Phase direction finder

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable in electromagnetic reconnaissance, radio navigation and radio detection and ranging for determination of the direction to the source of radiation or reflection of radio waves.

SUBSTANCE: the phase direction finder has two antennas, two receiving paths, three phase shifters, two phase detectors, two limiters, three adders, two modulus computation devices, subtracting device, amplifier, comparator, gate circuit and an oscillator.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of direction finding and excepted its dependence of the attitude of the object of direction-finding.

2 cl, 10 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of radio and can be used in radio razvedka, navigation and radar systems to determine the direction to the source of radiation or reflection of radio waves.

A device for determining the position of the sources of electromagnetic radiation (similar), see U.S. patent No. 4383301, IPC G 01 S 5/02, 7/04, containing the antenna grating for receiving radiation and generating the appropriate signals, the receiving system for measuring the phase and intensity of each received signal, the device testing signals for processing of the coherent phase signals and amplitude and the playback location of the sources of the received radiation.

Also known finder on application No. 1333546, UK, IPC G 01 S 3/48, 3/10 (analog), which is composed of the antenna grid consisting of several pairs of equally spaced antenna elements, and a processing device. The signals from each pair of antenna elements, proceed to phase discriminatory, which provide measurements of the phase difference. The phase of the signals received from the four most distant pairs of antenna elements is converted into four binary code and averaged by summing. Logical device removes the ambiguity and generates a binary signal characterizing the angle of arrival of electromagnetic in the wave.

The disadvantage of this analogy is the relatively low accuracy of the measurements, due to the limited size of antenna systems.

Of the known devices is the closest to the technical nature of the claimed (prototype) is the phase signal, the circuit of which is shown in fig.8.1 s Vasenina "Radio system". Minsk, "Vysheishaya school", 1988, 369 S.

Known phase signal includes first and second antennas spaced at a certain distance, the first and second reception paths connected to inputs of the first and second antennas, respectively, the first phase shifter connected to the input with the output of the first reception path, and a first phase detector connected to one input to an output of the first phase shifter, a second input with the output of the second reception path, and the output of the phase detector is the output of the direction finder.

The principle of measurement of angular coordinates of sources of radiation or reflection of radio waves in a known direction finder is implemented by comparison in the phase detector signals received by the antennas. The voltage at the output of the phase detector is proportional to the angular position of object measurements. This direction-finding characteristic has the form (1):

Here d is the distance between the antennas

θ - the angular position of the object sang is ngali relative to the normal to the line, connecting the phase centers of the antennas.

λ - the working wavelength of the radio direction finder.

The disadvantage of the prototype is relatively low accuracy of the measurements and the dependence of the accuracy of the angular position of object measurements.

This accuracy is characterized by the root mean square error (2):

where q is the ratio of signal to noise power at the input of the decision

L - equivalent (standard) length of the antenna system. The equivalent length is associated with a geometric size of the antenna system by the relation L=k·d, where k≤1 - coefficient taking into account the form DF characteristics. In this case, (2) takes the form

Herecharacterizes the width of the direction-finding characteristics (1), and this width determines the reference area of the bearing and hence the error. The possibility of reducing the width of characteristics by increasing d and thereby improve the accuracy of measurements is often limited by structural considerations, especially on the moving means of direction finding.

The dependence of the accuracy of the direction finding from the angular position of the object bearing the principle of phase measurements and related to the fact that the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the phase is th detector is proportional to the square of the sine of an angle, i.e. q=sin2θ. This leads to the fact that a relatively large sector of the corners of the accuracy of direction finding in accordance with (3) is deteriorating.

The task, which directed the inventive device consists in narrowing the field reference parameter by processing signals when determining the bearing to the source of radiation or reflection of radio waves and the formation of point counting on a high and constant level signal.

