Articles planing method

FIELD: machine engineering, working articles with complex surface profile.

SUBSTANCE: method is realized after three-dimensional orientation of tool in the form of cutter and setting its front surface by preset initial angle relative to worked surface before starting planing process. Mutual motion of article and tool is realized during working process according to predetermined program at least along two orthogonal coordinate axes X, Y. When direction of projection of speed vector of relative motion of tool onto plane including coordinate axes changes, spatial position of front surface of tool is varied relative to its previous position in such a way that to keep initial inclination angle of front surface relative to plane that crosses plane including X,Y coordinates and is oriented in parallel to projection of vector of instantaneous speed of tool onto plane including said coordinate axes. In order to realize it, worked article and(or) tool is turned according to angular coordinate C around respective axes oriented normally to plane including coordinate axes and passing through one apex of tool. In order to enhance efficiency and to increase useful life period of tool, at end of each pass tool is turned out by 180°. Simultaneously respective cutting edge of tool is shifted to zone of removed allowance by feed value without contact of cutting edges of tool and its back face with material of article. Then allowance is removed in reverse direction by means of other lateral cutting edge of tool. Planing process is performed in desired range of technological parameters such as tool motion speed, tool acceleration till time moment of achieving target cutting speed of tool, effort acting upon tool in direction of cutting speed vector.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of planing, increased period of tool useful life.

3 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be mainly used for machining planing, including products with a complex profile of the treated surface

Planing is efficient and accurate method for removal of stock from the workpiece, because the speed of the relative movement of cutter and workpiece can match speeds, optimal (recommended) for the interacting pairs: material tool material of workpiece. This method was widely used in machining to the mid 60-ies of the last century.

A method of processing products by a method in which before handling produce original spatial orientation of the tool including a given orientation of its longitudinal axis and attaching the front surface of the tool under a given initial angle to the cutting surface. In the process carried out (according to a given program) simultaneous relative movement of workpiece and/or tool along two orthogonal coordinate axes. The longitudinal tool axis oriented parallel to the plane of arrangement referred to the coordinate axes, and the aforementioned relative movement carried out on a straight-line trajectory (SU, A1, No. 1618524).

It is not the Kam known from the prior art method of processing products planing should include, he practically not acceptable in the case of its use in the formation on the surface of workpiece profile elements (e.g., grooves) with a complex geometric shape (in plan) along the trajectory, including curved sections, such as sections with a variable radius of curvature.

The reason is that in the known method does not include any tools and/or methods to change the relative spatial position of the front surface of the tool (with respect to its original position) in the processing sections curved trajectory so that when passing through any point of the plot a curved trajectory, the front surface would have remained under the same given initial angle that before beginning processing, to the plane that intersects the plane of the arrangement mentioned axes and is oriented parallel to the projection of the vector of the instantaneous relative velocity of the tool at this point on the plane of the arrangement referred to the coordinate axes.

The absence of the known method of processing planing the above process leads to the following negative consequences.

First, reduced tool life, due to unfavourable conditions cutting with the passage of the instrument on the relevant sections of the trajectory R of the marks (for example, on sites with a variable radius of curvature), as there is a change in the spatial orientation of the front surface of the tool relative to the cutting surface with respect to a given initial position of this surface and respectively in contact with the material of workpiece come back surface of the instrument.

Second, the reduced precision machining when you change the geometry in terms of the generated profile (in the case of cutting, for example, the curvilinear profile of the grooves on the surface of the product), as changing spatial orientation of the front surface of the instrument (relative to its predetermined initial orientation) relative to the direction of the relative movement of the tool.

Another disadvantage of this method of treatment method of planing is the presence of the idle speed of the tool after each stroke, that:

- first, it significantly reduces the efficiency of the process;

- secondly, in multipass cutting reduces the durability of the tool, since the entire cutting process is carried out with one cutting edge (i.e. the second cutting edge is not involved in the whole process of the product).

