Agent for plant protection from diseases and pests

FIELD: agents for plant protection useful in controlling of plant diseases of viral, bacterial and fungal etiology as well as in controlling of hookworms and arthropods.

SUBSTANCE: claimed agent contains (wt. %): water soluble product of iodine interaction with organic reagent 7-70; organic solvent 2-20; non-ionic surfactant 1-10; and water 1-90. Abovementioned organic reagent represents polyethylene glycol alkyl or alkylphenyl ester; and organic solvent represents ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol or polyethylene glycol. Weight ratio of iodine and organic reagent is from 1:2 to 1:10. As non-ionic surfactant preferably proxanol or oxyethylated alkylphenol based on polymer distillate is used.

EFFECT: simplified agent for plant protection.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 10 ex

 

The invention relates to plant protection and can be used in agriculture to combat plant diseases of viral, bacterial and fungal etiology, as well as to combat nematodes and arthropods.

Such a wide range of actions proposed tools and especially its high effectiveness against pathogens of viral infections due to the fact that the composition tool includes a water-soluble complex of iodine.

Known U.S. patents No. 2742736; 2853416 and 2853417, which describes the composition of iodine with N-vinyl pyrrolidone, used to protect plants from diseases caused by nematodes and insects. Known patent EP No. 1018883 describing complex composition containing iodine in ionic form, and molecular (complexing agent in the patent is not specified), in addition to the main active substance is iodine, the composition comprises a secondary active components - insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, etc., there is mention of the presence in the composition of emulsifiers, oils, mineral salts, organic and mineral acids.

Lack of funds is described the complexity of their composition, the high cost of individual components in the composition and the difficulty of obtaining water-soluble compounds of iodine (for example, obtaining a complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone).

Known the s composition, containing water-soluble iodine, simpler composition used for the purposes of disinfection and disinfestation. These compositions are described in patent RU 2161507 and EN 2080079.

As an agent, translating iodine in water-soluble state, in the described inventions use the copolymerization product of ethylene oxide and propylene produced in the presence of fractions of alcohols C12-C14.

The described tools are well soluble in water and possess a high level disinfectant and destinationname properties. However, when you try to use the described means for protection of plants was that their aqueous solutions have a burning effect of leaf surfaces and stems of plants, which seriously limits their use in agriculture.

To address this shortcoming to combat plant diseases bacterial, viral and fungal etiology, as well as for protecting plants from nematodes and arthropods features a composition comprising a water-soluble product of the reaction of iodine with organic reagent, an organic solvent, auxiliary nonionic surface-active compound and water in the following proportions (%% weight):

the product of the interaction of iodine with organic7-70
real Tom organic solvent 2-20
nonionic surfactants1-10
water1-90

As the organic reagent to interact with iodine use connection alkilany or ALKYLPHENOLS esters of polyethylene glycol, in particular monoalkylphenols ether of polyethylene glycol.

The weight ratio of iodine and an organic agent can be from 1:2 to 1:10. It is preferable to use a ratio of 1:6.

As a solvent agent include low-molecular etilenglikoli (etilenglikol, triethylene glycol or polyethylene glycol-400) and water, and to achieve a uniform distribution of the working solution offered funds on the leaf surface and eliminate fetotoksicheskoe action of iodine is introduced auxiliary nonionic surfactant, for example block copolymers of ethylene oxides and propylene - proxanol is chosen or ethoxylated alkyl phenol-based polymetacrylate (OP-7).

The possible combinations of components forming part of the means presented in table 1.

A feature of the invention is a previously unknown composition of water-soluble organic compounds of iodine and auxiliary surfactants, providing high antibacterial, antiviral, FR is Pogrebkov, nematicidal and acaricidal activity funds, in the absence of phytotoxicity.

The parameters of the acute oral and cutaneous toxicity of all combinations of the funds belong to the III-IV class of low-hazard substances.

A pair of tools inhalation not hazardous (class IV hazardous substance by volatility).

Everything is presented in table 1 combinations of components included in preparative forms tools, mixed with water in any ratio. The product is used in the form of aqueous solutions for aerosol treatment of vegetating plants for the processing of the root system as detection of diseases and preventive purpose.

The concentration of active iodine in the working aqueous solutions (determined by titration with sodium thiosulfate) is 0.5-0,0005%.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention

The effectiveness of the composition was tested for the following diseases greenhouse vegetable crops tomato and cucumber caused by:

- the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) tomato sauce;

virus tomato mosaic (Drive) on tomato;

- cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on cucumbers;

- pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial cancer of tomato);

- pathogen Erwinia tracheiphilla (bacterial wilt of cucumber) in a stationary plant greenhouses.

p> Were spraying infected plants water solution containing 0.005% active iodine, tomato and 0.003% for cucumber.

