Blank radial forging method and four-striker forging apparatus for performing the same

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly radial forging of ingots and blanks.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forging heated blank in one set of strikers mounted in simultaneously moving holders at deformation degree 30 - 90%. Forging process includes individual procedures of squeezing blank, feeding and tilting it. Individual squeezing procedures are realized by depth whose value is determined according to given relation. Method is performed in apparatus having strikers with working surface formed by several planes; holders of upper and lower strikers with inclined sliding faces relative to which inclined sliding faces of holders of lateral strikers are moved. Lateral strikers are coupled with holders of upper and lower strikers through eight guides with П-shaped cross section. Strikers have cross sections with working portions in the form of isosceles trapezium. Forming lock joint inner faces of П-shaped guides and embraced by them faces of holders of strikers are inclined by angle 0 - 170° relative to mounting plane of guide to striker holder.

EFFECT: improved efficiency and quality of forging, improved wear resistance of tools.

6 cl, 10 dwg, 1 ex, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, and in particular to methods of radial forging of ingots and billets on hydraulic forging presses or radial forging machines, equipped chetyrehpostovye forging devices, and structures chetyrehpostovyh forging devices.

The invention can be used in machine-building and metallurgical industry in the manufacture of forgings made of various steels and alloys in forging shops, having a hydraulic forging press or radial forging machine.

There is a method of forging blanks in chetyrehsetovom forging device that includes compression billet two pairs of strikers in the radial direction with the application to it by Boykov at the same time efforts of normal compression and effort shift, filing and kantowski of the workpiece. Forging this method is carried out in three stages: basic, intermediate, and final on the main stage compression is performed with the introduction of the side surfaces of the heads to the body of the workpiece, and the primary and intermediate stages of the workpiece after each compression turn over to the corner of 15-45°while at the final stage compresses the workpiece with an angle of coverage of the strikers 280-350° and Kontokali after each feed in the same direction as in the previous stages, and the supply will zagotavlivayut ratio

where L is the width of the working surface of the heads in the direction of the axis of feed of the workpiece;

α - angle kantowski workpiece;

π - constant (UA 34978 C2, 21 J 1/04, B 21 J 13/02, 15.07.2003).

This method ensures high precision forgings with high surface quality.

However, the known method of forging blanks does not ensure high productivity and quality metal forgings, as due to the weak deformation study of cast metal structure is difficult to obtain high quality throughout the cross section of the ingot.

Known chetyrehballnoe forging device, consisting of the holders of the upper and lower forging dies with inclined surfaces, kinematically using guides - links - related two brackets side Boykov with inclined surfaces corresponding to the inclined surfaces of the upper and lower holders and four strikers attached to the respective holders (Japan's bid No. 58-12088, B 21 J 9/06, 9/02, 13/2, 07.03.83).

This device provides simultaneous compression of the workpiece with four sides in the manufacture of forged round and square cross-section.

But the design guide links do not provide high reliability and durability of the device is, as well as high accuracy of forgings.

Closest to the proposed chetyrehsetovom forging device is a device according to the patent of Ukraine # 29183 (B 21 J 1/04, 16.10.2000)containing Boiky, the working surface of each of which are formed in different planes, the holders of the upper and lower forging dies with inclined slip planes and the side holders Boykov, made with inclined slip planes corresponding to said slip planes holders top and bottom heads, mounted for movement relative to the upper and lower holders Boykov and related through guides attached to the holders.

Known chetyrehballnoe forging device ensures forgings with high dimensional accuracy in cross section.

However, the known chetyrehballnoe forging device does not provide a high performance process, characterised by the increased wear of the slip planes, as well as the possibility of jamming of the holders of the lateral strikers in the guide.

