of thermophilic reactor for biogas production or output of the first and/or second separator and send it to agricultural fields, the installation of sewage treatment plant or treatment plant, or biological treatment plant, or, if necessary, further purification.

The system or methods of the present invention may be used:

to eliminate or reduce the release into the environment of dust, microorganisms, ammonia, air pollution, is hidcote or any other substance system, especially from cattle yards;

to improve the use of energy contained in biomass, including organic material;

to improve biogas containing methane and carrying methane gas. The said gas may be stored in the reservoir in place and/or can be directed in a commercial distributed gas network;

to obtain separate fractions of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and possibly potassium (K) organic materials. Mentioned factions have commercial value and can be used as fertilizer in agricultural and horticultural land;

to improve the animals ' living conditions and sanitation in the stalls, and consequently the returns referred to stall. The above returns include manure, sludge and animals sent to slaughter. Clean animals reduces the risk of infectious contamination of meat animals sent for slaughter;

to obtain technologies to remove animal carcasses or parts thereof, the feeding of meat and bone meal or any other product of animal husbandry in agricultural land in the form of recycled fertilizer and, thus, to benefit from micro - and micropatterned substances in animal products in the agricultural or horticultural plant products.

1. The method reduced the I the number of viable microorganisms and/or prions in the organic material, including

i) obtaining an organic material containing solid and/or liquid fraction;

ii) processing mentioned organic material, including

a) the processing stage lime under pressure at a temperature of 100 to 220°leading to the hydrolysis of organic material, while the lime consists of CA(Oh)2and/or Cao, and

b) a stage of separating ammonia from the above-mentioned material, treated with lime under pressure

when lime is added in connection with the separation of ammonia and disinfection of organic material, besieging dissolved orthophosphate, and

iii) receiving the processed organic material containing a reduced number of viable microorganisms and/or prions.

2. The method according to claim 1, comprising the additional steps of removal of the processed organic material input to the fermentation apparatus for obtaining biogas, fermentation of processed organic material and biogas.

3. The method according to claim 1, including the additional step of depositing the processed organic material in agricultural land.

4. The method according to claim 2, comprising the additional step of depositing material remaining from the fermentation of the treated material in agricultural land.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the above and microorganisms are microorganisms of animal and zoonotic pathogens.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the said microorganisms are microorganisms selected from infectious microorganisms and parasitic pathogens.

7. The method according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the said organic material containing solid and/or liquid fraction is selected from the group of materials including manure and silt sediments, residues biomass, biomass, silage, animal carcasses or parts thereof, slaughterhouse waste, feed meat and bone flour, and combinations thereof.

8. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the biogas production increased by heat treatment mentioned organic material in lime under pressure, which takes place before the phase separation of ammonia from organic material in the tank Department of ammonia.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein before the step of separating ammonia organic material that has undergone heat treatment in lime under pressure, is subjected to fermentation.

10. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that before entering on the stage of separation of ammonia organic material of plant origin is ensiling.

11. The method according to claim 10, wherein before the step of separating ammonia past silage organic material of plant origin is fermented.

12. SPO is about of claim 8, characterized in that the phase separation of ammonia is accomplished by the introduction of lime into the organic material to increase the pH level to approximately 9-11 at a temperature of approximately 40 - 60°C.

13. The method according to item 12, wherein the pH is about 10.

14. The method according to item 12, wherein the pH is about 11.

15. The method according to item 12, wherein the temperature is about 50°C.

16. The method according to item 12, wherein the temperature is about 60°C.

17. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the phase separation of ammonia lasts 2 to 15 days.

18. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the phase separation of ammonia lasts 4 to 10 days.

19. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the phase separation of ammonia lasts 6 to 8 days.

20. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the pH is between 8 and 12, the temperature of 70-80°C, ratio of liquid to gaseous fraction less than 1:400, the duration of the phase separation of ammonia for approximately 7 days.

21. The method according to item 12, wherein the solid fraction of the organic material is a maximum of 50% in the ratio of the mass to volume.

22. The method according to item 12, wherein the solid fraction of the organic material is a maximum of 30% in the ratio of the mass to volume.

23. The method according to item 12, distinguish the different topics that the solid fraction of the organic material is a maximum of 10% in the ratio of the mass to volume.

24. The method according to item 12, wherein prior to storage in the tank separated ammonia is absorbed in the column.

25. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the column contains water or an acid solution.

26. The method according A.25, characterized in that as a solution of the acid used is sulfuric acid.

27. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein prior to storage in the tank, the ammonia separated in the step of heat treatment in lime under pressure, also absorbed in the column.

28. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that thermal treatment of organic material in lime under pressure is performed at a temperature of 120 to 220°C, under pressure from 2 to 20 bar, with the addition of lime in a quantity sufficient to obtain a pH of 9 to 12, and the duration of heat treatment in lime under pressure is not less than 1 minute, preferably to less than 60 minutes

29. The method according to p, characterized in that the temperature is in the range from 180 to 200°With the fact that the pressure is in the range from 10 bar to less than 16 bar, the fact that the pH level is between 10 - 12, and the fact that the duration of heat treatment in lime under pressure is between 5 - 10 minutes

30. The method according to p, characterized in that the body is practical material also includes litter livestock farms or cattle manure, swine or bird droppings.

31. The method according to p, characterized in that the organic material also contains proteins, forming part of BSE-prions or other prion, that mentioned BSE-prions or other prions are removed at the stage of heat treatment in lime under pressure.

32. The method according to p, characterized in that the composition of the organic material includes straw, fiber or sawdust.

33. The method according to p, characterized in that the fiber content in organic material is more than 10% in mass ratio.

34. The method according to p, characterized in that the content of complex carbohydrates, including cellulose and/or hemicellulose and/or lignin that is more than 10% in mass ratio.

35. The method according to p, wherein the Cao is introduced in the amount of 2 to 80 g per 1 kg of dry matter.

36. The method according to p, wherein the Cao is introduced in an amount of 5 to 60 g per 1 kg of dry matter.

37. The method according to p, characterized in that before the treatment in the autoclave with lime organic material is crushed.

38. The method according to clause 37, wherein the organic material is crushed in the screw conveyor, equipped with a crusher, which transports organic material in the autoclave with lime, where the organic material is heated by steam injection or steam in the casing around the autoclave, or a combination of these options is impressive.

39. The method according to p, including the step of removal of the organic material treated in an autoclave with the lime in the fermenter for mesophilic and/or thermophilic digestion before separating the ammonia from the organic material.

40. The method according to § 39, characterized in that the fermentation is carried out by a population of bacteria.

41. The method according to § 39, characterized in that the fermentation is anaerobic digestion.

42. The method according to § 39, characterized in that the nitrogen content in the organic material of animal origin is more than 10% in the ratio of mass to volume.

43. The method according to § 39, characterized in that the fermentation is carried out at a temperature of from 15°With, preferably, to a temperature of less than 65°C.

44. The method according to § 39, characterized in that the fermentation is carried out at a temperature of from 25°With, preferably, to a temperature of less than 55°C.

45. The method according to § 39, characterized in that the fermentation is carried out at a temperature between 35°preferably to a temperature of less than 45°C.

46. The method according to § 39, characterized in that the fermentation is carried out during the period from 5 days before period less than 15 days.

47. The method according to § 39, characterized in that the fermentation is carried out during the period from 7 days before period less than 10 days.

48. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the organic is the second material, subject to ensiling, includes forage crops annual turnover type of beet, corn or clover, and the fact that it may include also the tops of the plants.

49. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the biogas is produced using one or more fermenting apparatus using microbial organisms under anaerobic fermentation of organic material.

50. The method according to § 49, characterized in that the fermentation of organic material are microorganisms such as bacteria that produce mainly methane and a small proportion of carbon dioxide.

51. The method according to § 49, characterized in that the biogas is produced using two fermentation apparatus by anaerobic bacterial fermentation of organic material, with the first fermentation takes place in the first fermentation apparatus in the presence of thermophilic bacteria, and then fermented in thermophilic conditions, organic material is given in the second fermenter, where the fermentation in the presence of mesophilic bacteria.

52. The method according to § 51, characterized in that the conditions of thermophilic reaction include a reaction temperature in the range of 45 - 75°C.

53. The method according to § 51, characterized in that the conditions of thermophilic reaction include a reaction temperature in the range of 55 - 60°C.

54. The method according to § 51, wherein the condition is s mesophilic reaction include a reaction temperature in the range of 20 - 45°C.

55. The method according to § 51, wherein the mesophilic conditions of the reaction include a reaction temperature in the range of 30 - 35°C.

56. The method according to § 51, wherein thermophilic reaction is carried out for 5-15 days.

57. The method according to § 51, wherein thermophilic reaction is carried out within 7-10 days.

58. The method according to § 51, wherein the mesophilic reaction is carried out within 5-15 days.

59. The method according to § 51, wherein the mesophilic reaction is carried out within 7-10 days.

60. The method according to § 51, characterized in that the introduction of polymers, and/or vegetable oil, and/or one salt, or more salts, reduces and/or eliminates the potential foaming.

