Method of recultivation of soil contaminated with oil and oil products

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises applying mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers simultaneously with the natural high-porosity mineral draining agent made of an aluminosilicate and subsequent loosening down to a depth of 25-30 cm. The ratios of the components are presented.

EFFECT: reduced cost.

6 ex

 

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular for the remediation of contaminated oil and petroleum products soil as a result of accidents and operational losses in the extraction, transportation and commercial activity.

There is a method of remediation of contaminated land (Mshinoda and other Reclamation of contaminated lands of the forest-steppe zone of Tartary // Collection of scientific works. Modern problems of the biosphere. M.: Nauka, 1988. - 177-192 C.). The method consists in the fact that in the contaminated soil are different types of mineral fertilizers and manure, lime, and combinations thereof on the background of loosening.

The disadvantage of this method is the long duration of recovery of soil (at 5%level of soil contamination - up to 3 years, with a 10% - up to 4 years), as well as the application of high doses of mineral fertilizers, which is economically disadvantageous.

The closest way is chosen for the prototype is the method of cleaning soil polluted by oil and oil products (RF patent 2041172, the IPC 09 With 1/08, publ. 09.08.95,), where the soil is injected in a mixture with fertilizers bacterial culture. Rekultiviruemye area plowed to a depth of 25-30 see

The disadvantage of this method are the high costs for the remediation of soil and insufficient high degree of purification, in addition, it does not take into account the level of the source is nitrogen-fixing activity of a particular soil and the differential impact of various forms of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and their doses on the intensity of nitrogen fixation.

The main technical result of the proposed method is to reduce rehabilitation costs while achieving the level of cleaning soil, the maximum possible for a particular region, climate zone and soil type due to the use of nitrogen fertilizers in optimal doses. Furthermore, the method allows to restore soil with different levels of nitrogen-fixing activity.

The main technical result is achieved in that in the method of reclamation of soil contaminated by oil and oil products, including soil mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, followed by tilling to a depth of 25-30 cm, according to the proposed solution, along with mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers contribute highly porous natural mineral improver aluminosilicate nature and dose of nitrogen fertilizer are calculated according to the formula:

D=Naz·Kaz,

where D is the starting dose of the active substance nitrogen fertilizer, kg/ha;

Naz - response rate of nitrogen-fixing microflora of the soil to penetration of oil products and natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature;

Kaz - the conversion factor for a specific soil type, whose value for dark-gray forest soil is 20, for peat sandy loam - 6 and sod-podzolic medium loam is - 55.

The method is as follows.

Dry natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature scatter across the site in the amount of from 1 to 3 t/ha depending on the degree of soil contamination. Simultaneously with highly porous natural mineral ameliorant aluminosilicate nature make mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. The starting dose of the active substance nitrogen fertilizer are calculated according to the formula D=Naz·where Naz is determined by the level difference of potential in nitrogen-fixing activity of the soil and the contaminated sites after making highly porous natural mineral improver aluminosilicate nature (ned S. Soil Microbiology, 1952), Kaz - picked by experiment. Type of nitrogen fertilizer is chosen taking into account the initial level of microbiological nitrogen-fixing ability of a particular soil (N. Tereshchenko. and other Biological nitrogen fixation as a factor in accelerated microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil and how to stimulate it. Biotechnology. No. 5-2004, pp.69-78). For uniform distribution of natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature and fertilizers in the volume of contaminated soil, as well as to enhance aeration spend loosening ecological machine type EM-M, EM-4M and EM-MBAs to a depth of at least the e 25-30 cm, since the loosening of a lesser depth in the remediation is not included all of the contaminated layer. If the degree of soil contamination (15% or more), it is advisable to re-introducing natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature with subsequent loosening. As a natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature was used zeolite and vermiculite various fields.

In examples 1-3 and examples of application of the proposed method for different types of soils, as in examples 4-5 - justified as a natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature (zeolite deposits and vermiculite).

Example 1.

The original oil content on the site contaminated dark-grey forest soil area 1·104m2was 80-90 g per 1 kg of soil, which corresponds to a 15%increase pollution (volume of soil). The initial level of potential in nitrogen-fixing activity (Ned) soil background (uncontaminated) the plot was 26%. On recultivation the contaminated area, this figure had risen to 47%. Making highly porous natural mineral improver aluminosilicate nature (zeolite PageScope field) at a dose of 2 t/ha contributed to the increase in nitrogen-fixing activity do%, which indicates that the active response of nitrogen-fixing soil microflora in the presence of petroleum products and the introduction of zeolite (Naz=2,0-2,4). Taking into account the climatic conditions, soil type and response of microorganisms-nitrogen fixing bacteria on oil products to calculate the starting dose application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers coefficient Kaz was 20. This starting dose of nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate) was 40-48 kg of active substance per 1 ha, which corresponded to 270-320 kg per 1 hectare For optimization of phosphate nutrition hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms made 100-120 kg per 1 ha of double superphosphate. For uniform distribution of the introduced components and improve soil aeration spent tilling to a depth of at least 25-30 see Immediately after soil natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature is simultaneously ensured sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons and 5-6 fold increase in the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. The level of activity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms to 10 days after application of mineral fertilizers and natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature has increased in 2-3 times and amounted to 65-68% of the potential for this type of soil. High counts of microorganisms and the activity of nitrogen fixation which was timescales throughout the first month of reclamation, after which the oil content decreased to 22-26 g/kg of soil, which corresponded to 72%soil purification.