The objective of the invention is to provide a method of radial forging billets and chetyrehvalkovoj forging device for its implementation, ensuring a higher quality of metal forgings, the performance of the forging process and took the value of resistance of the slip planes.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in contrast to the known method of radial forging of billets in chetyrehsetovom forging device, jaunty which is installed on the holders with the possibility of simultaneous movement and through the guides kinematically interconnected mating inclined slip planes, includes a single compression of the heated billet with the introduction of the side surfaces of the heads to the body of the workpiece, filing and kantowski, in the proposed method, forging is carried out in one set of strikers with the degree of deformation 30-99%, while single compression billet perform depth δdefined by the following formula:

δ=(0,4-2,4)×h,

where h is the height of the work area brisk.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that breeding Boykov forging device before a single compression procurement shall be subject the following relationship:

lk/l≥0,20,

where lk- the length of the pads of the mating inclined slip planes holders Boykov;

l is the length of the guides,

and a single compression of the workpiece is carried out at the compliance ratio

lk/l≥0,33.

The achievement of the technical result is strengthened by the fact that the mating inclined plane of the sliding holders of strikers in the process the work of the forging device periodically apply grease.

To achieve the mentioned technical result in chetyrehsetovom forging device containing Boiky, the working surface of each of which are formed in different planes, the holders of the upper and lower forging dies with inclined slip planes and the side holders Boykov, made with inclined slip planes corresponding to said slip planes holders top and bottom heads, mounted for movement relative to the upper and lower holders Boykov and related through the guides, mounted on holders, new is the fact that the holders of the sides of the heads are connected with the upper and lower holders Boykov through eight guides a U-shaped cross-section, the inner plane which made covering the plane of the holders of the heads with the formation of interlock, jaunty made in cross-section with the working parts in the form of an isosceles trapezium, facing peaks to the workpiece, while at the cloistered position of the heads of the mentioned locations form the circuits connected by the following relation:

F1/F2=1,8-10,

where F1- the area of the circuit bounded by the bases of the trapezoid at the close position Boykov;

F2- the area of the contour, Ogre is ikenaga vertices of the trapezoid,

and these inner plane of the U-shaped rails and covered the plane of the holders of the heads are angled α=0-170° to the plane of the mounting rail on the holder.

The achievement of the technical result is strengthened by the fact that depending on the design specifications of the device, manufactured for pressing a specific billets, simplify its Assembly and operation:

- guides can be mounted on holders top and bottom heads of the plane and the plane of attachment of each of the guide is perpendicular to the inclined slip planes holders Boykov;

- guides can be mounted on holders of lateral heads of the plane and the plane of attachment of each of the guide is perpendicular to the inclined slip planes holders Boykov.

The inventive method of radial forging, chetyrehballnoe forging device for its implementation are explained figure 1-10.

Figure 1 presents a General view chetyrehvalkovoj forging device in statics (note Boykov); figure 2 - cross section a-a figure 1; figure 3 is a section b - b figure 1 (variant I); figure 4 - section b-b figure 1 (variant II); figure 5 - a section b-b figure 1 (option III); figure 6 - cross section C-C figure 1; figure 7 is a perspective view of chetyrehvalkovoj forging device in the dynamics (in the process of compression for the otoki); on Fig diagram of the compression of the workpiece four strikers at the incomplete implementation of the lateral planes of the heads in the body of the blank; figure 9 - diagram of the compression of the workpiece four strikers with the full implementation of the lateral planes of the heads in the body of the blank; figure 10 - two-stage compression billet four strikers with Kontokali on the last corner β.

Chetyrehballnoe forging device consists of a holder top striker 1, the holder bottom striker 2, the brackets of the side of the heads 3, 4, Boykov 5-8, guides 9-12 (figure 1). To the top plate 13 mounted on the walking beam of the press, as well as to the bottom plate 14 a forging device fastened by means of grooves, for example, type "dovetail" or using special clamps (not shown).

