Method of production of the liquid heat carrier used as the indirect source of heat at realization of the endothermal reactions and the method of realization of the reactions of reforming of the hydrocarbons

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of realization of reactions of reforming of hydrocarbons and production of the liquid heat carrier used as an indirect source of heat for realization of endothermal reactions.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular to the methods of realization of the reactions of reforming of hydrocarbons and is dealt with the method of production of the liquid heat carrier used as an indirect source of heat for realization of endothermal reactions, the products of which are completely independent on the liquid heat carrier. The method provides, that the flow containing hydrocarbons, and the gas flow containing oxygen, compressed in the appropriate way are fed into the combustion chamber, in which the hydrocarbons are burnt at presence of oxygen with production of the high-temperature liquid medium containing carbon dioxide and oxygen. In this high-temperature liquid medium and-or into the combustion chamber feed the flow containing water preferably in the form of steam. The given method allows to reduce the operational costs and the total power consumption.

EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the operational costs and the total power consumption.

9 cl, 2 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method for producing a fluid coolant, used as an indirect source of heat when carrying out endothermic reactions, such as the reforming of hydrocarbons.

The invention relates, in particular, to method, in the exercise of which a stream containing hydrocarbons and a gas stream containing oxygen, is fed into the combustion chamber, in which these flows are appropriately compressed, and the hydrocarbon is burned in the presence of oxygen in the combustion chamber with the receipt with the high temperature fluid medium, containing carbon dioxide and oxygen.

The present invention relates also to a method for carrying out reactions of reforming of hydrocarbons is made in the form of the reforming exchanger-installation.

In the following description and in the claims under the "hydrocarbon" refers to light gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-C4), such as methane, natural gas, refinery gas or light liquid hydrocarbons, such as naphtha, or mixtures thereof. In addition, under the "stream of gas containing oxygen is air, air enriched with oxygen, or pure oxygen.

In the following description and in the claims, "reforming of hydrocarbons" refers to the endothermic conversion of hydrocarbons in the presence of water vapor. In which the result of such reforming get a different connection, including hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, which are used as key reagents in many chemical reactions.

Under the "made in reforming exchanger-installation" means the special installation designed for the reforming of hydrocarbons. In concept this setting can be compared with the heat exchanger. Typically, the reforming reaction proceeds in a large number of filled catalyst tubes (tube bundle), through which the flow of hydrocarbons and water vapor. Required for the reaction heat is supplied in the pipe through indirect heat exchange with a fluid coolant, which is located in the annular space of the heat exchanger.

It is known that in recent times a growing need to develop such methods of carrying out endothermic reactions, especially reactions of reforming of hydrocarbons, in which, on the one hand, the energy consumption would be minimal and that, on the other hand, could be implemented on simple and reliable in operation of the equipment or on a simple and reliable systems with high thermal efficiency at low capital and operating costs.

Now to solve this problem already developed several with osobov, in particular, ways of reforming of hydrocarbons, which are necessary for the reforming reaction heat is collected by indirect heat transfer from the flowing fluid.

Such methods are described, in particular, articles P.W. Farnell "Syntex''s Advanced Gas Heated Reformer" and Jim Gosnell "New Kellogg Brown & Root Ammonia Process", published in the proceedings of the 44th Annual conference of the American Institute of chemical engineers, devoted to the problems of safety of operation of the apparatus for the production of ammonia and related facilities ("44th'alche Annual Meeting on Safety in Ammonia Plants and Related Facilities", Seattle, USA, 27-30 September 1999).

From the publication DE 4340688 (the closest analogue of the invention, a method of obtaining a fluid coolant, used as an indirect heat source for carrying out endothermic reactions, the products of which are completely independent of the flowing fluid, which consists in the fact that the stream containing hydrocarbons and a gas stream containing oxygen, compressed accordingly, is fed into the combustion chamber, in which the hydrocarbon is burned in the presence of oxygen to obtain with a high temperature fluid medium, containing carbon dioxide and oxygen.

To date, however, these methods, the implementation of which is based on the use mentioned above is executed in the form of a heat exchanger reformer units, the practice is automatic not widely used, because the energy total consumption of such facilities either not different or even exceeds the energy consumed by conventional reforming the settings made in the form of furnaces. In addition, the practical implementation of these methods depends on the decision of new technological problems related, in particular, with the formation of metallic dust.

In fact, such methods, despite the fact that they allow you to increase the efficiency of heat exchange between the gaseous reactants (hydrocarbons and water vapor) and liquid coolant, as well as to improve the efficiency of heat recovery, remaining in the coolant fluid at the outlet of made in the form of heat exchanger reformer installation, have a number of disadvantages, some of which are discussed in detail below.

So, for example, by the reaction of the reforming of hydrocarbons, the purpose of which is to obtain the source reagents for the synthesis of ammonia, the heat required for the reaction of the reforming process, basically get in done in the form of a heat exchanger reformer installation (installing the primary reformer) in indirect heat exchange with hot gas taken from the installation of the secondary reformer.

The installation of a secondary reformer heat required for the reaction of the reforming process, receive direct heat exchange, using the heat, released during the exothermic combustion reaction proceeding in the reformer is installed between the oxidizing reagent and a part of the hydrocarbons and hydrogen.

Since, however, as the oxidizing agent on the installation of a secondary reformer typically use air, and the amount of nitrogen entering the installation together with such oxidizing agent must be stoichiometric for the subsequent reaction of the synthesis of NH3the amount of heat that can be used in the reforming process-setting, made in the form of a heat exchanger, and which for this reason is limited to some fixed value, is often insufficient for satisfactory reforming of hydrocarbons.