Example 2. The original oil content on the site contaminated peat sandy loam soil with an area of 1·104m2was 80-90 g per 1 kg of soil, which corresponds to a 10-13%increase pollution (volume of soil). Microbiological examination of the background of the plot showed a low level of nitrogen-fixing activity (Ned) soil corresponding to 10-13%. On recultivation contaminated site level potential in nitrogen-fixing activity increased to 87%. Making highly porous natural mineral improver aluminosilicate nature (zeolite Chivyrkuyskogo field) at a dose of 2 t/ha contributed to the increase in nitrogen-fixing activity to 95-98%, which indicates that the active response of nitrogen-fixing soil microflora in the presence of petroleum products and the introduction of highly porous natural mineral improver aluminosilicate nature (Naz=7,5-9,5). Taking into account the climatic conditions, soil type and response of microorganisms-nitrogen fixing bacteria on oil products to calculate the starting dose application of mineral nitrogen fertilizer was used, the coefficient Kaz=6. This starting dose of nitrogen fertilizer (calcium ammonium nitrate) was 45-57 kg current Vasastan 1 ha, which corresponded to 300-380 kg For optimization of phosphate nutrition hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms made 120-150 kg double superphosphate on 1 hectare For uniform distribution of the introduced components and improve soil aeration spent tilling to a depth of at least 25-30 see Immediately after soil natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature is simultaneously ensured sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons and almost 10-fold increase in the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. The level of activity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms to 10 days after application of mineral fertilizers and natural vysokoporistogo mineral improver aluminosilicate nature has increased and amounted to 95-98% of the potential for this type of soil. High counts of microorganisms were observed throughout the first month of reclamation and by the end of the third month decreased 5-6 times due to inaccessibility for microorganisms heavy fractions of residual oil. For the three months reclamation of oil content decreased to 15-20 g/kg of soil, which corresponded to 85-88%soil purification.

Example 3.

The original oil content on the site contaminated loamy sod-podzolic soil area 1·104 m2was 150 g per 1 kg of soil, which corresponds to the 25%level of contamination (of the volume of soil). The initial level of potential in nitrogen-fixing activity (Ned) soil background (uncontaminated) the plot was 6-8%. On recultivation the contaminated area, this figure was consistent with background. Making highly porous natural mineral improver aluminosilicate nature (zeolite Chivyrkuyskogo field) at a dose of 2 t/ha contributed to a slight increase in nitrogen-fixing activity to 10%, which indicates a weak response of nitrogen-fixing soil microflora in the presence of petroleum products and the introduction of zeolite (Naz=1,25-1,7).

Taking into account the climatic conditions, soil type and response of microorganisms-nitrogen fixing bacteria on oil products to calculate the starting dose application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers was Kaz coefficient=55, With a starting dose of nitrogen fertilizer (NPK) was 70-94 kg of active substance per 1 ha, which corresponded to 440-590 kg For optimization of phosphate nutrition hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms made 160-200 kg double superphosphate on 1 hectare For uniform distribution of the introduced components and improve soil aeration spent tilling to a depth of at least 25-30 see Immediately after soil natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminum is a silicate nature is simultaneously ensured sorption of oil hydrocarbons and almost 5-6-fold increase in the number of hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms. Throughout the observation period (3 months) the level of activity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms did not exceed 8-11%. For the three months reclamation was achieved 65%degree of purification of the soil. The oil content in the soil is not exceeded 52-57 g/kg of soil.

Example 4.

The original content of the NP at the site contaminated dark-grey forest soil area 1·104m2was 90-100 g per 1 kg of soil, which corresponds to 18-20%increase pollution (volume of soil). The initial level of potential in nitrogen-fixing activity (Ned) soil background (uncontaminated) the plot was 32%. On recultivation the contaminated area, this figure had risen to 57%. Making highly porous natural mineral improver aluminosilicate nature (zeolite Canonizado deposits of the Republic of Kazakhstan) in the dose of 2 t/ha contributed to the increase in nitrogen-fixing activity to 68%, which indicates that the active response of nitrogen-fixing soil microflora in the presence of petroleum products and the introduction of highly porous natural mineral improver aluminosilicate nature (N=2,0-2,4). Taking into account the climatic conditions, soil type and response of microorganisms-nitrogen fixing bacteria on oil products to calculate the starting dose application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers was used coefficient (Kaz)equal to 20, and as the fertilizer was chosen urea. This starting dose (D) urea amounted to 40-50 kg A.I. per 1 ha, which corresponded to 87-110 kg per 1 ha of fertilizer (urea 46%content of active substance of nitrogen). For optimization of phosphate nutrition hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms made 100-120 kg per 1 ha of double superphosphate. For uniform distribution of the introduced components and improve soil aeration spent tilling to a depth of at least 25-30 see

Immediately after the soil at the same time provided the sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons and 6-fold increase in the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. The level of activity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms to 10 days after application of mineral fertilizers and natural highly porous mineral improver aluminosilicate nature has increased in 2-3 times and amounted to 70-75% of the potential for this soil type.