The technical result, which directed the present invention is to improve the accuracy of the direction finding and removing its dependence on the angular position of the object measurements.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known phase signal containing the first and second antennas spaced at a certain distance, the first and second reception paths connected to inputs of the first and second antennas, respectively, the first phase shifter connected to the input with the output of the first reception path, and a first phase detector connected to one input to an output of the first phase shifter, entered a second phase shifter connected to the input with the output of the first receive path, the third controlled phase shifter connected to the first input with the output of the second reception path, and output to the second input of the first phase detector, a second phase detector, connec the hydrated one input with the output of the second phase shifter, and the other input with the output of the third controlled phase shifter, the first and second limiters from below at zero level, the United inputs to the outputs of the first and second phase detectors, respectively, a first adder connected to the first and second direct inputs to the outputs of the first and second limiters from below at zero level, respectively, a second adder connected to the first direct input to an output of the first limiter from below at zero, and the second negative input with the output of the second limiter from below at zero, the first and second devices of the computing module connected to the first input with the output of the first adder, the second input with the output of the second adder, subtractive device is connected to the input of the reducing with the output of the first computing device module, and the input wichitaeagle with the output of the second computing device module, a third adder connected to the first and second direct inputs to the outputs of the first and second computing devices of the module, respectively, the amplifier input connected with the output of subtractive device, a comparator, coupled to the first input with the output of the amplifier and a second input with the output of the third adder, a switching circuit, coupled to the first input with the output of the comparator, the oscillator control voltage, output connected with the second inputs tre is LEGO controlled phase shifter and key schemes at the same time, and the output key schema is the output of the direction finder. In addition, the phase shifts in the first and second phasers are fixed and mutually opposite.

The essence of the invention is to obtain a narrow region of the reference bearing signal of Union and intersection, which are formed from the input signals arriving at the antenna and is rigidly connected to this area.

The present invention is illustrated graphic material.

Figure 1 shows the structural diagram of the phase signal. In figure 2, 3, 4 shows the dependence of the amplitudes of the signals from the deflection angle for various points of the circuit, calculated theoretically. Figure 5-10 shows the signals at various points in the circuit simulation results.

The phase signal (figure 1) contains the first 1 and second 2 antennas spaced at a certain distance d, the first 3 and second 4 reception paths, the first 5 and second 6 phasers with fixed and opposite phase shifts, the third controlled phase shifter 7, the first 8 and second 9 phase detectors, the first 10 and second 11 stops from below at zero, the first adder 12 with two direct inputs of the second adder 13 with the first directly and the second inverted inputs, the first 14 and second 15 devices modulus, subtractive device 16 with one entrance at the elsemore, and another sign - wichitaeagle, the third adder 17, the amplifier 18, the key circuit 19, a comparator 20, a control voltage generator 21.

The introduction of the second phase shifter 6 and the second phase detector 9 and the installation in the first 5 and second 6 phasers fixed and mutually opposite phase shifts allows to obtain at the output of the phase detector voltage shifted relative to each other in phase, the angular dependence which intersect at a constant and high level ravesignal direction. These voltages are derived from a signal received first antenna.

The introduction of the control voltage generator 21 and the third controlled phase shifter 7, the scanner ravesignal direction by changing the phase of the reference voltage generated from the signal received at the second antenna.

The introduction of limiters from below at zero, 10 and 11 "cuts" negative branch voltages from the output of the phase detectors, eliminating false bearings due to these branches.

The introduction of the first adder 12 with two direct inputs of the second adder 13 direct and inverse inputs of the first 14 and second 15 calculators module, subtractive device 16 and the third adder 17 with two direct inputs ensures the formation of two shifted and overlapping ravesignal the m direction of the voltage signals of "intersection" and "Union", rigidly connected between a common point located at a corner on ravesignal direction, and at the level specified by phasers, with a fixed phase shift.

The introduction of amplifier 18 and a comparator 19 provides for the formation of signals of "intersection" and "Union" a narrow region in the vicinity ravesignal direction, determining a reference time of the bearing and which is the resultant of the direction-finding characteristic that defines the accuracy of the measurements at a given signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the receiving channels.

Introduction key circuit 20 provides a passage to the exit for further evaluation of the voltage generator control voltage at the time of action of enabling the voltage corresponding to the direction-finding characteristic.

The principle of operation of the proposed direction finder is as follows.

Let the object bearing is at an angle 9 relative to the normal to the line between the antennas (figure 1).

Received by antennas 1 and 2 from the object direction finding signals are amplified and converted to an intermediate frequency receiving paths 3 and 4. The output of the first 5 and second 6 phasers, respectively, will have the following voltage:

Here ω0angular frequency,

ϕ 1- the initial phase of the signal from the first antenna

Um- amplitude,

±β - fixed and mutually opposite phase shifts provided by the phase 5 and 6.