To resolve this problem, you can use two currently known method, the first of which is based on the reaction of the secondary reforming with excess amount of an oxidizing agent, i.e. air, and the second on the use of air enriched with oxygen.

The disadvantage of the first method is the need for compression of the air in numbers far in excess of the stoichiometric (at least approximately 50%). In addition, this method requires the creation of a costly removal system of the installation is not used in the synthesis reaction of excess nitrogen, in which p is otelnom case can get from equipment reformer in the outline of the synthesis of ammonia and may have undesirable effects on the character of the proceeding in the circuit synthesis reaction. In any case, this method is associated with unnecessary additional energy consumption for compression of excess amounts of nitrogen and with a corresponding increase in total energy consumed in the reforming of hydrocarbons.

The second method requires the use of special enrichment of air with oxygen, which not only has a high cost, but also consumes a lot of energy.

The peculiarity of these two ways of solving the aforementioned problems is the need to create in the annular space in the form of heat exchanger reformer installation, in which a fluid coolant, reducing atmosphere with a high CO content. In working in such an atmosphere the equipment occurs the so-called phenomenon of the formation of metallic dust, discussed below in more detail.

To reduce the hazard associated with the formation of metallic dusts, it is necessary to increase over the nominally required amount involved in the reforming of hydrocarbons to water vapor, which, obviously, requires additional energy costs. This also explains the need to produce only used for reforming equipment of special and expensive materials.

When using the resulting reformer gas for other purposes, e.g. the R for hydrogen production method, where there is no stage of the secondary reformer, and flowing the heat transfer medium is produced by burning hydrocarbons, the pressure thus obtained fluid coolant in the form of heat exchanger reformer installation should be essentially equal to the pressure of gaseous reactants (which in the case of hydrogen is, in particular, about 25 bar).

This raises the need for compression to the appropriate pressure stream of oxygen-containing gas (usually air), which is in the combustion chamber supports involving receiving a fluid coolant combustion of hydrocarbons, which, obviously, requires a corresponding amount of energy.

It should be noted that this compression use the compressor, thermodynamic efficiency is below 100% and is usually about 70%.

Another reason for the increased energy consumption associated with the need for compression in the compressor very large amounts of air, as accompanied by the receipt of a fluid coolant combustion reaction of hydrocarbons should proceed with a substantial excess of air (about 100%). With substantial excess air, the flame temperature in the combustion chamber is reduced to acceptable values, and obtained it so fluid, the fluid does not damage ispolnennuyu in the form of a heat exchanger reformer-setting, which is the reaction of the reformer.

In addition, in such installations, energy recovery exhaust from made in the form of the reforming exchanger-installation fluid coolant is carried out in the turbine, which is its extension. The expansion of the flowing fluid in the turbine is also accompanied by additional expenditure of energy, because it takes place at a certain average of less than 100% thermodynamic efficiency, which in conventional turbines is about 70%.

The total efficiency of the cycle of compression and expansion of fluid coolant is equal to the product of the efficiencies of the compressor and the turbine and in this case, by multiplying 70% of 70% is about 50%. This means that approximately half of the energy consumed in compressing a fluid coolant is lost.

Thus, if the sum of the energy required for compression support the combustion of the air, and energy expended on the expansion of the fluid coolant, it appears that the total energy consumption in this method of reforming hydrocarbons exceeds (in particular, significantly exceeds) the energy consumption in the traditional ways of reforming of hydrocarbons, based on the use of the reforming units, carried out is in the form of a furnace.

In this connection it should be noted that such high energy consumption, inherent in the process of reforming indirect heat exchange with a fluid coolant, is not a characteristic feature of the process of reforming, and due to the processes of compression and expansion necessary to obtain a fluid coolant, which could be used in such processes.

For this reason, and because of these disadvantages of the processes of reforming indirect heat exchange with a fluid coolant are currently of limited use, despite the fact that the equipment that could be used to implement such a reforming process, has significant advantages in terms of capital investment and provides compared to conventional reforming the settings made in the form of furnaces, the ability to work in a more efficient heat transfer and with a higher degree of heat recovery.

The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is directed is to provide such a method of obtaining a fluid coolant, used as an indirect source of heat of reactions of reforming of hydrocarbons, which would allow, on the one hand, be used for the reforming of hydrocarbons as a reformer-setup and installation made in the form of a heat exchanger and having a number of advantages in terms of reliability and low operating costs, and at the same time would provide the maximum reduction of total power consumption, which in any case is smaller than in conventional reforming processes based on the use of the reforming units, made in the form of furnaces.

This problem is solved according to the invention using a method of obtaining a fluid coolant, used as an indirect heat source for carrying out endothermic reactions, the products of which are completely independent of the flowing fluid, which consists in the fact that the stream containing hydrocarbons and a gas stream containing oxygen, compressed accordingly, is fed into the combustion chamber, in which the hydrocarbon is burned in the presence of oxygen to obtain with a high temperature fluid medium, containing carbon dioxide and oxygen. The distinction proposed in the invention method is that in the high temperature of the fluid and/or in the combustion chamber serves stream containing water, preferably in the form of water vapor.

The advantage of the proposed method associated with the presence of water, preferably water vapor in the coolant fluid supplied to the reformer installation is PP the Sri danger of formation of metallic dust in such equipment.

Specialists in this field it is known that described above is executed in the form of a heat exchanger reformer installation in which the process of reforming and where necessary for the reaction heat is supplied to the reagent indirect heat exchange with a fluid coolant, vulnerable to the formation of metallic dust.

This phenomenon is essentially corrosion, quickly destroying parts of the installation that are in a reducing environment containing carbon monoxide, in conditions of high temperatures lying in particular in the range from 400 to 800°C.