61. The method according to p, characterized in that the vegetable oil is used rapeseed oil.

62. The method according to § 49, wherein the desired flocculation chemicals and particles in the process of biogas production is achieved by the introduction of calcium ions that can form calcium bridges between organic and inorganic substances in solution or suspension, in fact the calcium bridges contribute to the formation of flocs of particles.

63. The method according to item 62, wherein the introduction of calcium ions also contributes to the precipitation of orthophosphate, including dissolved (PO43-), which is in accordance with the preferred option precipitates as calcium phosphate CA3(PO4)2in accordance with the preferred option of precipitated calcium phosphate remains in the form of sediment in the silt Deposit.

64. The method according to item 62, wherein the produced biogas is diverted to the gas engine, capable of generating heat and/or electricity.

65. The method according to p, characterized in that the said heat is used to heat the autoclave, and/or fermentation apparatus, and/or reactor separation of ammonia and/or one reactor, or more reactors to produce biogas, and/or one barnyard, or more cattle-yard.

66. The method according to p, characterized in that the said electricity is diverted and sold commercial power distribution networks.

67. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the microorganisms include bacteria Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia, Ascaris, viruses and viroids.

68. The method according to claim 2, comprising also the step of receiving nitrogen fertilizer from organic material, while the above-mentioned step of obtaining fertilizer includes phase i) collecting the ammonia separated from the organic material on the phase separation of ammonia in step (ii) mentioned absorption of ammonia in water or acid solution containing sulfuric acid, and phase iii) receive the deposits of nitrogen-containing fertilizers.

69. The method according to claim 2, comprising also the step of receiving phosphate fertilisers from organic material, while the above-mentioned step of obtaining fertilizer includes phase i) removal of silt sediment from fermentation apparatus for producing biogas to the input of the first separator stage ii) separation of digested organic material and inorganic material on the solid fraction and the liquid fraction discharged water, phase iii) obtain a solid fraction comprising part of P in the form of calcium phosphate Saz(P04)2, and organic phosphates, originally suspended in the silt Deposit, these solid fraction can be used as phosphate fertilizers.

70. The method according to p, characterized in that the separator is used desantiruemaya centrifuge.

71. The method according to p, characterized in that the solid fraction containing phosphorus, dried to obtain granules containing phosphate fertilizer.

72. The method according to p, characterized in that the content of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the drawdown water produced at the output of the phase separation, is less than 0.1% in the ratio of the mass to volume.

73. The method according to item 72, wherein the waste water is drained into a reservoir compartment ammonia and re-used in the process of separating ammonia from organic material in the tank Department of ammonia.

74. The method according to item 72, trichosis fact, that waste water is re-used for cleaning stalls.

75. The method according to item 72, wherein in the discharge water does not contain sources that contribute to the spread of zoonoses, animal viruses, infectious bacteria, parasites, BSE-prions and other prion.

76. The method according to item 70, including the step of separating ammonia from the drawdown of water in the tank Department of ammonia vapor.

77. The method according to p, characterized in that the separated ammonia is condensed in a two-stage condenser.

78. The method according to p, characterized in that the ammonia is condensed in the first stage counter flow of cooled condensate of ammonia.

79. The method according to p, characterized in that ammonia is not condensed in the first stage, is condensed in a counter permeate output stage reverse osmosis used to extract potassium (K) of the discharge water produced by p.

80. The method according to p, including the step of removal of the separated ammonia at the inlet of the column, which is absorbed ammonia from the output of the first tank compartment ammonia.

81. The method according to claim 1, including the step of obtaining potassium fertilizers from organic materials with the above-mentioned step of obtaining fertilizer includes phase i) diversion of potassium liquid fraction discharged water from the first stage separation of the second stage separation, e is AP ii) separating the remaining organic and inorganic composition from the liquid fraction, the phase iii) obtaining potassium liquid concentrate, with the aforementioned potassium liquid concentrate can be used as fertilizer.

82. The method according to p, wherein the second splitting step includes the transmission of potassium liquid fraction through a microfilter, working alternately in the mode of aeration and filtration of water discharge, and the fact that the said aeration provides the decomposition of organic material and sediment inorganic flakes.