Closest to the claimed technical solution is the method of processing isdel the th planing, in which at the beginning of processing to produce the initial spatial orientation of the tool in the form of cutter, including the orientation of its longitudinal axis at an angle close to or equal to 90°, the workpiece surface that is parallel to the plane of arrangement of the coordinate axes X, Y, and installation of the front surface of the tool under a given initial angle to the cutting surface. In the process carried out according to a given program relative movement of workpiece and tool along three orthogonal coordinate axes X, Y, z-Mentioned relative movement carried out in a predetermined path, and changing the direction of projection vector V velocity of the relative movement of the tool in the plane of the arrangement referred to the coordinate axes X and Y change the spatial position of the front surface of the tool relative to its previous position so that when passing any point referred to the path, this front surface remained under the same given initial angle that before beginning processing, to the plane that intersects the plane of the arrangement of the coordinate axes X, From and oriented parallel to the projection of the vector V is the instantaneous relative velocity of the tool at this point on the plane of the arrangement by mentioning the nature of the coordinate axes X, U. To do this, perform the rotation in the angular coordinate With the workpiece and/or tool about their respective axes oriented normal to the plane of arrangement of the coordinate axes X, Y and passing through one of the vertices of the tool (EN, A1, No. 2153958).

The disadvantages of this method of treatment planing should be attributed to the presence of the idle speed of the tool after each stroke, that:

- first, it significantly reduces the efficiency of the process;

- secondly, in multipass cutting reduces the durability of the tool, since the entire cutting process is carried out with one cutting edge (i.e. the second cutting edge is not involved in the whole process of the product).

The basis of the claimed method treatment products using volumetric power planing was based on the task of creating such technology slicing (cutting), that simultaneously with the expansion of the scope and technological capabilities would improve the performance and durability of the tool without losing the accuracy and quality of processing and material costs of manufacturing tools (i.e. exclusively technological way).

This object is achieved due to the fact that in the method of processing of the products page is Ganem, where before handling produce original spatial orientation of the tool in the form of cutter, including the orientation of its longitudinal axis at an angle close to or equal to 90°, the workpiece surface that is parallel to the plane of arrangement of the coordinate axes X, Y, and installation of the front surface of the tool under a given initial angle to the cutting surface, and in the process carried out according to a given program relative movement of workpiece and tool at least two orthogonal coordinate axes X, Y, mentioned relative movement carried out in a predetermined path, and changing the direction of projection of the velocity vector V the relative movement of the tool in the plane of the arrangement referred to the coordinate axes X and Y change the spatial position of the front surface of the tool relative to its previous position so that when passing any point referred to the path, this front surface remained under the same given initial angle that before beginning processing, to the plane that intersects the plane of the arrangement of the coordinate axes X, Y and oriented parallel to the projection of the vector V is the instantaneous relative velocity of the tool at this point to pocketradiologist referred to the coordinate axes X, From what carry out rotation in the angular coordinate With the workpiece and/or tool about their respective axes oriented normal to the plane of arrangement of the coordinate axes X, Y and passing through one of the vertices of the tool according to the invention at the end of each pass of the tool perform its 180° with simultaneous displacement of the corresponding cutting edge of the tool in the area remove the allowance for feed rate, excluding the interaction of the cutting edges of the tool and its rear surface with the material of workpiece, and then make a removal of the retiring allowance in the opposite direction the other of the side cutting edge of the tool and the process of planing carried out within the following values of technological parameters of processing:

V - up to 40 m/min,

and up to 2g m/s2,

Px=20÷50 kN

where V is the velocity of the tool (cutting speed) during each pass;

and acceleration of the tool until the desired cutting speed;

Pxthe force on the tool in the direction of the velocity vector cutting (i.e. X-axis);

g is the acceleration of gravity.

Reasonable process planing to implement cutter symmetrical relative to its longitudinal axis, the side cutting is Romak.

In some cases it is advisable referred to the axis of rotation of the tool and/or workpiece to combine with the front surface of the cutter, which is oriented at an angle close to or equal to 90°, with respect to a plane which intersects the plane of the arrangement of the coordinate axes X, Y and oriented parallel to the projection of the vector V is the instantaneous relative velocity of the tool at this point on the plane of the arrangement referred to the coordinate axes X, Y.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 - the path of the relative movement of workpiece and tool path cutting) in the orthogonal coordinate axes X and Y, but also the spatial position of the front surface of the tool at various points of this trajectory and the axis of rotation according to the variant according to claim 4 claims.

Figure 2 - one design tool (cutter)used for the industrial implementation of the patented method (on p.3 of the claims).