The phenomenon of formation of metallic dust still has no full explanation and is often unpredictable nature. The basis of this phenomenon is the so-called condition of equilibrium of a system of CO2With-WITH, i.e. the reaction between two molecules of carbon monoxide, accompanied by the formation of carbon dioxide molecules and molecules of free carbon. Free carbon in the above-mentioned conditions of high temperature and restorative environment in various ways connected with metals, destroys their crystalline structure and causes local formation of metallic dust.

During operation in the part made in the form of heat exchanger reformer installation, which you mentioned the e conditions (temperature, environment) affects fluid coolant, almost always leads to the formation of metallic dust, especially in those cases where the fluid coolant obtained by the combustion of hydrocarbons.

In the proposed in the present invention the method of flowing the coolant is supplied in made in the form of heat exchanger reformer installation together with a certain amount of water or water vapor. Due to this, in the part made in the form of heat exchanger reformer installation, which is exposed to fluid heat carrier, creating an atmosphere containing an oxidizing agent in a quantity sufficient to ensure that in this place there was no formation of metallic dust, and that this setup had all the advantages, due to its increased reliability and lower operating costs.

Proposed in the present invention the method, which eliminates the possibility of formation of metallic dust, can also reduce the cost in the form of heat exchanger reformer-install, because in this case it can be made of less quality and less expensive materials than similar installations currently known.

The advantage of the present invention the method consists in the possibility to reduce the total power consumption for the of forming energy the most simple and effective way, consisting in a considerable reduction of energy consumed in the stages of compression and expansion necessary to obtain a fluid coolant and pumping through the entire complex is used for reforming equipment.

In particular, when the flow in the combustion chamber flow containing water, preferably in the form of water vapor, it has been unexpectedly found that significantly reduces the temperature of the flame, which burned hydrocarbons, receiving a fluid coolant. The decrease in flame temperature due to the supply of the combustion chamber water vapor can significantly reduce the amount supplied into the combustion chamber and supporting the combustion process of hydrocarbon to oxygen-containing gas, because it eliminates the need for the presence in the combustion chamber reduces flame temperature excess air.

This makes it possible at the expense of even more in comparison with existing plants reduce the amount fed into the combustion chamber containing oxygen gas, the pressure which must be raised to the operating pressure in the reformer installation, significantly reducing costs associated with energy consumption.

The most significant results in reducing energy consumption were obtained when serving in anago pair, obtained by evaporation of water at a predetermined pressure into a stream of high temperature gas and/or in the combustion chamber.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention water is fed into the combustion chamber in the form of water vapor with a gas stream containing oxygen.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention a stream containing water, is injected at a given pressure in a gas stream containing oxygen to the combustion chamber and the resulting stream is heated in such a way that when this happens, at least partial evaporation of water from the receiving stream containing oxygen and steam.

In another embodiment, it may be preferable to heat the stream containing water, and enter the flow at a given pressure in a gas stream containing oxygen to the combustion chamber so that when this happens, at least partial evaporation of water from the receiving stream containing oxygen and steam.

In this case, to supply water into the flow of oxygen-containing gas, you can use the pump with very little energy consumption. Pumped into the flow of oxygen-containing gas, the water then evaporates at relatively low temperatures, preferably about 300°With, using already available on the installation sources of heat.

It should be noted that in PR doctitle the embodiment proposed in the invention method, when receiving a fluid coolant compression is subjected to only the gas stream, containing hydrocarbons and a gas stream containing air, without any compression of water vapor.

The object of the invention is also a method of carrying out reactions of reforming of hydrocarbons is made in the form of a heat exchanger reformer installation, consisting in the fact that the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and water vapor, served in the completed catalyst in the reaction space in the form of reforming exchanger is installed in the space in made in the form of heat exchanger reformer is installed next to the reaction space, serves fluid coolant containing water is preferably in the form of water vapor, and components of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons, is subjected to catalytic interaction in the process of indirect heat exchange with a fluid coolant with getting gas stream containing hydrogen. The difference of this method is the use of a fluid heat carrier received proposed in the invention method, which is discussed above.

Another object of the invention is the use of water preferably in the form of water vapor in the method of obtaining a fluid coolant, used as an indirect heat source for carrying out endothermic reactions, such as reaction of the reforming of hydrocarbons. The fluid talonite the also get proposed in the invention method.

In other words, in accordance with the present invention, the feed stream containing water in the form of water vapor, either in the combustion chamber or directly in the flowing out of the combustion chamber and having a high temperature fluid coolant is not associated with conspicuous consumption, because the water vapor produced by evaporation of water at a given pressure, i.e. by evaporation of the pumped water pump, the pressure of which essentially corresponds to the process pressure (reformer).

In addition, the subsequent expansion of the fluid coolant, which occurs after the indirect heat exchange, allows to achieve significant cost savings associated with energy costs, and significantly increase in comparison with the known method thermodynamic efficiency of the cycle.

Water vapor contained in the liquid coolant, which is obtained at low energy consumption, expanding along with the remnants of the waste (passed through a heat exchanger gases and significantly increasing the volume flow of fluid coolant, promotes more efficient energy recovery.

In the above-mentioned preferred embodiment proposed in the invention method of producing a fluid coolant and due to the presence of water vapor in the stream of oxygen-containing gas to the second sustain combustion of hydrocarbons, provides a noticeable increase in thermodynamic efficiency of the cycle at different stages of compression and expansion required to obtain and pumping a fluid coolant in a closed loop setup. This feature proposed in the invention of this method is shown, in particular, in a noticeable reduction of the energy consumption.