The output signal of the third controlled phase shifter 7 is the reference for the first 8 and second 9 of the phase detector and is

where ϕ2- the initial phase of the signal from the second antenna

α(t) - component of the phase of the reference voltage, providing a one-time or periodic scanning ravesignal directions within a given sector.

When it α(t)=k1U(t),

where U(t) is the control voltage generator

k1is the coefficient of proportionality.

The law of change of U(t) in the General case of arbitrary and implemented by the generator 21, which controls the phase shifter 7.

Here α(t) is a relatively slowly changing component of the phase of the reference voltage compared with the ongoing "current" component phase ω0t.

Voltage (4) and (5) are fed respectively to the first inputs of the phase detectors 8 and 9. The signal (6) is supplied as a reference to the second inputs of the detectors simultaneously. In accordance with the algorithm of balanced phase detector can be shown that the signals at the outputs of filters lower their frequencies of the first 8 and second 9 phase detectors, respectively, will be

Upon receiving (7) and (8) to simplify the analysis assumed that Um=1, kd=1 (kd- the rate of detection of the phase detector).

Here Δϕ - the phase difference between received by the antennas 1 and 2 signals caused by the path difference of the waves due to the rejection of the object measurements from ravesignal direction, which is determined by the expression

According to (7) and (8) are presented in figure 2. Here is a case where θ=0, and the argument is the component of the phase α.

Work sector angles, providing the formation of dynamical characteristics, is the sector in which the positive branch voltages (7) and (8) intersect. The value of this sector is determined by the ratio

wherewhen

Voltage (7) and (8) are served on a first (10) and second (11) the constraints from below at zero. Limiters eliminate the negative branch voltages, where the intersection of (7) and (8).

The condition of the working sector on the angular axis is determined by the value 9 (the position of the object bearing).

Next, the voltage output from the first limiter simultaneously supplied to the first direct entry is the I can pay tithing adder 12 and the first direct input of the second adder 13. The voltage output from the second limiter bottom simultaneously supplied to the second direct input of the first adder and the second inverted input of the second adder. As a result, the output of the first and second adders are respectively the total and differential voltage U=U1+U2and UΔ=U1-U2.

The total voltage passing through the first transmitter module 14, is supplied simultaneously to the input of the reducing subtractive device 16 and the first direct input of the third adder 17. Differential voltage passing through the second transmitter module 15, is supplied simultaneously to the input wichitaeagle subtractive device and to the second direct input of the third adder. Modules total |U| and the differential voltage |UΔ| output corresponding solvers module is shown in figure 3.

The output of subtractive device will be the stress corresponding to the intersection of the signals from the outputs of the limiters from the bottom, and the output of the third adder voltage corresponding to the integration of these signals:

On the basis of (11) and (12) from the analysis of figures (Fig.2-3) can be written:

The crossing signals and combining hard is vasani between a common point, which intersect U1and U2. The position of this point is provided at a high energy level signal selecting |±β| phasers 5 and 6 and does not depend on the angular displacement of the object measurements and the amplitude of the signal.

Further, the signal crossing is amplified in the amplifier 18 with a gain With≥1 and is compared by the comparator 19 with the signal of Association. The result is a narrow region of the reference angle, which is a dynamical feature. The width of this region is determined by the ratio

The crossing signals at the output of amplifier U∩C, Union Uthe output of the third adder and the resulting dynamical characteristic Upat the output of the comparator is shown in figure 4. As can be seen from the figure, the reference area bearing symmetrical with respect to ravesignal direction.

Position ravesignal directions at any given moment is determined by the voltage value of the control voltage generator 21, tunable phase controlled phase shifter. Simultaneously, the voltage of the generator is fed to one input key circuit 20 and is held at its output only if the second input of this circuit operates to allow the voltage Upoutput comparato is a, the corresponding region of the reference bearing.

Voltage output key schema u(t) is proportional to the angular position of object measurements, which can be found in the reference time from the relationship

where k1is the coefficient of proportionality.

Define the width of the reference area of the bearing (direction-finding characteristic), taking θ=0 and considering the region α to the left of zero in the working area (figure 4), using (13)-(15) subject to (7), (8). Then (15) is converted to the form

In the result of the transformation (17) we obtain:

A similar ratio can be obtained by analysis of the dynamical characteristics of the right of zero.