Figure 3 is a view along arrow a in figure 2.

4 is a section along b-b In figure 3.

5 is a General diagram of a universal machine for implementing the inventive method.

With the development of numerical control (CNC)machines, planing was supplanted by milling, as a more universal method of processing used in the processing of detail from simple to the complex form.

Until recently, the CNC could not provide values of cutting speed (V), acceleration (a) and power (P)required for the effective application of planing. Furthermore, it is not manifested interest in the development of CNC machine tools, implement the following principal advantages of planing: performance, precision, simple cutting tool.

High performance planing is determined by the fact that the speed of the relative movement of cutter and workpiece (the removal rate of the allowance in one way or the cutting speed can match the speeds recommended for interacting pairs: material tool material of the workpiece.

High precision planing is determined by the fact that the surface forming the cutting edges of the cutter, the position of which relative to the workpiece is determined by the CNC system.

High efficiency planing is determined by multiple improve the performance of the removal allowance and cheap simple cutting tool.

Currently, the technical solutions in the design of machine tools with CNC advanced firms, ensuring the achievement of the following values cutting speed: acceleration and force acting in the direction of the velocity vector cutting, respectively: V=40 m/min; a=2g m/s2(where g is the acceleration force tegest is); P=20÷50 kN.

The feature of the proposed method planing characterized by the fact that:

planing cutter is installed in the rotating (or spinning) spindle, suitable for such processing methods like milling, drilling, slotting;

- procurement (or tool) move along trajectories defined by the coordinates X, Y, Z along the workpiece, including a curved surface, and the angular coordinate With, removing the chips;

- spindle, if necessary, rotated about a respective axis (angular coordinate), keeping a constant angle between the tangent to the cutting surface at each point of the trajectory of the cutting and the front surface of the cutter.

Given the experience of the design, construction and operation of the precision engraving-planer mod. MAMP for implementing the inventive method, the machine must have three linear movements, providing moving with speed V is not lower than 40 m/min and acceleration of about 2g, and the force P, which is sufficient to remove the allowance for processing planing.

In particular, to ensure accurate processing 6-7 quality and surface roughness of 1.2 μm you want to apply:

all linear and angular position feedback sensors, installed in the vicinity of the guides floating bonds is s, discrete sensors on linear coordinates X, Y, Z must be less than 0.001 mm, the angular coordinate With not lower than 0.02;

- precision bearings in the spindle, roller or ball guides;

in the drives of the coordinate X, Y ballscrew drives, hydraulic transmission with automatic selection of the gaps or linear motors;

- the original positioning of the tool in the coordinate reference system of the machine (disclosed, for example, in the patent RU, A1, No. 2165348), which uses a television for computer microscopes, the image which is displayed on the monitor screen of the control of a personal computer or similar decisions;

- tool (rod, the cutting part) must not restrict the cross-section of a chip shot at planing, if fully use the capabilities of the actuators of the machine.

Preferably, cutting mandrel have a simple design with precision bases, providing the constant position of the cutting edges relative to the center of rotation of the spindle, and also allowed for adjustment along the length of the overhang of the tool. A deviation of the position of the cutter - 0,1 mm the Design of the cutting should be, mainly, team, quick change, using technical solutions that have been tested on the cutters for turning operations.

One of the peaks of the cutter should RA is to rely on the rotation axis (rotation) of the spindle. This arrangement of the cutter is mandatory for planing. Any displacement of the top of the cutter with the axis of rotation causes a substantial torque resistance on the spindle, a significant complication of the control program when working with rotating cutter and hinders the formation of precisely spaced curved surfaces of the cutting.

The technical essence of the claimed method of machining planing is as follows.