As a result of the research it was found that when receiving the same amount of gaseous reagents required for the synthesis of ammonia, proposed in the invention method allows comparison with the above-mentioned currently known ways to reduce approximately 20% of the consumption of hydrocarbons (methane) in the process of combustion when receiving a fluid coolant. The decrease in the number to be burning, and hence subjected to compression hydrocarbons allows comparison with the known methods to reduce approximately 65% of the power required for compression of the stream containing oxygen gas, reducing accordingly and costs associated with energy consumption, and investment.

Despite the fact that the processes of reforming based on indirect heat exchange with a fluid coolant, and appropriate technology use is made in the form of heat exchangers, repo the Ming installations are already known in the past few decades, and despite the ever-growing need to develop highly efficient from the point of view of energy consumption ways of reforming of hydrocarbons only after research, which is inherently contradict existing at present in this area recommendations, managed to develop a way with the full range of advantages listed above. The proposed method allows to obtain a substantial reduce cost of energy flowing coolant, which can be used as an intermediate source of heat for the reforming of hydrocarbons, and at the same time helps to protect used for reforming equipment from the danger of formation of metallic dust, thereby eliminating simple and effective way above disadvantages of the known methods.

Other distinctive features and advantages of the present invention is described in more detail below using the example of one possible implementation does not limit the invention, with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Attached to the description of the drawings shows:

figure 1 - schematic diagram of the process of reforming of hydrocarbons, carried out by indirect heat exchange with a fluid coolant, while the drawing shows the technology is Kai scheme is preferred variant of the proposed method of obtaining such a fluid coolant, and

figure 2 - longitudinal incision is made in the form of the reforming exchanger-installation.

According to the shown in figure 1 process flow 1 process of reforming of hydrocarbons required for the reforming reaction heat produced in the process of indirect heat exchange with a fluid coolant.

The present invention consists, in particular, the process of reforming of hydrocarbons, which consists in the conversion of hydrocarbons in the basic chemical compounds, such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and the process of obtaining a fluid coolant, which is used as a heat source in the process of reforming of hydrocarbons. Both of these processes are closely interrelated with each other and so are considered together, being United in a single technological scheme of the process of reforming marked on the figure 1 position 1.

Figure 1 shows only the basic technological stages proposed in the present invention a method and not shown in detail, irrelevant to the practical implementation and/or already known to specialists in this field of technology.

The main stages of the process, directly related to reforming of hydrocarbons, are depicted in figure 1 the blocks 10, 11 and 12, which are connected by a connecting master of the members 1, 2, 2A, 3 and 4.

In units of 10-12 are, in particular, the process of obtaining water vapor (block 10), the compression process flow of hydrocarbons (block 11) and the process of reforming of hydrocarbons (block 12).

Through the connecting highways are respectively the gas stream containing water vapor (line 1), a stream containing hydrocarbons (line 2, 2A), a stream containing hydrocarbons and water vapor (line 3), and the gas stream containing hydrogen (line 4).

The process of obtaining water vapor (block 10) is essentially in obtaining any associated with the process of reforming the way water vapor, which is necessary for the reforming pressure. Usually this water vapor has a pressure of from 2 to 100 bar and a temperature of from 120 to 600°C. Obviously, in the proposed invention the method you can use steam from an external source, not directly associated with the process of reforming.

In the example shown in figure 1, as the gas stream containing hydrocarbons (line 2), a gas containing light gaseous hydrocarbons (preferably C1-C4), such as methane or natural gas.

Prior to mixing with the stream containing water vapor (line 1), and is fed to the reforming process (block 12, line 3), containing the hydrocarbon stream is typically compressed at the stage of compression, conventionally zobrazeno on the scheme in the form of block 11.

In this regard, it should be noted that the compression of hydrocarbons (block 11) is provided with a compressor, creating pressure is preferably from 2 to 100 bar.

Depending on the purity and temperature of the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas in the technological scheme of the process in question can be optionally included (known and therefore not shown in the figure) stage heating gas desulphurization.

In block 12 in entering into it (line 3) the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and water vapor, there are various reactions of reforming and conversion, accompanied by the decomposition of hydrocarbons on the basic compounds, such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

Before getting into the block 12, in which the reforming of hydrocarbons, the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and water vapor, it is possible at the stage of pre-heating (in the usual way, which is shown in figure 1 diagram not shown) heated to the reaction temperature.

The reforming of hydrocarbons (block 12) is made in the form of heat exchanger reformer installation (or in the heat of the furnace reformer), the construction of which is schematically shown in figure 2, are well known and therefore requires no detailed description. An example of such installation is, in particular, the setup described in EP-A 084301.

A similar facility is filled with a catalyst of the reaction space, which is usually formed by a bundle of tubes and through which passes the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and water vapor.

In coming out of the reformer installation (unit 12) the gas stream contains, in addition to hydrogen obtained by reforming monoxide and/or carbon dioxide. The highway on which flows the stream of exhaust from the reformer installation of gas indicated on the diagram position 4. Depending on the composition emerging from the reformer installation of gas flowing through line 4, it can be used as the primary reagent for the future of various chemical reactions.

The flow of exhaust from the reformer installation (unit 12) through line 4 containing hydrogen gas, in some cases, cooled by one or more threads of the cooler, taking away from it suitable for further use heat and condensing the contained water vapor.

Obtained after cooling of the water vapor in the condensation of water it is advisable to use as condensate or process water in the process of receiving a fluid coolant proposed in the invention and described in detail below.

Main stages proposed in the invention, a method of obtaining fluid heat is osites are carried out in blocks 11, 20-24 (figure 1), which are connected by a connecting highways 2, 2b, 5-9.

In blocks 20-24 is carried out, in particular, the compression of the gas stream containing oxygen (block 20), the storage of water necessary to obtain a fluid heat carrier (block 21), the heat flow containing oxygen and water (block 22), the mixing of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons with the stream containing oxygen and water, and the combustion of the mixture (block 23), as well as the expansion of the fluid heat carrier (block 24).