The holders 3, 4 lateral Boykov 5, 7 are inclined slip plane corresponding to the inclined slip planes holders 1, 2 of the top 6 and bottom 8 Boykov and kinematically connected with them through the guide is a U-shaped cross-section 9-12, providing reciprocating motion of the holders of the sides of the heads 3, 4 (figure 1-5, 7). Boiky 5-8 are cross-sectional locations "abcd", each in the shape of an isosceles trapezoid, the top of the "dc"facing the workpiece to the workpiece (shown by the dotted line in Fig.7-10). The lateral plane "ad" and "cb" (1, 8, 9) are actively involved in shaping operacneho section forgings (Fig-10). Geometrical dimensions of the line are selected based on the ratio

F1/F2=1,8÷10,

where F1- the area of the circuit bounded by the bases of the trapezoid;

F2- the area of the circuit bounded by the vertices of a trapezoid.

In figure 1 the area of the F1letters abba, and the area F2- letters dcc'd'.

With respect to F1/F2<a 1.8 not provide the required degree of deformation of the workpiece (ε=30%) in one set of strikers with the introduction of the side surfaces of the heads to the body of the workpiece, and not to achieve high performance of the forging process.

With respect to F1/F2>10 significantly increase the size of the device that is not rational.

As shown in Fig 2-5, the inner surface (plane) guides a U-shaped cross-section 9-12, and covered "the castle" (with the possibility of relative longitudinal movement) surface (plane) of the holders of Boykov oriented, each at an angle α=0÷170° to the plane of the mounting rail on the holder.

It provides smooth, without defects, slip holders side of the heads relative to the holders of the upper and lower forging dies. Figure 5 shows the case of performing the rails with angle α=0°.

At angles α>0÷170° potential distortions keep the lei side Boykov, their jamming and breakage of the guides.

There are two options for mounting the guide is a U-shaped cross-section.

The first known variant of the fastening guide is that the guide is stationary holder on the top or bottom of the heads, and the inner guide surface slidably in contact with the covered its surface, made on the holder side. (Fig 3, 4, 5) (patent of Ukraine No. 21986 A, B 21 J 13/02, 30.04.98). However, in all cases, the fastening guide provides the required high level of Assembly of the device, and hence the long overhaul life.

In the inventive design chetyrehvalkovoj forging the device of the second alternative mounting rails, which consists in the fact that the guide is fixed on the holder side striker, and its internal surface slidably in contact with the covered surface is made to the holder top or bottom firing pin (figure 2). This allows for more accurate Assembly of the device, which increases the abrasion resistance of inclined planes holders known that as a result leads to an increase in the overhaul life of the device.

Work chetyrehvalkovoj forging device is as follows.

When rising concentration in the ow traverses the press with the upper plate 13 up the upper holder 1 striker with the striker 6 is moved up and simultaneously guides 9-12 divorces holders side Boykov 3, 4, opening the workspace device (Fig.7).

Then the workpiece (figure 7 shown by the dotted line cross section of the workpiece) by means of a manipulator served in the active area of the device. After that include the working stroke of the press, in which its movable yoke moves the upper holder 1 striker with the striker 6 in the direction towards the workpiece, together with the striker 8 compresses it in a vertical plane. Simultaneously with the guide 9-12 and the mating inclined planes holder top striker 1 moves in the direction of the workpiece holders 3, 4 lateral Boykov 5, 7, which compresses it in radial and tangential directions. After the compression of the workpiece traverse the press with the upper plate 13 moves the upper holder 1 striker up, revealing the device, and the compression cycle is repeated (Fig.7).

The inventive method of radial forging billets four strikers in the inventive design chetyrehvalkovoj forging device is as follows.

Initially prepared to work forging complex - radial forging machine or hydraulic forging press with chetyrehochkovym forging device. To do this, before forging installed in the workspace RCM or forging device four identical striker 5-8, having them in pairs in two mutually perpendicular p is asketh "nn" and "mm" (Fig).

Heated to forging temperature of the workpiece in the form of ingots, cast or pre-deformed workpiece is taken out of the heating furnace and use the rocker serves in the working area of the forging unit, which produces its compression strikers 5-8 with the introduction of the side surfaces of the heads in stock body (Fig-10). This single compression billet perform value

δ=(0,4-2,4)·h,

where h is the height of the work area brisk.