Before beginning processing of the product of the longitudinal axis 1 cutter 2 are oriented at an angle close to or equal to 90°to the treated surface, which is parallel to the plane of arrangement of the coordinate axes X and Y along which is provided by relative movement (the direction of which is conventionally shown in figure 1 by arrows S) of the cutter 2 and the processed product. The top 3 pick 2 set in the area of the beginning of the trajectory 4 cutting (i.e. the trajectory of the relative movement of tool and workpiece) and Orient the front surface 5 of the cutter 2 for a given initial angle to the path 4 cutting (i.e. to the surface of the cutting) at the starting point. In the process carried out according to a given program (providing the necessary curvilinear trajectory 4 cutting) relative movement being processed izdeliye tool for at least two coordinate axes X and Y (mainly orthogonal, see figure 1). Mentioned relative movement is performed with the possibility of providing the resultant displacement of the cutter 2 in a predetermined path 4 with curved sections (for example, with areas of constant or variable radius of curvature). When changing the direction of projection of the vector V is the instantaneous velocity of the relative movement of the tool in the plane of the arrangement of the coordinate axes X and Y (for example, in the process of changing the radius of curvature at a certain trajectory 4) change the spatial position of the front surface 5 of the cutter 2 in relation to the original (or previous) position of this surface 5. Change the specified spatial position of the implement so that when passing any point mentioned trajectory 4 (for example, in the area with a variable radius of curvature) cutting the front surface 5 would remain the same given initial angle (and before processing, for example, perpendicular) to the plane 6 (or to the surface of the cutting), which crosses the plane of the arrangement of the coordinate axes X and Y and is oriented parallel to the projection of the vector V is the instantaneous velocity of the relative movement of the tool at this point on the plane of the arrangement referred to the coordinate axes X and Y (figure 1 plane 6 is conventionally shown in the VI the e is a straight line, which is the line of intersection of the plane 6 (or surface cutting) with the plane of the arrangement of the coordinate axes X and Y). For the implementation of amendments to the provisions of the anterior surface of the cutter 2 carry out a rotation in the angular coordinate With the workpiece and/or tool around the axis 8, oriented normal to the plane of arrangement of the coordinate axes X, Y and passing through one of the vertices of the instrument. If the orientation of the front surface 5 of the cutter 2 at an angle close to or equal to 90°, with respect to a plane which intersects the plane of the arrangement of the coordinate axes X, Y and oriented parallel to the projection of the vector V is the instantaneous relative velocity of the tool at this point on the plane of the arrangement referred to the coordinate axes X, Y, it is advisable to axis 8 of rotation of the instrument 4 and/or the processed product to combine with the front surface of the cutter 2. The provision of the spatial orientation of the front surface 5 of the cutter 2 in any point of the trajectory 4 cutting creates optimal constant cutting conditions along the entire length of the passage (due to the invariance of the spatial orientation of the front and rear surfaces of the cutter 2 with respect to the surface of the cutting), which increases the durability of the tool (cutter 2) and precision machining products in General.

The estuaries and the ü it should be noted, in the case of the implementation process with a constant depth of cut for the entire trajectory 4 the relative movement of the cutter 2, the projection of the vector V is the instantaneous velocity of the tool in each given point of the trajectory of movement is strictly parallel to the vector V is the instantaneous velocity at that point. When carrying out process with variable depth of cut (which is also valid in the framework of the patented processing method) specified condition is not met. Therefore the spatial orientation of the conditional plane 6 carried out through its binding to the projection (on the plane of the arrangement of the coordinate axes X and Y) of the above-mentioned vector V is the instantaneous velocity of the cutter 2 in each specific point of the curved trajectory 4 cutting. At the end of each stroke of the tool perform its 180° (with simultaneous displacement of the corresponding cutting edge of the tool in the area remove the allowance for feed rate), excluding, however, the interaction of the cutting edges of the tool and its rear surface with the material of workpiece. Then make a removal of the retiring allowance in the opposite direction the other of the side cutting edge of the tool, eliminating thereby idling. The process of planing to implement in the limit is x the following values of technological parameters of processing: V - up to 40 m/min and up to 2g m/s2P=20÷50 kN, where

V is the velocity of the tool (cutting speed) during each pass;

and acceleration of the tool until the desired cutting speed;

P - force on the tool in the direction of the velocity vector cutting;

g is the acceleration of gravity.

If the cutting surface is a machined surface and is formed by the lateral cutting edges of the cutter, the process of planing is performed by the cutter symmetric (with respect to its longitudinal axis), the position of the side cutting edges.

It is obvious that the mentioned change of the spatial position of the front surface 5 of the cutter 2 and 180° (coordinate) at the end of each pass can be made widely known from the prior art means. For example, by rotation of workpiece and/or cutter 2 about their respective axes, which are oriented predominantly normal to the plane of arrangement of the coordinate axes X and Y passing through one of the vertices of the cutter 2 and lying, for example, in the plane of its front surface 5.