In block 11 is already described above when considering the process of reforming the process of compressing the gas stream containing hydrocarbons.

In the above-mentioned connecting highways are respectively the gas stream containing hydrocarbons (highway 2 and 2b), the gas stream containing oxygen (line 5), the stream containing water (line 6), the stream containing oxygen and water (line 7), the gas stream containing oxygen and water vapor (line 8), and the fluid heat carrier (line 9).

The gas stream containing hydrocarbons, is served by routes 2 and 2b, in block 23, in which the combustion of hydrocarbons, similar to those described above for the combustion process (highway 2 and 2A) during the reforming of hydrocarbons (block 12).

In fact, as shown in figure 1, after compression (block 11) part of the flow of hydrocarbons and the highway 2 and highway 2A is given in line 1, in which the hydrocarbons are mixed with the flowing through her stream containing water and with the water coming down the highway 3 in block 12. The rest of the stream containing hydrocarbons (line 2b), is used as fuel in the block 23.

Usually the portion of the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas, which is supplied to the reformer (highway 2A), twice the portion of the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas which is fed to the unit in which the combustion of hydrocarbons (line 2b).

With regard to the composition, pressure and temperature of the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas, through line 2b is served in the block 23, these parameters are similar to those discussed above in relation to flows passing on highways 2 and 2A and processed in block 11.

It is obvious that proposed in the invention method, depending on the specific need the ability to use two separate streams containing hydrocarbon gas with a different composition and with different temperature and pressure. In this case (this option is not shown in figure 1) may be necessary to conduct two separate stages of compression containing hydrocarbon gas.

In the example shown in figure 1, as the oxygen-containing gas (line 5) air is used.

The stream flowing through mA is istruly 5 air supporting the combustion process (block 23), pre-compressed (block 20) to the pressure required for combustion stream containing hydrocarbon gas.

To compress the air in the unit 20 uses a compressor in which the air pressure is increased preferably to 2-100 bar.

Typically, the compression of the stream containing oxygen gas (line 5) and the stream containing the hydrocarbon gas is carried out so that the pressure of the received fluid coolant was essentially equivalent to the pressure of the raw materials fed to the reformer installation (block 12).

In the preferred embodiment proposed in the present invention a method (scheme shown in figure 1) stream containing water (line 6), which comes from the appropriate source, shown as block 21, is mixed with a stream of pre-compressed (block 20) gas (air).

Necessary for the implementation of the proposed method water can be fed from the outside, nothing to do with the process of reforming of the source or, preferably, to be used for this purpose water received on the equipment, directly participating in the process of reforming, for example, the condensate obtained by cooling the stream containing hydrogen gas selected from the reformer installation (unit 1).

In any case, the water supplied to the installation of the block 21 must have a certain pressure corresponding to the pressure of the air stream in line 5. In this case, water is supplied by the pump flows through line 5, the flow of air under pressure essentially equal to the pressure of the air out of the unit 20.

Containing air and water flow (line 7), obtained after combining streams flowing along highways 5 and 6, preferably heated (block 22), and finally after evaporation of at least part of the contained water from it receive a gas stream containing air and water steam (line 8).

The best in this respect, the results were obtained by complete evaporation of the water supplied to the air flow through line 7 at a relatively low temperature, which lies, for example, in the range from 100 to 300°C.

Unit 22, which is heated stream containing air and water vapor, can be performed in the form of one or more conventional heat exchangers, not shown in the diagram. Preferably in such a scheme to improve the efficiency of heat transfer to use multiple heat exchangers connected in series.

The evaporation of water one way or another are at different stages of the process, in particular in the combustion chamber during mixing supports rivalshigh the combustion air with hydrocarbons or even during combustion of hydrocarbons.

On line 7 to heat passing through her stream, you can install one or more heat exchangers. As a coolant, designed to heat the gas stream containing air and water, in such heat exchangers useful in more detail below, the fluid coolant flowing into the heat exchanger through line 9.

A gas flow consisting of air or steam flowing through line 8), then mix with (flowing through line 2b) a gas stream containing hydrocarbons, in block 23, in which, after combustion of the hydrocarbons get with the high temperature fluid stream flowing in line 9).

In another embodiment proposed in the invention method, the scheme of which is not shown, the flow of hydrocarbons and a stream of oxygen-containing gas are pre-mixed with each other and only then fed to the combustion chamber.

In other and not reflected in the diagram options proposed in the invention method, the flow of water is preferably in the form of water vapor coming out of the block 21, is mixed with (flowing through line 2b) flow of hydrocarbons or directly fed into the combustion chamber (block 23), or even the stream of exhaust from the combustion chamber having a high temperature flue g the call (line 9).

Unit 23, in which the combustion of a mixture of hydrocarbons and air, usually done in the form of a combustion chamber equipped with one or more located inside burners.

Received in block 23 of the fluid coolant enters from it (line 9) in the reforming process-setting (block 12), in which it is used as an indirect heat source for the reforming of hydrocarbons.

The temperature of the fluid coolant received in block 23, which typically ranges from 1400 to 1800°C, preferably about 1500°C.

The received liquid coolant is a essentially a gas stream containing, inter alia, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen.

Received proposed in the present invention by way of fluid coolant also contains water preferably in the form of water vapor. The presence of water in the coolant fluid, which is used for the reforming of hydrocarbons (in block 12, in which it is fed through line 9), allows you to create a reforming process-setting the atmosphere, the contents in which the oxidant is sufficient to eliminate the danger of formation of metallic dust. Such dangers as mentioned above, subject to almost all currently known in the form of reforming exchangers installation, designed for the reforming process in which leogardo.