Based on the physical meaning when the width of the dynamical characteristics of the right-hand part of (18) must be taken modulo and doubled. Then for small values of α the relation is valid :

Taking into account (9) for small θ width reference area of the bearing in the actual values of the angle will get in the form

As can be seen from (20), the width of the direction-finding characteristics for a fixed value ofdepends on the gain of the amplifier and the value of the fixed phase is th shift β in phase 5 and 6.

The gain value of the amplifier is determined by the required accuracy of the measurements, the noise, the value of fixed phase shift |β| and quality detection - measurement. The range of changes βspecifying the level-crossing signals at the outputs of the phase detectors can be made from the condition

where m is the level-crossing signals at the outputs of the phase detectors. On the basis of (21) subject to (7) for U1you can write:

After transformations we obtain:

Level crossing m should be limited to some range top minand lower mnvalues

Then the range of possible values β is determined by the ratio

If we assume that mn=0,5 mmaxand min=0,8 mmaxwhere mmax- the maximum value for the level of the signal at the output of the phase detectors, and taking into account (7)that mmax=2, then the range of acceptable values β it lies within the

The specific value of the phase shift (3 determined from (23) for a given m. For example, for m=0.7 mmaxβ=30,7°.

It is necessary in order to emphasize, what a given level of intersection defining the reference area of the bearing remains unchanged over the entire range scan ravesignal direction by changing the phase of the third phase shifter with control voltage generator.

The sector scan is determined from the condition for uniqueness of reference bearing, since the voltage at the output of the phase detectors are periodic.

Behavior analysis(7), (8), (11), (12) when changing α, β and θ indicates that the value of the sector scan is determined by the angular distance between the nearest negative peaks of the voltage U1and U2. This distance depends on (within a few degrees) from the selected values β. If the value of the phase shift β is within the valid range (26), the value of the sector scan ravesignal direction Δf lies within the

ie |Δf|≤(76-80)°.

The law changes the control voltage generator may be selected corresponding to the law of change of a phase difference of (9) from the outputs of the antennas, i.e. the

where k2is the coefficient of proportionality. This simplifies the definition of a bearing, ensuring its adequacy, as of the reference time, the true is the value of the bearing of the object measurements.

The value of the sector scan (27) allows to determine the parameters of the control voltage generator.

On the basis of (28) with (27) we can write:

Here ΔT - period of the scan, the choice of which is associated with the element base, for example a type of managed Phaser, tactical nature of the tasks of detection-measurement type processed signal and may be made in the specific design. However, as the boundary values of the scan period, you can use the inequality

where τf- the time constant of the low pass filter in the phase detectors.

When known sector scanning |Δf| s period ΔT on the basis of (29) is determined by the value of the coefficient k2.

Carry out a comparative assessment of the accuracy of the direction finding in the proposed direction finder and the prototype.

From theory of antenna systems it is known that the width of the direction-finding features θpat a certain level to do with the relative size of the antenna systemratio

where kpis the coefficient of proportionality.

Then taking into account (31) the expression for the mean square error of measurements (3) acquire vie is

For the prototype the width direction-finding characteristic will find from (1), taking for concreteness the relative size of the antenna system. In this case, the level of half-power width of the direction-finding characteristics will be θp≈18°.

For the inventive device under the same conditions- provided level crossing at half power) and the gain C=1,2 width direction-finding characteristic is θp≈2°.

In accordance with (32) the gain in precision measurements of the proposed direction finder compared to the prototype provides about an order.

In addition, in the present signal, forming a point of reference bearing, which is affected by noise and interference, is always constant and high for a given signal power level regardless of the angular position of object measurements. The definition of bearing produced by the voltage generator, which is not exposed to noise and interference. This in the present direction finder eliminates the dependence of the accuracy of the bearing from the bearing, as is the case in the prototype.

To test the efficiency, effectiveness and feasibility of predlagaetvashemu mathematical modeling of the scheme (figure 1) on the PC. As the source data are as follows: the relative distance between the antennas; the value of the gain of the amplifier 18 With a=1,2; a phase shift in the phase 5, 6that provides a level crossing voltages of the phase detectors m=0.7 mmax; the law of variation of the control voltage generator 21 sinusoidal (28) to ensure clarity and direct reference bearing on the x-axis sector scanning ravesignal direction is assumed equal to ±π to get a complete picture of the stress; the angular position of the object bearing is assumed to be θ1=10°while

a ϕ2=0, Δϕ=ϕ1.