83. The system, which includes

i) the first device, preferably the pens or stalls for keeping and/or breeding of animals, preferably of farm animals, including cows, pigs, cattle, horses, goats, sheep and/or poultry, and the like, and/or

ii) a second device, preferably at least one module for pre-processing of the organic material with the aforementioned organic material preferably includes animal manure and/or silt sediments livestock, and/or parts of plants, and plant parts preferably include one kind or more kinds of straw, grain crops, crop residues, silage, energy biomass, and possibly animal carcasses or parts thereof, slaughterhouse waste, the feeding of meat and bone meal, is the lazma blood or any product of animal origin, dangerous or not dangerous from the point of view of possible content BSE-prions or other prions, and/or

iii) the third device, preferably a power plant producing increased amounts of energy from biomass containing organic material, while the first device is included

a) cleaning floors, grills, pig, channels with manure channel with liquid waste, animals, and vents barnyard or stable, this Shoe incorporates the use of water for cleaning, and/or

b) the system of transporting water for cleaning may be in the form of sludge sludge containing cleaning water and organic material from the barnyard or stable in the second device,

this part of the second device included

a) a first tank pre-treatment, preferably the reservoir branch of ammonia (i) to separate the ammonia-containing nitrogen from sludge sludge discharged from the output of the first device and applied to the input of the second device, or ii) for the Department of ammonia, nitrogen-containing, organic material discharged from the outlet of the additional tank pre-treatment of the second device while the first tank pre-treatment can also be used for hydrolysis of organic material, and/and the

b) a second tank pre-treatment, preferably an autoclave with lime for hydrolysis sludge sludge containing organic material discharged from the outlet of the first device and applied to the input of the second device, with the above-mentioned hydrolysis leads to destruction, iactiveaware and/or reducing the amount of any viable microorganisms and/or pathogenic organisms in the silt Deposit, or part thereof, and/or

c) at least one tank, preferably a tank silage to obtain silouanos plant material containing grain/corn, biomass energy, beets and/or crop residues, and/or

d) at least one second tank, preferably a tank of pre-fermentation to fermentation of silage and/or organic material after treatment with lime under pressure, in which you can choose fermentation conditions between mesophilic conditions of fermentation and/or thermophilic conditions of fermentation in the composition of the third device includes

a) at least one fermenter for generating biogas, on which input from the output of the second device is sludge and/or organic material for fermentation of organic materials at mesophilic conditions of fermentation, and/or thermophilic conditions broge the Oia, these fermentation leads to the production of biogas, containing mainly methane, and/or

b) at least one reservoir for collection of biogas, this reservoir can choose to connect to the distribution network of biogas or gas engine, and/or

c) at least one first separator, in which it is preferable to use dicontinuous a centrifuge, in which the fermented material from the output of at least one fermentation apparatus for biogas production is divided into predominantly liquid fraction in the form of discharged water, and mostly solid fraction, these solid fraction contains solid phosphorus-containing organic and inorganic material, and/or

d) at least one second separator, in which it is preferable to use ceramic microfilter, in which preferably the aeration and filtration undergoes further processing waste water output at least one first separator, with the result of the above processing, removes at least some, but preferably a large part of one component or more components, emits a smell, nitrogen compounds (N) and potassium (K), these separation also leads to the formation of discharged water containing a reduced amount of any one who omponent or more components, emits a smell, compounds of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) compared with the number before the separation.

84. System p, characterized in that the liquid fraction or waste water from one or more reservoirs including at least one reservoir silage, at least one container for pre-fermentation, at least one fermenter for generating biogas, at least one first separator and at least one second separator is recycled to clean barnyard or stable.

85. System p, characterized in that the system includes a pipeline, comprising a closed system that prevents or reduces the emissions of dust, microorganisms, ammonia, air, liquid or any other component within the system.

86. System p, characterized in that the liquid fraction or waste water from one or more reservoirs including at least one reservoir silage, at least one container for pre-fermentation, at least one fermenter for generating biogas, at least one first separator and at least one second separator is re-used at any stage of separation sludge sludge system and biogas production for organic material in an appropriate liquid state.

87. System p, characterized in that the before submission of the mentioned organic material in the tank Department of ammonia to separate ammonia, containing nitrogen, organic material is added to the lime, including Cao and/or CA(Oh)2, this can be done in combination with heating and aeration sludge sludge, including organic material, it is desirable to add such quantity of lime to increase the pH to about 10 to about 12.

88. System p, characterized in that the organic material remains in the tank Department of ammonia 5 to 10 days, possibly 7 days.

89. System p, characterized in that the temperature inside the tank compartment ammonia is 60 - 80°C.

90. System p, characterized in that the reservoir branch of ammonia or before entering the tank Department of ammonia to organic material is added to CA(Oh)2in the amount of 30 to 60 g per 1 kg of dry matter organic material.

91. System p, characterized in that the separated ammonia containing nitrogen, is withdrawn from the tank compartment ammonia and applied to the inlet of the column, in which the ammonia is absorbed in water or acid solution, preferably containing sulfuric acid and absorbed ammonia can be stored in the tank.