To such advantage in the invention method are added and all of the above benefits associated with improving the efficiency of thermodynamic cycle of compression and expansion of fluid coolant, as well as reducing energy consumption.

The best results were obtained when water is preferably in the form of water vapor in the combustion chamber (block 23) and/or with a high temperature stream of gas emerging from the combustion chamber (on line 9), in an amount constituting from 0.1 to 0.7 on the number of oxygen-containing gas.

The temperature coming out of the unit 12 (on line 9) fluid coolant is lower than the temperature at the entrance to the block 12, which is necessary for the reforming of hydrocarbons, the process of heat exchange.

However, this temperature of the fluid coolant is sufficiently high (500-800° (C)that, in accordance with a preferred variant of the present invention to allow the heat (indirect heat) and subsequent evaporation of the water contained in the gas stream entering the unit 22 through line 7, as shown in figure 1.

Coming out of the block 22 (highway 9) flowing the coolant finally cooled in the expansion process (block 24), thereby giving useful in this case, the energy spent in compression with the holding of the hydrocarbon gas and gas containing oxygen (air).

In block 24 has at least one turbine, in which occurs the necessary expansion of the fluid coolant.

Due to the presence in the fluid coolant vapor flow expanding in the turbine gas in the proposed invention in the way much more than in the known methods, and therefore proposed in the invention the method is characterized by a higher thermodynamic efficiency, and its implementation is less energy.

The greatest effect associated with the presence of water in the fluid carrier is achieved by using a shown in figure 1 of the schema in which stage of the preliminary compression of the water vapor is absent, and the water vapor produced by evaporation of water at a specified pressure.

After cooling and expansion of the fluid coolant (line 9) or discharged into the atmosphere or condensed to select from it for further use contained in the water.

In this regard, it should be noted that during the ejection of the spent fluid coolant into the atmosphere, the content of various polluting impurities, such as nitric oxide, should be very minimal, aided by the presence in the combustion chamber of the water, which significantly Ogre is to limit the formation of such compounds.

After appropriate cleaning gas obtained by the reforming of hydrocarbons and containing, inter alia, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (line 4), can be used as the primary source of product for the chemical synthesis of various compounds, such as ammonia and methanol. This is obtained by reforming hydrocarbon gas can also be used after proper cleaning and to obtain as pure hydrogen and/or pure carbon monoxide, and other various purposes.

It should be noted that when using the received gas for ammonia synthesis, it can without any further processing to send to the secondary reformer. It should also be noted that when the secondary reformer is not necessary in the presence of a stoichiometric excess of air or to use air, enriched with oxygen, which, obviously, reduces costs and energy costs.

The diagram shown in figure 1, shows a block 30, which is designed to hold an appropriate stage or stages of the synthesis of the obtained product, which is withdrawn from the unit 30 through line 31. Such stages of the technological process of synthesis of a final product is well known to specialists in this field and therefore do not require detailed description of the deposits.

In another embodiment proposed in the invention of the method for combustion of hydrocarbons using a gas flow containing air supporting the combustion process and fed into the combustion chamber through line 5), enriched with water vapor by the method of adiabatic saturation.

In this embodiment, the process of combustion is the heat flow containing water, and in its introduction to the combustion chamber at a certain predetermined pressure in a stream of oxygen-containing gas (line 5)that is accompanied by at least partial evaporation of the water and the receiving stream containing oxygen and steam.

To increase to the maximum amount of water evaporated in a stream of oxygen-containing gas, it is preferable that this thread was properly heated.

For carrying out the present invention method does not matter the method of enrichment of water vapor of the gas stream containing air, which may be different from those described above.

In this connection it should be emphasized that shown in figure 1 as an example variant of the proposed method should only be considered as preferred and not limiting the scope of invention.

Another object of the present invention is a method of reforming hydrocarbons is birth in made in the form of heat exchanger reformer installation, which in the example shown in figure 2 and corresponds to the block 12 of the circuit of figure 1.

Proposed in the invention is a method of reforming hydrocarbons is that the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and water vapor, are served (on line 3) filled with a catalyst of the reaction space 25 inside is made in the form of a heat exchanger reformer installation 12, the fluid coolant is served (on line 9) in the space 26 located inside made in the form of heat exchanger reformer installation 12 next to the reaction space, and the components of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons, is subjected to catalytic interaction under the influence of heat applied in the process of indirect heat exchange with a fluid heat carrier, receiving a gas stream containing hydrogen (line 4). This method is characterized in that the liquid coolant (line 9) contains water preferably in the form of water vapor.

All the advantages of the proposed method associated with the presence of water vapor in the coolant fluid, discussed in detail above.

Preferably the fluid coolant get in the way described above, in particular as described above, the technological scheme of which is shown in figure 1.

In the most preferred and possessing the greatest advantage of the method of reforming the hydrocarbons is also provided a cooling fluid coolant, coming out is made in the form of a heat exchanger reformer installation (on line 9), by the method of indirect heat exchange with oxygen-containing and/or water flow (line 7), which is fed into the combustion chamber (block 23).

Such cooling fluid coolant is stage heat containing air and water flow carried out is shown in figure 1 is the block 23.

Another object of the invention is the use of water preferably in the form of water vapor in the process of receiving a fluid coolant, used as an indirect source of heat when carrying out endothermic reactions, such as the reforming of hydrocarbons. All the features associated with the use of water for these purposes, and achieved the benefits discussed in detail in the above description.

Summarizing the above, it can be noted that, in the invention, the solution allows you to achieve a number of advantages. Thus, in particular, in the invention, a method for receiving a fluid coolant, which can be used as an effective and help reduce energy costs source of heat of reactions of reforming of hydrocarbons and which at its very easy implementation and high reliability does not require substantial capital investment and about the while in low operating costs.