As control variant without processing plants. Protected control was not, as drugs virucidal action in plant no.

Example 1. Treatment of tomato plants infected by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).

Preparation of formulation: 10 g of crystalline iodine was placed in a flat-bottomed flask, which contributed 60 g monoalkylphenols ether of polyethylene glycol (neonol AF 9-12), preheated to 60°and added 20 g of triethylene glycol. The mixture is passed at a temperature of 45-50°C for 4.5 hours, after which the flask is made of 5 g of OP 7 and 5 cm3water. The mixture was thoroughly mixed.

For processing plants prepared working solution in water with iodine content of 0.005%.

Spent processing tomato plants affected TMV, then removed the top of the test and control plants. After 10-12 days on all treated plants appeared stepchildren with a full sheet, then fruit of the brush. At the same time in the untreated control shoots appeared after 18-20 days, only 28% of the plants. Sheets are 100% laterals were affected by viral mosaic, brush on these shoots were not formed.

After 20-22 days on separate sheets of the treated plants began to appear traces of mosaic virus (1-2 points).

After re-treatment at the hands began 3-6 full of fruits, which continued normal development, loading.

Obviously, the applied tool suppressed the reproduction of the virus in plants, allowing them to restore homeostasis.

Example 2. Treatment of tomato plants infected with tomato mosaic (in the Drive).

Preparation of formulation: 5 g of crystalline iodine was placed in a flat-bottomed flask, which was introduced 30 g of preheated monoalkylphenols ether of polyethylene glycol and added 10 g of triethylene glycol. The mixture is passed at a temperature of 45-50°C for 4 hours, after which the flask is made of 5 g of proxanol is chosen and 50 cm3water. The mixture was thoroughly mixed, after which the prepared working solution containing 0.005% iodine.

Spent processing centers, in which there was an active increase in the number of plants with mosaic symptoms (table 2).

After a week among treated plants found no plants with viral symptoms, while in 4 repetitions control the disease continued. A similar pattern was observed 14 days after treatment.

The spread of the disease in the Drive is performed in the processing plants (removal of leaves, propuskanii stems, blogoshere). Obviously, the processing tool has blocked not only the reproduction of Viru is in the plants, but its epidemic spread.

Example 3. Treatment of tomato plants affected by bacterial wilt (cancer of tomatoes).

Preparative form was prepared as in example 1.

In the lesions of tomato plants by bacterial wilt (caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) were made under the root of the solution containing 0.005% iodine, the rate of 0.15 liter per 1 plant. The result was a depression disease (table 3). Withering plants regained turgor, continued active development, flowering, fertilization and fruit filling. On the untreated control at this time, the continued spread of the disease. Started fading new plants, occurred the death of withering plants.

Thus, the proposed tool has shown a high level of bactericidal activity against the causative agent of bacterial cancer of tomato.

Example 4. Treatment of tomato plants affected TMV and Misrepresented.

1 g of crystalline iodine was placed in a flat-bottomed flask was added 6 g of preheated monoalkylphenols ether of polyethylene glycol and 2 g of polyethylene glycol-400. The mixture is passed at a temperature of 45-50°C for 5 hours, then added 1 g of OP 7 and 90 cm3water. The mixture was thoroughly mixed and prepared working solution containing 0.005% iodine.

In April (the first third of the turnover in greenhouses with tomato) n is the tomato plants are actively manifested 2 virus TMV and Misrepresented. Spraying of plants of 0.005%solution at the experimental plots was carried out with an interval of 3 weeks. In the result until the middle of September on the workpiece by the tool plots the loss of plants was not observed, although some leaves were filamentous form typical of viral lesions.

The death of plants in unprotected control was 72%.

The yield of tomato fruits from treated plots was on this date 32 kg from 1 m2with unhandled - 24 kg In adjacent greenhouses, where he had grown another not marvel at viruses hybrid tomato yields by this time reached 30 kg

Thus, the permanent treatment of tomato with a severe defeat viral infection solution tools allow you to avoid the extinction of plants and reduce yield losses of fruits.

Example 5. Treatment of cucumber plants affected by bacterial wilt. Preparative form was prepared as in example 1.