92. System p, wherein absorbed in the acid solution, the nitrogen can be used as fertilizer.

93. System p, characterized in that the auto is love lime is apparatus, in which the organic material is firstly divided into parts and, secondly, divided organic material is directed into the chamber, where it is divided organic material is heated and simultaneously subjected to high pressure due to high temperature.

94. System p, wherein the organic material is processed in an autoclave is added to the lime.

95. System p, wherein the organic material is processed in an autoclave is added lime as Cao and/or CA(Oh)2.

96. System p, wherein the organic material is processed in an autoclave is added Cao.

97. System p, wherein the organic material is processed in an autoclave, Cao is added in the amount of 5-10 g per 1 kg of dry matter organic material.

98. System p, characterized in that the temperature of the organic material in the autoclave with lime is in the range of 100 to 220°C, the temperature is regulated depending on the type of processed organic material: the higher selected temperature, the higher the content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in organic material; or select a higher temperature indicates that there is a higher risk Zara is possible infectious organisms or disease-causing organisms, including BSE-prions.

99. System p, characterized in that the temperature of the organic material in the autoclave with lime is in the range of 180 to 200°C.

100. System p, characterized in that the organic material in the autoclave with lime pressure acts 10 - 16 bar.

101. System p, characterized in that the organic material in the autoclave is treated with lime at elevated temperature for 5-10 minutes.

102. System p, characterized in that the separated autoclave with lime ammonia containing nitrogen, is selected and applied to the column, where it is absorbed, as described in p.

103. System p, wherein before sending it to the entrance of the tank compartment ammonia silage consisting of corn, biomass energy, beets and/or crop residues, which, however, is not limited to the scope of the present invention, is diverted into the tank mesophilic or thermophilic fermentation.

104. System p, wherein before sending it to the entrance of the tank compartment ammonia organic material treated in an autoclave with lime, is diverted into the tank mesophilic or thermophilic fermentation.

105. System p, characterized in that the fermentation of organic material and the production of biogas is optimized by the use of pre-processing and, including the Department of ammonia containing nitrogen, and alkaline hydrolysis under conditions that ensure a certain level of pH, temperature, aeration, duration, suppression of foam formation and flocculation of suspended material.

106. System p, characterized in that the conditions for populations of microorganisms contained in the fermentation apparatus for biogas production is optimized by filing sterilized or past medical treatment sludge sludge from the output of the tank Department of ammonia to the input of at least the first fermentation unit to produce biogas, these sterilised or undergone medical treatment sludge does not suppress the population of microorganisms that produce biogas from the fermentation unit to produce biogas.

107. System p, characterized in that the organic material from which the separated ammonia containing nitrogen, is given to the input of the reactor to produce biogas, which supported mesophilic conditions.

108. System p, characterized in that the organic material from which the separated ammonia containing nitrogen, is given to the input of the reactor to produce biogas, which supported thermophilic conditions.

109. System p, characterized in that the conditions of thermophilic reaction include a reaction temperature in the range of 5 - 75°C.

110. System p, characterized in that the conditions of thermophilic reaction include a reaction temperature in the range of 55 - 60°C.

111. System p, wherein the mesophilic conditions of the reaction include a reaction temperature in the range of 20 - 45°C.

112. System p, wherein the mesophilic conditions of the reaction include a reaction temperature in the range of 30 - 35°C.

113. System p, wherein thermophilic reaction is carried out for 5-15 days.

114. System p, wherein thermophilic reaction is carried out within 7-10 days.

115. System p, wherein the mesophilic reaction is carried out within 5-15 days.

116. System p, wherein the mesophilic reaction is carried out within 7-10 days.

117. System p, characterized in that the introduction of polymers, and/or vegetable oil, and/or one salt, or more salts, limited potential foaming.

118. System p, characterized in that the vegetable oil is used rapeseed oil.

119. System p, characterized in that the composition of salts composed of Cao and/or CA(Oh)2.

120. System p, characterized in that the period of fermentation of organic material as under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions is not less than 7 days.

121. System p, characterized in that the part of the fermented organic material from the reactor for biogas production is re-used in the same reactor, referred to fermented organic material functions as the seed material of a population of microorganisms, providing fermentation.

122. System p, characterized in that the fermented organic material, including sludge, consisting of liquid and solid material is given to the input of the first separator, in which solid materials, including a limited share of the liquid, separated from the main part of the liquid fraction, in fact the main part of the solid fraction contains a phosphorus-containing organic and inorganic material and its compounds, as mentioned, the main solid fraction can also be dried and be included in the fertilizer.