1. A method of obtaining a fluid coolant, used as an indirect heat source for carrying out endothermic reactions, the products of which are completely independent of the flowing fluid, which consists in the fact that the stream containing hydrocarbons and a gas stream containing oxygen, compressed accordingly, is fed into the combustion chamber, in which the hydrocarbon is burned in the presence of oxygen to obtain with a high temperature fluid medium, containing carbon dioxide and oxygen, characterized in that with the high temperature fluid medium and/or in the combustion chamber serves stream containing water, preferably in the form of water vapor.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the quantity of supplied water is from 0.1 to 0.7 from the amount of gas containing oxygen.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a stream containing water, having served in the high temperature of the fluid and/or in the combustion chamber in the form of water vapor, obtained by evaporation of the water flow at a given pressure.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a stream containing water, is fed into the combustion chamber in the form of water vapor with a gas stream containing oxygen.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that a stream containing water, is injected at a given pressure in a gas stream containing oxygen is, to the combustion chamber and the resulting stream is heated in such a way that when this happens at least partial evaporation of water from the receiving stream containing oxygen and steam.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the heated air stream containing water and the heated stream, containing water, is injected at a given pressure in a gas stream containing oxygen to the combustion chamber so that when this happens, at least partial evaporation of water from the receiving stream containing oxygen and steam.

7. The method of carrying out reactions of reforming of hydrocarbons is made in the form of a heat exchanger reformer installation, consisting in the fact that the gas stream containing hydrocarbons and water vapor, served in the completed catalyst in the reaction space (25) is designed as a heat exchanger reformer is installed in the space (26), which is made in the form of the reforming exchanger is installed next to the reaction space (25), served flowing a fluid containing water, preferably in the form of water vapor, and components of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons, is subjected to catalytic interaction in the process of indirect heat exchange with a fluid coolant with receiving the gas stream containing hydrogen, wherein the fluid coolant get way p is any of claims 1 to 6.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the fluid coolant coming out in the form of heat exchanger reformer installation, is cooled by indirect heat exchange with oxygen-containing and/or water flow, which is fed into the combustion chamber.

9. The use of water, preferably in the form of water vapor, in the method of obtaining a fluid coolant, used as an indirect heat source for carrying out endothermic reactions, such as reaction of the reforming of hydrocarbons, and liquid coolant receive a method according to any one of claims 1 to 6.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to substances providing irreversible chemical reactions accompanying with evolving heat. The composition comprises components taken in the following ratio, wt.-%: glycerol, 23-35; potassium permanganate, 4-5, and water, the balance. Glycerol and potassium permanganate in preparing the composition are used as aqueous solutions. Invention provides minimizing the amount of evolving gas. Invention can be used in food industry and for treatment of the hole critical zone also.

EFFECT: valuable properties of composition.

3 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: biotechnological methods and alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns methods and means for production of hydrogen and carbon dioxide from brown algae for use under hydrogen power engineering conception using modern biotechnological techniques. Method according to invention resides in that feed biomass is provided by brown algae, which are gathered in Sargasso sea with the aid of trawler collectors and supplied to mother ship. At the latter, algae are processed into methane with the aid of biological enzymes and then methane undergoes steam-oxygen conversion to form synthesis gas consisting of hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture, after which carbon monoxide is subjected to steam-assisted conversion. Resulting mixture is separated unto hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is purified on palladium membrane and passed to modular system of metal hydride hydrogen accumulators, while carbon monoxide is collected in gas-cylinders in compressed of liquid state. Thus obtained products are transported to sea ports in metal hydride containers and gas cylinders. Production of electric power for industrial processes is performed using fuel cell technology.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for production of hydrogen via steam conversion of carbon monoxide and to relevant catalysts and can find used in different fields of national economy. Catalyst phase of copper-zinc-zirconium hydroxocarbonate of general formula (CuxZryZn1-x-2y)(CO3)2(OH)6 with hydrozinkite and/or aurichalcite structure, or of general formula (CuxZryZn1-x-2y)(CO3) (OH)2 with roasite structure, or containing heat treatment product thereof with general formula CuxZryZn1-x-2yO with vurcite structure, where x is number not higher than 0.7 and y number from 0.01 to 0.33. Also, method of conversion of O and H2O-containing gas mixture involving passage of reaction mixture through aforesaid catalyst bed at 150-400°C.

EFFECT: enabled preparation of heat-resistant catalyst efficiently functioning within temperature range 150 to 400°C.

4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: production of catalysts on base of compounds of copper, zinc and aluminum for low-temperature conversion of carbon oxide with water steam; chemical, and petrochemical industries; production of ammonia and hydrogen.

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2 cl, 1 tbl, 20 ex

FIELD: methods of storage of hydrogen in catalytic systems functioning on basis of cyclic hydrogenation/de-hydrogenation reactions of condensed and poly-nuclear aromatic compounds; hydrogen generators; hydrogen engines or plants.

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EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

9 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.

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EFFECT: enhanced process efficiency.

4 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: synthesis gas, which is various-destination product, is generated in reactor with palladium-rhenium membrane at dimethyl ether-to-water ratio 1:1, elevated temperature, atmospheric pressure, and reactants supply speed 60 to 1200 h-1. Process allows achieving essentially complete conversion of dimethyl ether without any increase in pressure and at lower temperature, whereas resulting gas mixture contains no unreacted water steam, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide.

EFFECT: enhanced process efficiency.

4 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of realization of the chemical transformations by compression of the gas-containing mixtures.

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EFFECT: the invention ensures the reliable and high-effective running of the chemical reactions.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heat power generator operation methods comprising direct action of combustion products upon heated medium, possibly generation of heat power and supplying it through heat transfer agent to user.