On spetacular cucumber noted a strong infection of plants by bacterial wilt tops (pathogen - Envinia tracheiphilla).

Spraying the plants with a working solution containing 0.003 per cent of iodine, has led to the fact that 97% of infected plants wilt tops ceased, of the remaining 3% restored viability to the death of the tops of 2.9%, died of 0.1% of the plants.

In Nezami nom control necrosis of the apex occurred in 86% of infected plants, 7% of the plants themselves stopped hurting, 7% came death.

The yield of cucumber in the experimental apparatus was 21 kg/m2in the control 17 kg/m2. The yield increase from the use of recommended tools is 23.5%.

Example 6. Treatment of cucumber plants infected by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).

Preparative form was prepared as in example 2. The finished form was diluted with water and got a working solution with iodine content of 0.003%.

In prusaczyk greenhouses, divided in half by a concrete track, found on each side for 7 foci of diseases of cucumber cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).

In experimental Polosatiy conducted a one-time spraying the affected CMV cucumber plants working solution. After two weeks after spraying in experimental Polosatiy the number of foci increased to 8, the control 15. Obvious deterrent effect of anti-viral infection (CMV), cucumber.

Thus, the proposed tool showed high virucidal and bactericidal activity against diseases of cucumber and tomato.

For examples 7, 8, 9 and 10 Preparative form was prepared as described in example 1.

Example 7. Action of disinfectant solutions on the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium, oxysporum was determined by the serial dilution method for growing the fungus on agar among the E. The minimum inhibitory concentration of iodine in solution was 12.5 g/ml of 0.0125% iodine).

Example 8. The effectiveness of the proposed remedies against spider mites was determined by immersion of bean plants infested females common spider mite in solutions with its logarithmic breeding. The living and the dead female mite was considered in 2 days after treatment. It is established that in the concentration range of 0.001-0,0005% iodine mortality of females was 90-92%.

Example 9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed composition against larvae of Western flower thrips was performed by dipping infested by thrips plant beans in solutions of the drug in its logarithmic breeding. The living and the dead larvae separately by age was taken into account through 2 days after treatment. The results of the treatments showed that the greatest degree of destruction of susceptible larvae of the 1st age. When the content of iodine in a solution of 0.0005% mortality of larvae of the 1st age was 76%. The sensitivity of the larvae of the 2nd age was below.

Example 10. To establish nematocides efficiency as the test used rice nematode.

Treatment of nematodes in different concentrations of means showed that even when iodine concentration of 0.005%, leading to their death.

The examples use the project funds to protect plants show its special effectiveness against viral infections. Viral diseases cause great harm to vegetable growing, but to date virus protection was to reduce the epidemics of different farming practices. Chemical means of combating phytopathogenic viruses are not yet well developed.

The proposed agent is effective also in bacterial infections of plants, and may also find application in plant diseases caused by plant nematodes, bringing great damage to the economy as a closed and open ground.

The use of funds against pathogens by plants during their growing season may also have a deterrent role in the regulation of the number of pests (mites, thrips).

Table 1

The recommended composition of preparative forms tools
Name of the componentComponent content, %%
123
the product of the interaction of iodine with organic reagent70357
Organic solvent20 102
Auxiliary surfactant551
Water55090
Table 2

The development of the disease TMV on greenhouse tomato after spraying the disinfectant solution
OptionThe number of new plants (PCs) with symptoms of viral mosaic after processing tool
After 7 daysAfter 14 days
Untreated control6,515,4
Spraying of 0.005%solution (according to the current matter)0,41,2
Table 3
OptionThe number of new plants (PCs) with symptoms of aging after processing solution
After 7 daysAfter 14 days
Untreated control9,223,0
Spraying of 0.003%-nerastvorim 0,12,7

1. Means for protection of plants from diseases and pests, characterized in that it contains a water-soluble product of the interaction of iodine with organic reagent, an organic solvent, a nonionic surfactant and water in the following ratios, wt%:

The product of the interaction of iodine with
organic reagent7-70
Organic solvent2-20
Nonionic surfactants1-10
Water1-90

and the organic reagent that interacts with iodine, is alkilany or alkylphenolic ether glycol, and an organic solvent is ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol or polyethylene glycol-400.

2. The tool according to claim 1, characterized in that the weight ratio of iodine and organic reactant is from 1:2 to 1:10.

3. The tool according to claim 1, characterized in that as the nonionic surfactant is proxanol is chosen or means OP-7, which is ethoxylated alkyl phenol-based polymetacrylate.



 

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