When reductions blanks less than 0,4h not ensured high productivity of the process, and not a high quality metal in the axial zone of the forgings. When reductions procurement of more than 2,4h possible Sakova on the surface of the forging, as in this case jaunty will be introduced in the body of the forging not only the side surfaces of the working areas, but also the side surfaces of the bases of the heads. Figure 9 shows the diagram of the compression four strikers with the highest possible introduction of strikers in the body of the workpiece. In this case,

δ/2=1,2h or δ=2,4h.

After each single compression submit and the casting-off of the workpiece at an angle β overlapping obitaemyh sites to full compression throughout its surface (figure 10).

The inventive method compression billet four strikers with the introduction of the side surfaces of these heads with a single-reductions δ=(0,4-2,4)·h allows the implementation of forging blanks with the degree of deformation ε =30-99% with one heating workpieces in one set of strikers and get quality metal above known analogues.

The calculation of the degree of deformation produced by the formula

where F0F1square cross-sections of the preform and the finished forgings, respectively.

In the forging of the billet with the degree of deformation ε<30% is not ensured high quality metal, and when crafting with the degree of deformation ε>99,0% billet cools below the temperature of plastic deformation, which leads to the necessity of stopping the forging process.

However, disclosure of known prior to compression of the workpiece is carried out by the compliance ratio

lk/l≥0,20,

where lk- the length of the pads of the mating inclined slip planes holders Boykov;

l is the length of the guides (7).

With respect to the lk/l<0,20 possible bias holders lateral heads of the guides in a U-shaped cross-section, their jamming and breakage of the guides.

The operation in the compression process procurement produce with respect to the ratio

lk/l≥0,33.

With respect to the lk/l<0,33 significantly increases the wear of the slip planes holders Boykov and, accordingly, reduced the turnaround time of device operation and, as a consequence, obamapresident forged during this period.

An example of the method

Before you begin preparing to work chetyrehballnoe forging device by installing the holders of strikers with geometric sizes depending on the diameter of the forging. On the adjacent inclined sliding surfaces of the heads and guides put a layer of grease on the basis of disulfit molybdenum, ensuring normal operation of the device during one shift (8 hours).

Ingot weight 1 tons, with a diameter of 440 mm HSS RMS heated in the gas chamber of the furnace to a temperature of 1150°and protovale on hydraulic forging press force of 20 MN in chetyrehsetovom forging device of the claimed design in the forging of a diameter of 105 mm Forging produced in one set of strikers for one heating of the ingot.

The degree of deformation was

Single compression ingot was performed by size δ=120-220 mm, which corresponds to value

δ/h=0.55 to 1.6,the

where h is the height of the work area brisk.

In the forging process was the introduction of the side planes of the heads in the body of the workpiece.

Used chetyrehsetovom forging device were designed following relations:

F1/F2=3,2,

and the angle α=140°.

Disclosure Boykov chetyrehvalkovoj forging device was carried to the loading of the workpiece), the supporting ratio

lk/l=0,26-0,48,

and compression of the workpiece produced with respect to the ratio

lk/l=0,38-0,43.

The performance of the forging process was 2230 kg/h

The metal quality was assessed score carbide inhomogeneity in the three zones of the cross-section forgings:

1-I - 5 mm from the surface of the forgings;

2nd - middle of the radius of the cross-section forgings (1/2R);

3rd - axial area forgings.

At the surface carbide inhomogeneity corresponded to points 3, 1/2R - 5 grade and axially - 6 points.

On the inclined slip planes holders Boykov gouges and deep scratches were missing.

For comparison protovale ingot weighing 1 ton, with a diameter of 440 mm of steel RMS on the prototype method known in chetyrehsetovom forging device in forging a diameter of 105 mm

The performance of the forging process in the method prototype was 1560 kg/h, and the quality of the metal, the estimated score carbide heterogeneity:

- at the surface of the forgings - 4 points;

- half of the radius of the cross section - 7 points;

in the axial zone of forging - 7-8 point.