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5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; reactor.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to reactor. The method includes preparation of suspension of the finely dispersive powdery aluminum in water, creation in the reactor of pressure of the saturated water steams, sputtering of the suspension into the high-pressure reactor, withdrawal from the reactor of the mixture of the steams and hydrogen, and also withdrawal from the reactor of aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide into the receiving device, measuring of the temperature in the reactor, measuring of the gas mixture pressure in the reactor. Determine the partial pressure of the saturated water steam in the reactor, determine the partial pressure of hydrogen, determine the free volume of the reactor and, changing the mass of aluminum being introduced in the composition of the suspension according to the formula make adjustment of the pressure and temperatures in the reactor. The device contains: the source of the suspension of the finely-dispersed powdery aluminum with water and the mixer, the reactor, the condenser, the receiving device, the adjustable valve of the mixture withdrawal of the mixture of the water steams and hydrogen, the adjustable valve of withdrawal of aluminum hydroxides or oxides, the sensor of the reactor temperature, the sensor of pressure on the inlet of the suspension delivery into the reactor, the sensor of pressure on the outlet of the steam-gas mixture, and the sensor of pressure in front of the inlet of the steam- gas mixture into the condenser, the adjustable tool of the suspension delivery into the reactor, the main control unit with the inlet and the outlet. At that the source of suspension contains the adjustable tool of the water delivery and the adjustable tool of delivery of the aluminum powder. The invention allows to improve stability of the reactor operation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved stability of the reactor operation.

5 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of molecular hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the method and the apparatus for production of molecular hydrogen. The apparatus represents essentially the closed reactor, operation of which is not accompanied with the harmful outbursts and the pollution of atmosphere. The reactor has the first and second reaction chambers, in which at essentially different temperatures there is the same pressure. To increase the amount and to improve the purity of the produced hydrogen the reactor is supplied with the separator of the reaction products. The method includes the conversion of highly inflammable material in the reactor having the first and second chambers with utilization of the separator of the reaction products. In the reactionary layer of the first chamber conduct the response of conversion with production of hydrogen and at least one by-product, and also the reaction of interaction between the by-product and the separator of reaction products, and then transfer the separator of the reaction products into the reactionary layer of the second chamber, which is located above the reactionary layer of the first chamber. The invention ensures the increased amount and purity of the produced hydrogen.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased amount and purity of the produced hydrogen.

24 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physical or chemical processes.

SUBSTANCE: plant comprises unit for feeding reagents, pipelines connected to the evaporator unit for contacting, unit for extracting products of contacting provided with the desublimator. The unmovable cylindrical housing of the desublimator is provided with stationary knives and jacket for their cooling. The inner rotating drum is provided with knifes that pass trough the spaces between the stationary knifes in rotation. The unit for extracting products of contacting is additionally provided with the cyclone and filter for catching nicotinic acid, and the desublimator has unmovable cylindrical housing mounted vertically on the hatch of the horizontal collector of crystals. The inner rotating hollow drum is made of a set of hollow conical lenses whose inner and outer diameters are interconnected. The outer surfaces of the disks are provided with knifes made of triangles. The outer cylindrical housing is provided with rhomboid knifes whose front section is set into the hollows between the conical disks of the lenses. The crystal collector receives screw mixer with screw blade. The top section of the crystal collector has a connecting pipe for discharging gases, and the bottom section is provided with the connecting pipe for discharging the crystals of the nicotinic acid.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of polyethylene in the tubular reactors with curing chambers or without them.

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EFFECT: the invention ensures a reliable introduction of the initiator in the tubular reactors with curing chambers or without them.

20 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: production of non-metallic elements.

SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises means for supplying hydrocarbon raw material and water vapor, means for discharging the product, and porous metallic load-bearing structure that receives catalyzer of reforming with water vapor. The porous load-bearing metallic structure is secured to the inner wall of the reactor by means of gluing or diffusion bounding.

EFFECT: improved functional capabilities.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: equipment used in independent respiratory-type rescue apparatus employed as part of rescue set.

SUBSTANCE: reactor 10 comprises container 12 including layer 14 of powdered reactant 24. Container 12 comprises wall, floor, and support 16 for floor covering layer. Container 12 has open top part arranged at the level above support 16 and at least one vent channel 11 arranged under support 16. Air-permeable separator 18 of said layer rests upon layer support 16. Layer separator protrudes upward from its lower end, which is arranged adjacent to layer support 16.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing sufficient amount of air flowing through granulated reactant layer regardless of reactant destruction, reduced mechanical damage to granulated reactant by impact and/or vibrations.

15 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a device for formation of the dense catalyst beds and is dealt with the field of chemical industry and consists of a bin, a batching system and the device is distinguished by the fact, that it has a wire rope with a brake fastened to it. The brake is made in the form of a tubular split rod with a piggyback location of the rigid covered with elastic material rays and fastened on the wire rope with the help of a spring-loaded clamping tool, and the distance between the tiers makes 2-5 characteristic sizes of granules of the catalyst. Use of the given device allows realization of molding of the catalyst beds without destruction of the catalyst granules.

EFFECT: the invention ensures realization of molding of the catalyst beds without destruction of the catalyst granules.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

The invention relates to the design of the reactor tube type for processing the synthesis gas and can be used in chemical, petroleum, gas and other industries

The invention relates to a device for producing oxygen-containing additive to motor gasoline, namely methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (tame) and other additives, the production of which uses a fine ball catalyst

Tubular reactor // 2201799
The invention relates to the field of chemical engineering

The invention relates to a device for producing oxygen-containing additive to motor gasoline and other additives, which are used fine ball catalysts

The invention relates to a device for producing oxygen-containing additive to motor gasoline, the production of which used fine ball catalysts
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