The simulation results presented in figure 5-10.

Figure 5 shows the output voltage U1(t) - curve 1 and U2(t) - curve 2 phasers 5 and 6 on the intermediate frequency unit amplitude as a function of time, formed in accordance with (4) and (5) with additive normally distributed noise with standard deviation equal to 0.2.

The reference voltage from the output of the phase shifter 7 is formed in accordance with (6) single amplitude and with the same noise as for phasers 5 and 6.

Figure 6 shows the output voltage of the phase detectors 8 and 9 after LPF U curve 1 and U2curve 2. As can be seen from the figure, the level crossing voltage matches (m=0,7mmax), ravesignal direction corresponds to θ=10°. Is a false ravesignal direction for angle θ=170° effect of exceeding the sector scan boundaries certainty.

Figure 7 presents the signals on the output devices of the computing module |U| curve 1 and |UΔ| curve 2. Differences in these curves from the calculated (figure 3) due to the fact that for voltages figure 3 is a phase shift |β|=45°.

On Fig shows the signals of Association at the output of the third adder 17 Ucurve 1, the intersection at the output of subtractive device amplifier 18 Ucurve 2 and dynamical characteristics (reference area) at the output of the comparator 19 Upcurve 3. As can be seen from the figure, the reference area of the bearing corresponds to the position of the object direction finding (θ=10°)introduced in (4) and (5).

Figure 9 shows similar pig voltage in the absence of noise at the input for comparison. In both cases the results are identical.

Figure 10 shows for comparison obtained for the case θ=10° DF feature 1 and the normalized pattern 2 one antenna element in polar coordinates. As such what about the system was used active vibrator-reflector with distance between them reactive impedance of 30 Ohms, the module of relations of the currents of 0.61 and a phase difference 122°.

The choice of the gain From the simulation results show that for each |β| when the value of the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the reception path can be achieved with a given probability the minimum value of the reference area bearing θp. For example, ifand the signal-to-noise ratio equal to 5 voltage with probability not less than 0.8, provided the width of the reference area bearing θp≈1,8° C=1,1 θp≈6° C=1,5. The obtained values can be used for a rough estimation.

Thus, the simulation results confirm the efficiency, effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed direction finder.

The possibility of practical implementation also follows from the fact that the circuit can be built on standard, well-known and technologically waste elements.

For example:

antenna 1, 2 can be chosen in different types, depending on the frequency range and tactical-technical requirements for the radio signal. In the simplest case, can be used asymmetrical half-wave vibrators or antenna type vibrator-reflector, as in this example, either the horn antenna according to the type of description is reported in [3] s, RES;

reception paths 3, 4 can be built according to the standard scheme of radio or radar receivers with access to the intermediate frequency by type described in [4] s, RIS;

phasers 5, 6 fixed and the phase shifter 7 with a controlled phase shift can be performed depending on the value of the operating frequency delay lines, RC-circuits, sequential or parallel resonant circuits. At frequencies up to 30÷40 MHz possible realization of the phasers on the basis of the RC-circuits of the type described in [5] s-126. At lower frequencies by type of broadband phase shifter continuously variable phase shift, given in [6] s, Risch;

phase detectors 8, 9 can be implemented in the form of a balanced phase detectors described in [4] s, RISU;

constraints from below at zero, 10, 11 can be performed with simple diode detector, is given in [5] p.140, RIS;

first 12, second 13, 17 third adders and computing device 16 can be performed in the usual way amplifiers for the two inputs or direct and inverted inputs of the type described in [7] p.77, fig.3.2;

device calculating module 14, 15 can be implemented by the circuit a full-wave rectifier operational amplifiers by type is given in [8] s, RIS;

amplifier 18 may present the identification of a conventional resistive-capacitive amplifier with adjustable gain control circuit manifold given in [4] s, RIS;

the comparator 19 can be implemented at the operational amplifier according to the type of integrated comparator described in [8] s, RIS;

a switching circuit 20 may be made in the form of bipolar analog switch-type found in [9] s, RES.

the control voltage generator 21 to provide a control voltage of arbitrary shape is the most versatile scheme on the basis of the synthesizer shown in [8] s, rich.