On the inclined slip planes holders Boykov appeared deep scratches, risks.

The results of the tests with the other parameters of the process and the device are shown in table 1-3.

Analysis of the data given in table 1-3, shows that the quality of the metal forgings,obtained by the claimed method of the claimed design chetyrehvalkovoj forging device (estimated score carbide inhomogeneity), higher quality metal forgings, obtained by the method prototype. A specific example of the manufacture of forgings of high-speed steel RMS reduction carbide inhomogeneity was 1-2 points.

The performance of the forging process for patented method increased by 8.3-57,7%, and the resistance of the slip planes has increased 2.4 times. During operation of the patented devices prevent its jamming and breakage of the guides.

Table 1
no experienceThe degree of deformation, ε, %Attitude δ/h, single.Δ=BKN (GOST) - BCN (experience), scoreCapacity, kg/hNote
1240,501570
2300,701690
3751,322340

Continuation of table 1
no experienceThe degree of deformation, ε, %Attitude δ/h, single.Ɗ =BKN (GOST) - BCN (experience), scoreCapacity, kg/hNote
4991,322460
599,31,3--The workpiece does not dukowana as cool
6650,401760
7752,422390
8752,5Marriage, in the process forging formed Sakova
9 prototype01560
*Note: BCN (GOST) - valid point carbide inhomogeneity according to GOST 19265-73; BCN (practice) - score carbide inhomogeneity obtained during this experience.
Table 2
no experienceF 1/F2single.<α, hail.It produces. process, kg/HRAssessment of efficiency and technological capabilities of the device
15902460The device provides a process of forging blanks on patented method without scuffing on the slip planes holders Boykov
25902300-//-
35902300Burrs on the slip planes
41,7901500Low productivity of the process
510902220Stable forging process without scuffing on the slip planes holders Boykov
611902310Significantly increase the size of the device
75 02250Stable forging process, without scuffing on the slip planes

Continuation of table 2
no experienceF1/F2single.<α, hail.It produces. process, kg/HRAssessment of efficiency and technological capabilities of the device
851702320Stable forging process, without scuffing on the slip planes
95175-Jamming devices
10 prototype--1560Burrs on the slip planes holders Boykov
Table 3
no experiencelk/lVolume forgings, prokovanny between overhauls of slip planes holders Boykov, tNote
10,19-The jamming device and breakage guides
2,25 1100Significant wear on the slip planes
30,332500Wear slip planes insignificant, minor repairs
40,402500-//-
5 prototype-1050Significant wear on the slip planes

1. The method of radial forging of billets in chetyrehsetovom forging device, jaunty which is installed on the holders with the possibility of simultaneous movement and through the guides kinematically interconnected mating inclined slip planes, includes a single compression of the heated billet with the introduction of the side surfaces of the heads to the body of the workpiece, filing and kantowski, wherein the forging is carried out in one set of strikers with the degree of deformation 30-99%, with a single compression of the workpiece to produce depth δdetermined by the formula

δ=(0,4-2,4)·h,

where h is the height of the work area brisk.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that cultivation of the heads of the forging device before a single compression procurement shall be subject the following relationship:

lto/l≥020,

where lto- the length of the pads of the mating inclined slip planes holders Boykov;

l is the length of the guides,

and a single compression of the workpiece is carried out at the compliance ratio

lto/l≥0,33.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the mating inclined plane of the sliding holders of strikers in the process of the forging device periodically apply grease.