With the constructive-technological point of view to implement the processing of the product (for example, metallographic forms) in accordance with the patented method, it is advisable to use the cut is C 2 with a triangular profile of the cutting part 7, the front surface 5 which is oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis 1 of the cutter 2. These changes in the spatial position of the front surface 5 of the cutter 2 is most beneficial to carry out by turning the cutter 2 around the axis 8 passing through the top 3 and oriented normal to the plane of arrangement referred to axes X and Y.

Thus, the feasibility analysis of the use of the claimed method planing showed that when processing General engineering parts is a reduced processing time, reduced cost of operation compared to, for example, by milling.

Method multipass planing can be implemented on universal machines (which, in addition to planing, able to carry out such methods of processing, such as milling, drilling, slotting), which provide the relative movement between the workpiece and tool with velocity V in the range up to 40 m/min in X, Y, force "P" within 20...50 kN, the acceleration "a", up to 2g and there are two modes of operation (i.e. rotation of the coordinate) of the spindle, one of which is in a tracking mode by CNC system, and other free.

In the claimed technical solution is proposed to use modern technical solutions to create a CNC machine, allowing about what especial the process of planing with working speeds (V) up to 40 m/min and more. Gamma CNC machines, working the claimed method of planing, to process engineering (and other) details of any shape, including: stamps, molds (including, large), body parts with high accuracy and performance. The method provides, for example, compared to milling, the productivity gains from 6 to 25 times and a substantial reduction in material costs for the manufacture of cutting tools.

The claimed method of machining planing can be mainly used for machining planing on CNC machines products with a complex profile of the treated surface (including metallographic forms, relief work surface which is formed by an ordered set of profile grooves of various sizes and geometric shapes), as well as other products with high requirements for precision, functional layers which is necessary to obtain the relief desired depth with sub-micron resolution of the structures.

1. Method of machining planing, in which before handling produce spatial orientation of the tool in the form of cutter, including the orientation of its longitudinal axis at an angle close to or equal to 90° the workpiece surface that is parallel to PL is Scoti location of the coordinate axes X, Y, and installation of the front surface of the tool under a given initial angle to the cutting surface, and in the process carried out according to a given program relative movement of workpiece and tool, at least two orthogonal coordinate axes X, Y, with the aforementioned relative movement carried out in a predetermined path, and changing the direction of projection of the vector V is the instantaneous velocity of the relative movement of the tool in the plane of the arrangement referred to the coordinate axes X and Y change the spatial position of the front surface of the tool relative to its previous position so that when passing any point referred to the path, this front surface remained under the same given initial angle that before beginning processing, to the plane that intersects the plane of the arrangement of the coordinate axes X, Y and oriented parallel to the projection of the vector V is the instantaneous velocity of the tool at this point on the plane of the arrangement referred to the coordinate axes X, Y, which shall turn on the angular coordinate With the workpiece and/or tool about their respective axes oriented normal to the plane of arrangement of the coordinate axes X, Y and passing through one of the vertices of Ann the tool, characterized in that at the end of each pass of the tool perform its 180° with simultaneous displacement of the corresponding cutting edge of the tool in the area remove the allowance for feed rate, excluding the interaction of the cutting edges of the tool and its rear surface with the material of workpiece, and then make a removal of the retiring allowance in the opposite direction the other of the side cutting edge of the tool while the process of planing carried out within the following values of technological parameters of processing:

V - up to 40 m/min,

and up to 2g m/s2,

Px=20-50 kN

where V is the velocity of the tool (cutting speed) during each pass;

and acceleration of the tool until the desired cutting speed;

Pxthe force on the tool in the direction of the velocity vector of the cut, i.e. along the X-axis;

g is the acceleration of gravity.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the process of planing is performed by the cutter symmetrical relative to its longitudinal axis location of the side cutting edges.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the said axis of rotation is combined with the front surface of the cutter, which is oriented at an angle close to or equal to 90° relatively PLoS the spine, which crosses the plane of the arrangement coordinate planes X, Y and oriented parallel to the projection of the vector V is the instantaneous relative velocity of the tool at this point on the plane of the arrangement referred to the coordinate axes X, Y.



 

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