123. System p, wherein the first separator is used desantiruemaya centrifuge.

124. System p, characterized in that the waste water from the first separator is processed in the second separator, in fact the second separator comprises a ceramic microfilters, in which waste water from the first separator is treated by aeration and filtration, thus can be removed any remnants to the components, emits a smell, the remains of any structures of nitrogen, and/or any potassium components, leaving an extremely clean waste water.

125. System p, characterized in that the waste water output from thermophilic digester to produce biogas, or from the output of the first and/or second separator is diverted for agricultural fields, sewage water treatment plant or treatment plant, or biological treatment plant.

Priority is selected from 01.02.2001 according to claims 1-125 with clarifications from 22.08.2000.



 

Same patents:

Methane tank // 2281254

FIELD: anaerobic devices for anaerobic fermentation of liquid materials from organic agricultural wastes, manure inclusive.

SUBSTANCE: proposed methane tank for biological gas plants includes horizontal cylindrical reservoir divided by central fixed partition into first and second fermentation chambers, agitator which is common for both chambers, electric oil heater and reversible pump. Reservoir is provided with hermetic partition fitted with gate for overflow of part of material from first chamber to free second chamber with no consumption of energy. Reversible self-cleaning agitator has shaft on which worn strip is secured on blades.

EFFECT: continuous production of biological gas; complete fermentation of material; reduced power requirements; low cost; simplified construction.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: fertilizer contains nutritive substances for plants. Organic substances contained in liquid fertilizer composition are mineralized by at least 95% of amount of organic substances in wastes before being fermented in methane tank with resulting production of humus. Method involves feeding into outer chamber of coaxial methane tank liquefied and ground organic substances of wastes and providing sequential anaerobic fermentation thereof; heating and mixing mass under fermentation process with gas-and-liquid mixture; discharging resulting mass for producing fertilizer; withdrawing biogas from outer and inner chambers; introducing biogas contained in heated gas-and-liquid mixture from outer chamber into inner chamber in the form of dissipated jet streams for mixing of fermentable mass therein; providing first phase of anaerobic fermentation of liquefied and ground organic waste substances in outer chamber in acid medium at pH less than 7.0 until complete decomposition of all delivered and settled fermented organic waste substances of different densities is provided by active symbiosis of splitting (hydrolyzing) microorganisms accompanied with destruction thereby of complex compounds into simpler compounds and formation of fatty acids and weak biogas (carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide); introducing the latter into inner chamber for providing second phase of anaerobic fermentation in alkaline medium at pH exceeding 7.2 with following producing of fuel biogas by means of methanogenic bacteria. Apparatus has hermetically sealed reservoir, bottom and cupola with concentric partition having shape similar in plan to that of reservoir and adapted for dividing it into outer and inner chambers, branch pipes for supplying liquefied organic wastes and discharge of fermented sediments, means for mixing and heating fermented wastes and branch pipes for discharge of biogas from outer and inner chambers. Branch pipe for discharge of biogas from outer chamber is connected through gas line with suction pipe of injector, to pressure pipe of which is joined heat exchanger with heater.

EFFECT: improved quality of liquid mineralized organic fertilizer.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture and urban-municipal economies.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for application in agriculture and urban-municipal economies for rational use of a urban household waste products and different organic agricultural waste products with production from anaerobic fermentation products of used for the power purposes fuel biogas and the high-quality decontaminated from pathogenic microflora, helminths, their eggs and seeds of the weeds mineralized organic fertilizers with a high share of humus and other stimulators of different plants growth and bearing. The method of a serial phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of fermentable organic waste products is conducted in a methane tank divided by a vertical partition not reaching its bottom into two unequal by volume chambers, in the upper part of the smallest of which there is a protected by a perforated fencing loading-unloading elevator of the waste products, where the first sour phase of the fermentation by a symbiosis of splitting microorganisms at pH less than 7.0 is conducted. Products of organic substance disassimilation of wastes products and vital activities of microorganisms are fed in the second phase of fermentation at pH - 7.2 in the form of methanic microorganisms basically in the greater chamber of the methane-tank with formation of a fuel biogas. Unfermentable substances and different impurities without their sorting unload by the elevator from the methane-tank. The technical result is realization of the serial phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of different state organic household waste products with different impurities without their grounding, sorting and dilution; a capability to separate and remove the unfermented waste products and impurities, the fullest disassimilation with production of the greatest quantity of the decontaminated fertilizer with the greatest share of humus, stimulators of growth and bearing of plants and the greatest outlet of a fuel biogas.