4. Chetyrehballnoe forging device containing Boiky, the working surface of each of which are formed in different planes, the holders of the upper and lower forging dies with inclined slip planes and the side holders Boykov, made with inclined slip planes corresponding to said slip planes holders top and bottom heads, mounted for movement relative to the upper and lower holders Boykov and related through the guides, mounted on holders, characterized in that the holders of the sides of the heads are connected with the upper and lower holders Boykov through eight guides a U-shaped cross-section, the inner planes are covering the plane of the holders of the heads of education locking connection, jaunty made in cross-section with the working areas in the form of an isosceles trapezium, facing peaks to the workpiece, while at the cloistered position of the heads of the mentioned locations form the circuits connected by the following relation:

F1/F2=1,8-10,

where F1- the area of the circuit bounded by the bases of the trapezoid at the close position Boykov;

F2- the area of the circuit bounded by the vertices of the trapezoid,

and these inner plane of the U-shaped rails and covered the plane of the holders of the heads are angled α=0-170° to the plane of the mounting rail on the holder.

5. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the guides are mounted on holders top and bottom heads of the plane and the plane of attachment of each of the guide is perpendicular to the inclined slip planes holders Boykov.

6. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the guides are mounted on holders of lateral heads of the plane and the plane of attachment of each of the guide is perpendicular to the inclined slip planes holders Boykov.



 

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FIELD: plastic metal working, possibly forging hammers provided with members receiving power from striking unit of hammer.

SUBSTANCE: drive unit includes at least one supporting portion arranged in striking unit of hammer and at least one key corresponding to supporting portion. The last is in the form of convex cylindrical surface whose generatrix is normal relative to motion path of striking unit of hammer. Key is jointly mounted by inclination angle relative to motion path of striking unit. Drive unit is also provided with continuous belt made of material with high resistance against wearing and having tensioning and fixing device. Back side of striking unit of hammer has oval-shaped cylindrical surface whose part is above mentioned convex cylindrical surface. Continuous belt is mounted around oval-shaped cylindrical surface.

EFFECT: increased useful life period of drive unit due to compensation of worn zones.

3 dwg

FIELD: plastic metal working with use of plastic deformation, namely manufacture of nano-crystalline materials with improved mechanical properties.

SUBSTANCE: die set includes bandage to which cone insert having four parts is pressed -in; lower support; inlet and outlet ducts of the same rectangular cross section; and ram. Parts of cone insert are made in such a way that they are defined by two mutually crossing planes and by portion of cone surface cut off by said planes. Rib formed by means of two mutually crossing planes in each part of cone insert is cut off by such a way that assembled parts of insert define inlet duct with three portions. Two portions have rectilinear walls; one portion has helical walls. The last portion is arranged between said portions with rectilinear walls. Outlet duct is restricted by lower support and by two adjacent parts of cone insert having grooves in its lower end.

EFFECT: enhanced intensity of plastic deformation of metallic blank, simplified design and increased useful life period of die set.

7 dwg

FIELD: plastic metal working with use of intensive plastic deformation, namely manufacture of nano-crystalline materials with improved degree of mechanical properties.

SUBSTANCE: die set includes slider and plate restricting inlet duct; stationary stop closing inlet duct and restricting together with plate outlet duct; ram and member for knocking out blank. Said member is joined with motion drive unit and it is mounted with possibility of introducing into additional through duct formed in slider. According to first variant of invention at initial position of slider its through duct is arranged in front of outlet duct. Slider may be shifter before starting pressing process by value exceeding size of through duct. According to second variant of invention through duct of slider is arranged in front of outlet duct in lower limit position of slider. Said cone-shape through duct of slider is closed by means of plug pressed-in to it.

EFFECT: improved design providing possibility for extracting last blank out of outlet duct before starting pressing of next lot of blanks.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: plastic metal working, possibly by isothermal deforming.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes die unit, heating device and heat insulation unit. Heating device includes two sections arranged at both sides of die unit and bridge. Each section includes upper and lower electrically conducting plates electrically connected one to other through lamellae. Said sections are electrically connected in series; bridge is arranged outside heat insulation unit. Apparatus may have members for fixing electrically conducting plates. Several fixing members provide possibility for moving electrically conducting plates.

EFFECT: uniform heating of die set, lowered metal consumption for communications.

2 cl, 4 dwg

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