High counts of microorganisms and the activity of nitrogen fixation were observed throughout the first month of reclamation, after which the oil content decreased to 24 g/kg of soil. This corresponds to 76%soil purification.

Example 5.

The original content of the NP at the site contaminated peat sandy loam soil with an area of 1·104m2was 80-90 g per 1 kg of soil, which corresponds to a 10-13%increase pollution levels (about the volume of soil). Microbiological examination of the background of the plot showed a low level of nitrogen-fixing activity (Ned) soil corresponding to 10-15%. On recultivation contaminated site level potential in nitrogen-fixing activity increased to 66%. Introduction mineral improver aluminosilicate nature (zeolite PageScope field) at a dose of 2 t/ha contributed to the increase in nitrogen-fixing activity to 95-98%, which indicates that the active response of nitrogen-fixing soil microflora in the presence of petroleum products and the introduction of mineral improver aluminosilicate nature (N=7,5-9,5). Taking into account the climatic conditions, soil type and response of microorganisms-nitrogen fixing bacteria on oil products to calculate the starting dose application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers was used a factor of 6, and as fertilizer was selected calcium nitrate. This starting dose of calcium nitrate was 45-50 kg A.I. per 1 ha, which corresponded to 300-360 kg per 1 ha of fertilizer. For optimization of phosphate nutrition hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms made 120-150 kg per 1 ha of double superphosphate. For uniform distribution of the introduced components and improve soil aeration spent tilling to a depth of at least 25-30 see

Immediately after soil mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature at the same time provided with which Blu petroleum hydrocarbons and almost 10-fold increase in the number uglevodorodokislyayuschih microorganisms. The level of activity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms to 10 days after application of mineral fertilizers and natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature has increased and amounted to 95-98% of the potential for this type of soil. For the three months reclamation of oil content decreased to 22-26 g/kg of soil. This corresponds to 85%soil purification.

Example 6.

The original oil content on the site contaminated loamy sod-podzolic soil area 1·104m2was 170 g per 1 kg of soil, which corresponds to 28%level of contamination (of the volume of soil). The initial level of potential in nitrogen-fixing activity (Ned) soil background (uncontaminated) the plot was 15-18%. On recultivation the contaminated area, this figure was consistent with background. Making highly porous natural mineral improver aluminosilicate nature (vermiculite seaside field) at a dose of 2 t/ha contributed to a slight increase in nitrogen-fixing activity to 25%, which indicates a weak response of nitrogen-fixing soil microflora in the presence of petroleum products and the introduction of vermiculite (Naz=1,4-1,7). Taking into account the climatic conditions, soil type and response of microorganisms-nitrogen fixing bacteria on oil products to calculate with the art of dose application of mineral nitrogen fertilizers was Kaz coefficient=55. This starting dose of nitrogen fertilizer (NPK) was 70-90 kg of active substance per 1 ha, which corresponded to 440-570 kg For optimization of phosphate nutrition hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms made 160-200 kg double superphosphate on 1 hectare For uniform distribution of the introduced components and improve soil aeration spent tilling to a depth of at least 25-30 see Immediately after soil natural highly porous mineral-improver aluminosilicate nature is simultaneously ensured sorption of petroleum hydrocarbon and more than 5-fold increase in the number of hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms. Throughout the observation period (3 months) the level of activity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms varied in the range of 25-30%.

For the three months reclamation was achieved 56%degree of purification of the soil. The oil content in the soil is not exceeded 75-77 g/kg of soil.

Thus, the application of the proposed method in a short time (at low and medium degree of contamination - for one summer season, with a high degree over two seasons) to carry out detoxification and restoring key ecological functions of soil. The use of nitrogen fertilizers in the optimal dose based on the level of the original nitrogen-fixing activity of a particular soil and its response n the petroleum hydrocarbons and introducing natural aluminosilicate minerals determines the speed of recovery the maximum possible for a given soil type.

The method is also economically and environmentally beneficial, because apart from saving costly mineral fertilizers provides stimulating the activity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and Symbiotropin with them the hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora without pollution excess of mineral elements introduced in the fertilizer.

Method of reclamation of soil contaminated by oil and oil products, including soil mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, followed by tilling to a depth of 25-30 cm, characterized in that simultaneously with mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers contribute highly porous natural mineral improver aluminosilicate nature and dose of nitrogen fertilizer are calculated according to the formula

D=Naz·Kaz,

where D is the starting dose of the active substance nitrogen fertilizer, kg/ha;

Naz - response rate of nitrogen-fixing microflora of the soil to penetration of oil products and natural highly porous mineral improver aluminosilicate nature;

Kaz - the conversion factor for a specific soil type, whose value for dark-gray forest soil is 20, for peat sandy loam - 6 and loamy sod-podzolic - 55.



 

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