EFFECT: the invention ensures realization of the serial phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of different state organic household waste products, production of the greatest quantity of the decontaminated fertilizer, humus and a fuel biogas.

6 cl, 6 dwg

Methane-tank // 2250878

FIELD: agriculture and municipal economy.

SUBSTANCE: the is intended for use in municipal economy and in agriculture for a sequential phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of different solid non-graded and non-ground fermentable organic waste materials of cities and settlements, waste products of agricultural enterprises, agricultural farms, bungalows and households with production out of them of the high-quality decontaminated from a pathogenic microflora, helminths, their eggs and seeds of weeds, liquid mineralized organic fertilizers with a good share of humus and a combustible biogas used for the power purposes. The methane-tank contains a horizontal basin separated by internal alternately not reaching up to the top and the bottom of the basin cross partitions for the gas sections with the gas collectors and the liquid flowing through communicating chambers with draw-off taps, a loading and an unloading connecting pipes, heaters of fermentable mass and a gas pipeline of a gasholder linked to the gas collectors of gas sections. The basin has a built-in chain-scraper type loading-unloading elevator with a drive, which horizontally located one over another working branches with a perforated fence between them and around of them are inserted from the direction of a loading connecting pipe inside the basin below the level of the fermentable liquid organic mass set in the basin. The gas collector of the first gas section is connected with a gas pipeline of drawing the biogas off from the section into an injector interacting with a discharge pump pumping out of a fermentable mass of the chamber and boosting it back into the chamber through a connected with it injector and a disperser of the gas-liquid mixture formed in the injector. The technical result: improvement of the methane-tank design, provision of an efficient splitting of the solid fermentable organic substances of the waste products and the greatest output of the high-quality liquid mineralized saturated with humus organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas of high calorific value.

EFFECT: the invention ensures upgrade of the methane-tank design and the greatest output of the high-quality liquid mineralized saturated with humus organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas of high calorific value.

4 cl, 5 dwg

Digester // 2242434
The invention relates to the field of sewage and is intended for use in the treatment plants of domestic and industrial wastewater utilities, livestock and poultry farms, in domestic biogas and Bogomolova installations rural areas and suburban areas

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used on livestock and poultry farms for the production of manure, litter, and various vegetable waste combustible biogas for energy purposes and for the preparation of high-quality organic fertilizer

Digester // 2234468
The invention relates to municipal and agricultural farms and mainly intended for use on livestock and poultry farms in equipment biogas and Bogomazova plants when they develop different organic waste combustible biogas and organic fertilizers

Bioreactor // 2228583
The invention relates to municipal and agricultural farms and mainly intended for use by residents of the estates rural areas containing animals and poultry, orchard and garden and have always a variety of organic wastes, which can be used for the production of combustible biogas for household needs and high-quality fertilizer for our garden

The invention relates to the field of sanitation and primarily intended for use in agriculture, livestock and poultry complexes, factories and farms, where manure, dung and crop waste to produce combustible biogas and high-quality decontaminated from pathogenic microorganisms, worms, their eggs and weed seeds organic fertilizer

The invention relates to the field of wastewater treatment and can be used for the treatment of sludge generated in the treatment of urban and industrial wastewater at sewage plants

FIELD: medicine, pharmacy.

SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a bactericidal composition comprising active substance based on ionized silver prepared by electrolysis and amino acid, and ammonium nitrogen and ammonium ions also in the following ratio of components, wt.-%: ionized silver, 0.01-0.4; amino acid, 0.1-4.0; ammonium nitrogen and ammonium ions, 0.0015-0.045, and distilled water, the balance. The bactericidal composition comprises amino acid being preferably glycine. Method for preparing the ionized silver-base bactericidal composition by electrolysis shows that electrolysis solution contains amino acid, preferably glycine, and ammonia in the following ratio of components, wt.-%: amino acid, preferably glycine, 0.1-5.0; ammonia, 0.002-0,055, and distilled water, the balance. Electrolysis is carried out by using two silver electrodes switched to the direct current source and in change polarity of electrodes in each 5-600 s, current power between electrodes 0.05-0.5 A and voltage 0.5-20 V. Invention provides preparing the highly effective bactericidal composition.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

4 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves taking things under disinfection into chamber, sealing the chamber, filling it with ozone and making ozone-air mixture circulate. The chamber is degassed after having finished disinfection and the things are unloaded. The chamber is filled and things are kept in the chamber with normal climatic environment factors being supported in the chamber. When filling the chamber with ozone, air rarefaction is created in the chamber and supported until ozone concentration in the chamber reaches 2g/m3. Then, ozone-air mixture circulation is supported and the things under disinfection are hold under ozone action within 2-6 h when the chamber is loaded with 40 to 120 kg per 10 m3, respectively.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of disinfection.