Analysis of the known technical solutions in the area of principles and devices of the phase direction finding shows that the claimed invention because of the significant characteristics that determined the way to achieve a technical result, it is not necessary for the expert in the obvious way from the prior art and meets the requirement of "inventive step".

In addition the applicant is not detected similar, characterized by signs, identical to all the essential features of the claimed invention. Definition from the list of unique prototype, as the most similar set of features analogue, revealed in the claimed object significant in relation to the technical result of distinctive features, which allows to consider the claimed invention meets the criterion of "novelty".

Sources of information

1. Vase is dynaw. Radio system. - Minsk: "Vysheishaya school", 1988, - 369 S.

2. Lassi, Ugharkecin. Precision electronic measuring systems. Kiev: "Tehlka", 1981. - 136 C.

3. Gzigzag, Vghemasti, Antiricin. Antenna UCWC 1. - M.: "Link", 1977. - 384 S.

4. McKellen, Wetblanket, Ulator etc. Handbook of training design priemyselnych devices. K.: "visa school, 1988. - 472 S.

5. Appolonov, Addelston, Apolskis and other Design radar receivers. Edited Masalov. - M.: Higher. HQ., 1984, - 335 S.

6. Rymaruk, Camerasuk, Saidov. Semiconductor receiving-amplifying device. Handbook of Amateur radio. Kiev: Nauk. Dumka, 1987. - 800 C.

7. Agilealliance. The use of precision analog integrated circuits. - M.: Radio and communication, 1981, 354 S.

8. Wepropose, Vigoleno, Wmmaiload and other Reference schematic for the radio Amateur. Edited Vpopovska. To: Technika, 1989. - 480 S.

9. Mwhalen. Practical circuitry in industrial automation. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1987. - 320 S.

1. The phase signal containing the first and second antennas spaced at a certain distance, the first and second reception paths connected to inputs of the first and second antennas, respectively, the first phase shifter connected to the input with the output of the first pickup the con tract, and the first phase detector connected to one input to an output of the first phase shifter, characterized in that it introduced a second phase shifter connected to the input with the output of the first receive path, the third controlled phase shifter connected to the first input with the output of the second reception path, and output to the second input of the first phase detector, a second phase detector connected to one input with the output of the second phase shifter, and the other input with the output of the third controlled phase shifter, the first and second limiters from below at zero level, the United inputs to the outputs of the first and second phase detectors, respectively, a first adder, coupled to the first and the second direct inputs to the outputs of the first and second limiters from below at zero level, respectively, a second adder connected to the first direct input to an output of the first limiter from below at zero, and the second negative input with the output of the second limiter from below at zero, the first and second devices of the computing module connected to the first input with the output of the first adder, the second input with the output of the second adder, subtractive device is connected to the input of the reducing with the output of the first computing device module, and the input wichitaeagle with the output of the second computing device module, the third summit the R, connected to the first and second direct inputs to the outputs of the first and second computing devices of the module, respectively, the amplifier input connected with the output of subtractive device, a comparator, coupled to the first input with the output of the amplifier and a second input with the output of the third adder, a switching circuit, coupled to the first input with the output of the comparator, the oscillator control voltage, output connected with the second inputs of the third controlled phase shifter and key circuits simultaneously, and the output key schema is the output of the direction finder.

2. The phase direction finder according to claim 1, characterized in that the phase shifts in the first and second phasers fixed and mutually opposite.



 

Same patents:

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SUBSTANCE: the method consists in detection of radiations and measurement of the bearings (azimuths) with the use of minimum two spaced apart passive radars, and calculation of the coordinates of the sources of r.f. radiations by the triangulation method, determination of location is performed in three stages, in the first stage the posthorizon objects are searched and detected by the radiation of their radars at each passive radar, the radio engineering and time parameters of radar radiations are measured, the detected radars with posthorizon objects are identified by the radio engineering parameters of radiations and bearing, and continuous tracking of these objects is proceeded, the information on the objects located within the radio horizon obtained from each passive radar is eliminated, the working sector of angles is specified for guidance and tracking of the selected posthorizon object, in the second stage continuous tracking of one posthorizon object is performed at least by two passive radars, and the time of reception of each radar pulse of this object is fixed, in the third stage the period of scanning of this radar, the difference of the angles of radiation by the main radar beam of each passive radar and the range to the posthorizon object with due account made for the difference of the angles of radiation are determined by the bearings (azimuths) measured by the passive radar and the times of reception of each pulse of the tracked radar. The method is realized with the aid at least of two spaced apart passive radars, each of them has aerials of the channel of compensation of side and phone lobes, a narrow-band reflector-type aerial, series-connected noiseless radio-frequency amplifier, multichannel receiving device, device of primary information processing and measurement of carrier frequency, amplitude and time of reception of signals of the detected radar, device of static processing of information and measurement of the bearing, repetition period, duration of the train and repetition of the pulse trains and a device for calculation of the difference of the angle of radiation of the aerials of the passive radars by the detected radar.