27 cl, 9 dwg, 2 tbl

Disinfecting agent // 2279275

FIELD: medicine, pharmacy.

SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a disinfecting agent comprising the following components, wt.-%: catamine AB, 2.0-12.0; alkacetam, 4.0-8.0, and water, the balance, but the agent can comprise the following additional components, wt.-%: polyethylene glycol of molecular mass 400-1500 Da, 1.0-5.0; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt, 1.0-2.0; sodium carbonate or hydrocarbonate, 1.0-5.0; isopropyl alcohol, 1.0-5.0, and cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.01-0.10. Proposed disinfecting agent possesses the bactericidal effect in the concentration 0.05-0.10 wt.-% at exposition period 15-30 min, and the fungicide effect also in the concentration 0.1-0.5 wt.-% at exposition period 60 min. Invention provides enhancing the bactericidal and fungicide activity of the disinfecting agent and reducing its toxicity.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of agent.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 20 ex

FIELD: veterinary science.

SUBSTANCE: it is necessary to irrigate beehives and apicultural equipment with antiseptic solution followed by keeping all mentioned under the film. As an antiseptic it is applied myramistin aqueous solution at concentration 1.6; 1.8; 2% at exposure being 12, 6 and 4 h, correspondingly. The present innovation enables to carry out necessary treatment of apicultural equipment against fungous disease in bees - ascospherosis.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of disinfection.

1 tbl

FIELD: sterilization agents and facilities in medicine.

SUBSTANCE: sterilization method comprises first-step treatment of an object with 0.05-0.3% (based on active component) solution of biocide agents based on clatrate of quaternary ammonium compound with urea and second-step treatment with solution containing 2.5-3.5% hydrogen peroxide. Kit contains (i) concentrate of biocide agent based on clatrate of quaternary ammonium compound with urea and (ii) peroxide compound.

EFFECT: allowed quick achievement of sterility of objects and suppressed final stage of washing objects in sterile water or other liquid to remove the rest of biocides.

13 cl, 1 tbl

Disinfecting agent // 2277907

FIELD: sanitary and hygienic facilities.

SUBSTANCE: disinfecting agent contains bis(3-aminopropyl)dodecylamine, sodium eyhylhexyl sulfate, nonionic surfactant, modifier, odorant, water, and optionally citric acid and colorant, all components in specified proportions. Invention can be used in various economy fields.

EFFECT: increased disinfection efficiency with wide spectrum of bactericidal and fungicidal activities.

6 cl

Disinfecting agent // 2277906

FIELD: sanitary and hygienic facilities.

SUBSTANCE: disinfecting agent contains bis(3-aminopropyl)dodecylamine, sodium eyhylhexyl sulfate, nonionic surfactant, modifier, odorant, water, and optionally citric acid, all components in specified proportions.

EFFECT: increased disinfection efficiency with wide spectrum of bactericidal and fungicidal activities.

5 cl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: the suggested solid dosed form of disinfectant contains a quaternary ammonium compound as an active substance and/or its compounds as clathrates, preferably, clathrate carbamide didecyldimethylammonium bromide and/or chloride, and additional substance - an acid component chosen out of boric acid, water-soluble acidic salts of phosphoric acids, acidic salts of sulfuric acid. The innovation provides wide range of antimicrobial activity being of high stability, solubility, low toxicity, comfort in usage and transportation.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

17 cl, 8 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves releasing sterilizing agent vapor through nozzle positioned in reservoir opening. The reservoir is cleaned to remove the released sterilizing agent by means of heated gas like sterile air. The nozzle is preferentially positioned 15 mm or more remote from the lower or any internal reservoir surface within the limits of 1/6-5/6 of reservoir height. Nozzle diameter is not greater than reservoir opening half-diameter. When using a reservoir manufactured from non-thermocontracted polyethylene terephthalate, sterilizing agent vapor and cleaning gas temperature rather not exceeds 160°F.

EFFECT: accelerated and low cost process.

71 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: organic chemistry, veterinary science, medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention proposes the compound 1,3,6,8-tetraazatricyclo[4,4,1(1,b)]dodecane or 1,6,3,8-dimethano-1,3,6,8-tetraazacyclodecane of the structural formula: that shows the disinfecting effect. Invention allows enhancing the biocidic activity and to diminish toxicity of the agent.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of agent.

1 tbl

The invention relates to the field of medicine and is intended for use in the processes of blood transfusion
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