EFFECT: reduced error of measurement of the coordinates of posthorizon sources of radio-frequency radiations.

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EFFECT: widened operational capabilities of direction finder.

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The invention relates to the field of radio and can be used for determining the angular coordinates of the source of continuous harmonic signal

FIELD: finding of azimuth of radio emission source (RES) in wide-base direction finding systems.

SUBSTANCE: angle of azimuth of RES is measured with high degree of precision due to elimination of methodical errors in direction finding caused by linearization of model electromagnet wave propagation wave front. As surface of RES location the plane is used which has RES line of location which has to be crossing of two hyperbolic surfaces of location corresponding to difference-time measurement. Method of RES direction finding is based upon receiving its signal by three aerials disposed randomly, measuring of two time differences of RES signal receiving by aerials which form measuring bases and subsequent processing of results of measurement to calculate values of RES angles of azimuth and coordinates of point through which the RES axis of sight passes. The data received are represented in suitable form. Device for realization of the method has three aerials disposed at vertexes of random triangle, two units for measuring time difference of signal receiving, computing unit and indication unit. Output of common aerial of measuring bases is connected with second inputs of time difference meters which receive signals from outputs of the rest aerials. Measured values of time differences enter inputs of computing unit which calculates values of RES angle of azimuth and coordinates of point through which the RES axis of sight passes. Data received from output of computing analyzing unit enter indication unit intended for those data representation.

EFFECT: widened operational capabilities of direction finder.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable for location of posthorizon objects by radiations of their radars, for example, of naval formations of battle ships with operating navigational radars with the aid of coastal stationary or mobile passive radars.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in detection of radiations and measurement of the bearings (azimuths) with the use of minimum two spaced apart passive radars, and calculation of the coordinates of the sources of r.f. radiations by the triangulation method, determination of location is performed in three stages, in the first stage the posthorizon objects are searched and detected by the radiation of their radars at each passive radar, the radio engineering and time parameters of radar radiations are measured, the detected radars with posthorizon objects are identified by the radio engineering parameters of radiations and bearing, and continuous tracking of these objects is proceeded, the information on the objects located within the radio horizon obtained from each passive radar is eliminated, the working sector of angles is specified for guidance and tracking of the selected posthorizon object, in the second stage continuous tracking of one posthorizon object is performed at least by two passive radars, and the time of reception of each radar pulse of this object is fixed, in the third stage the period of scanning of this radar, the difference of the angles of radiation by the main radar beam of each passive radar and the range to the posthorizon object with due account made for the difference of the angles of radiation are determined by the bearings (azimuths) measured by the passive radar and the times of reception of each pulse of the tracked radar. The method is realized with the aid at least of two spaced apart passive radars, each of them has aerials of the channel of compensation of side and phone lobes, a narrow-band reflector-type aerial, series-connected noiseless radio-frequency amplifier, multichannel receiving device, device of primary information processing and measurement of carrier frequency, amplitude and time of reception of signals of the detected radar, device of static processing of information and measurement of the bearing, repetition period, duration of the train and repetition of the pulse trains and a device for calculation of the difference of the angle of radiation of the aerials of the passive radars by the detected radar.

EFFECT: reduced error of measurement of the coordinates of posthorizon sources of radio-frequency radiations.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable in electromagnetic reconnaissance, radio navigation and radio detection and ranging for determination of the direction to the source of radiation or reflection of radio waves.

SUBSTANCE: the phase direction finder has two antennas, two receiving paths, three phase shifters, two phase detectors, two limiters, three adders, two modulus computation devices, subtracting device, amplifier, comparator, gate circuit and an oscillator.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of direction finding and excepted its dependence of the attitude of the object of direction-finding.

2 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has the first, the second and the third receiving antennas, the first, the second and the third high frequency amplifiers, the first and the second heterodynes, the first, the second and the third mixers, the first, the second and the third multipliers, the first, the second, the third and the fourth narrowband filters, the first, the second and the third intermediate frequency amplifiers, frequency multiplier by two, the first, the second and the third phase detectors, the first and the second correlator units, the first, the second, the third and the fourth threshold units, the first, the second, the third and the fourth keys and unit for recording.

EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.

3 dwg

FIELD: the proposed mode and arrangement refer to the field of radio electronics and may be used for definition of position of sources of emitting complex signals.

SUBSTANCE: the phase direction finder realizing the proposed phase mode of direction finding, has receiving aerials, receivers and a supporting generator, an impulse generator, an electronic commutator, a phase changer on 90, a phase detector and an indicator, a heterodyne, a mixer, an amplifier of an intermediate frequency, multipliers and band filters and a line of delay.

EFFECT: elimination of antagonism between requirements to accuracy of measuring and unique angle reading at phase mode of direction finding of sources of emitting of complex signals.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of radio technique and may be used in range-difference systems of definition of the position of the sources of radio emissions.

SUBSTANCE: the mode is based on measuring of two differences of distances Δr12 and Δr13 to two pairs of mobile supporting points {O1,O2}and {O1,O3 , } the coordinates ,j= 1,2,3 supporting points Oj in the moment of time of measuring of distances, then the vector of measured values is transformed into the vector of the coordinates of the three points F1,F2 and M belonging to a hyperbolina: the vector is stored and transmitted along the channels of transmitting information into the center of processing information for using it in quality of initial data at solution a range-difference navigational task; at that the points F1 and F2 defines the focuses of the hyperbolina if it is a hyperbola or an ellipse or a focus and its projection on a directrix if it is a parabola and the third point belongs to the hyperbolina in such a manner that the position of its project on the direct F1F2 defines the form of the curve of the second order.

EFFECT: decreases volume of stored and transmitted data.

5 dwg

FIELD: radio electronics, applicable for passive radio monitoring in multi-channel system designed for direction finding of several sources of radio emission simultaneously getting into the reception zone.

SUBSTANCE: expanded functional potentialities by way of direction finding in two planes of several sources of radio emission simultaneously getting into the reception zone.

EFFECT: expanded functional potentialities.

2 dwg

FIELD: finding coordinates of radio source.

SUBSTANCE: as planes of position of radio source the planes are used, which have line of position of radio source, which has to be crossing of two hyperbolic surfaces pf position corresponding to time-difference measurements. Method is based upon reception of signal of radio source by four aerials, on measurement of three differences in time of reception of radio source signal by aerials, which aerials form measuring bases, upon subsequent processing of results of measurements for calculation of values of parameters of position of radio source and for calculating coordinate of radio source as crossing point of three planes of position. Device for realization of the method has four aerials which aerials form three pairs of measuring bases, which bases are disposed in non-coincident planes, three calculators for calculating parameters of position of radio source, calculator of radio source coordinates made in form of unit for solving system of linear equations and indication unit.

EFFECT: precise measurement of linear coordinates of object.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: radio detection and ranging, radio navigation, applicable for determining the angular co-ordinates of the signal radiation source.

SUBSTANCE: the claimed method is realized with the aid of a device having three receiving derails, three receivers, two phase-meters, computer, adder and a recording unit connected in a definite way.

EFFECT: enhanced range of one-valued measurement of angles at a small length of the rough measuring base.

3 dwg

FIELD: proposed invention refers to radiolocation and may be used for definition of position and movement of sources of radiation of complex signals.

SUBSTANCE: achieved technical result of invention is increase of trustworthiness of reception of useful signals with a priori known carrier frequency and removal of ambiguity of direction finding by suppression false signals (interference) not interesting for radio control and coming from other directions. At that proposed arrangement has receiving antenna with circle diagram of radiation pattern , receiving antenna with cardioidic diagram of radiation pattern, block for control over diagram of radiation pattern, first and second receiving sets, division block, threshold block, former of control pulse, first and second keys, meter of frequency, memory block, block for comparison of codes, motor and register block.

EFFECT: increases trustworthiness of direction finding.

4 dwg

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