Electro-heating fabric and method for manufacturing electro-conductive resistive thread for said fabric

FIELD: electric engineering, in particular, electrothermics, concerns engineering of electro-heating fabric, which can be used in heating devices for home and industrial use, and also concerns method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread for said fabric.

SUBSTANCE: electro-heating fabric is a cloth formed of intertwined threads, consisting of main non-electro-conductive threads, having first direction, and electro-conductive resistive threads, having second direction, perpendicular to the first one, each one of which consists of central fiber with cover of polymer resistive material, containing carbon filler, consisting of technical carbon and graphite, and provided with conductive threads, main non-electro-conductive threads and electro-conductive resistive threads are intertwined in form of mesh, forming cells, value of step h between electro-conductive resistive threads is determined from mathematical expression. Technical result is also achieved, because method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread, including production of solution of polymer resistive material by diluting polymer binding agent in solvent and mixing of resulting solution with carbon filler, then applying of produced mixture in form of cover onto central fiber by drawing it through solution and draw plate, removing solvent from resistive cover by drying the thread in a flow of hot air, while as polymer binding agent, polyurethane resin is utilized, as central fiber, a thread of polyacrylnitrile fiber is utilized or combined fiber of basalt and polyester fibers, draw plate is mounted in vertical position with possible rotation around its axis and with possible inclination of its vertical position, while lower aperture of draw plate is dipped in solution of polymer carbon-containing resistive material and has larger diameter, than upper aperture, while drying of thread is performed at temperature 150-160°. Angle of inclination of draw plate from vertical position is 10-20°.

EFFECT: stable electrical resistance along whole length of product being produced, reliable electrical contact, method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread also provides for lower costs of product due to creation of continuous process.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to electrical engineering, in particular to special requests, and concerns the construction of the electric heating fabric and method of making electrically conductive resistive threads for this fabric used in heating devices designed to secure and maintain the required temperature in the local area, which can be used in construction, textile industry and others

Known electric heating fabric containing conductive resistive threads, representing the structure of the "sheath - core", where "core" is made of synthetic fiber type nylon, polyester type, polyolefin type with a low melting point or high-melting fibers poliferation type and polyamide type. The shell performs the role of a resistive material and consists of a composition that includes a polyurethane resin of the polyester type and the carbon filler. As a carbon filler used carbon black and graphite (U.S. patent 4983814, 219/545, H 05 B 3/34, 1991).

The method of manufacture described electrically conductive resistive threads includes applying one to three layers of resistive material on synthetic fiber.

The disadvantages of conductive fabric can be attributed not to be stable electrical resistance because the IP is of use as electrically conducting resistive filaments of synthetic fiber type nylon, which manual pressure is undergoing strong strength.

Another disadvantage is the need to apply synthetic fiber multiple layers of resistive material, which increases production costs of the thread.

Also known electric heating cloth, representing the completed weave fabric, consisting of a main electroconductive filaments with the first direction and the second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads, each of which consists of a Central fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material that contains a carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite, and is provided with conductive tyres (RF patent 2182406, N 05 3/36, 2002 - prototype). As a synthetic material for electroconductive yarns used nylon or Kevlar or Nomex. As a synthetic material for the Central fiber and the electrically conductive resistive threads used fiberglass or Kevlar or Nomex, or nylon.

A method of manufacturing electrically conductive resistive threads on the above prototype includes obtaining solution of carbon-containing polymer resistive material by dissolving a polymeric binder in a solvent and mixing the of the resulting solution with carbon filler, applying the mixture obtained in the form of a shell on the Central fiber by passing through the solution and the die plate, removing the solvent from the resistive membrane by drying yarns in a current of hot air at a temperature of 105-110°C. as the polymer binder used polyvinylidene fluoride dissolved in acetone. As a carbon filler take carbon black and colloidal graphite, and as a Central use synthetic fibers or glass thread.

The disadvantages of this electric heating fabric is using in its manufacture as electrically conducting resistive filaments of glass fiber, nylon, and others, which, after impregnation of resistive material are unstable to mechanical stress, bending resistive threads are breaking, which leads to a significant increase in electrical resistance (up to 5-10% when the same curve). This leads to the fact that the electric heating fabric does not meet the electrical resistance of the estimated value, as in the weaving process, the thread is subjected to tension and bending, resulting in changing the electrical resistance. For example, when using nylon filament deviation from the calculated values can be up to 60%, in the case of glass filaments up to 20%.

In addition,when using fiberglass environmental problem occurs, because in the process of fiberglass cloth, coated with a polymer resistive material is subjected to cutting along the edges of the fabric, which is accompanied by the generation of dust from the smallest particles of fiberglass.

Dust removal is a complex task, which increases the cost of the product.

The disadvantage of the method of manufacturing electrically conductive resistive threads is the inability of its production in a continuous loop, as the thread forming device, in particular filer quickly overgrown polymeric material during the impregnation of the filaments, resulting in increased electrical resistance and the thread becomes non-uniform.

The technical result of the invention is the manufacture of electric heating fabric with any given uniform electrical resistance and good electrical contact, as well as reducing the cost of the product by creating a continuous production. In addition, in the present invention significantly reduces the weight of the products and expands the scope of their application.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known electric heating fabric, representing the completed weave fabric, consisting of a main electroconductive filaments with the first direction, and ausich the second direction, perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads, each of which consists of a Central fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material that contains a carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite, and is provided with conductive busbars, main electroconductive yarns and conductive resistive threads interwoven in a grid with the formation of cells, the step size h between the conductive and resistive filaments is determined from the equation

where U is the working voltage,

P is the power density of the heating element,

d - width,

R - linear electrical resistance of the electrically conductive threads, the main electroconductive yarn made of basalt fiber, electrically conductive resistive threads are made of polyacrylonitrile fibers (PAN) or are combined threads of basalt and polyester fibers, and the ratio of the cross-sectional area of basalt fibers to the cross-sectional area polyester fiber S BV:S PV is 1:(1÷5), the canvas across its entire surface coated with a polymer insulating material.

This technical result is also achieved by the fact that in the known method of manufacturing a switching-mode power is vodnoy resistive filament, including the production of a solution of the polymer resistive material by dissolving a polymeric binder in a solvent and mixing the resulting solution with carbon filler, applying the mixture obtained in the form of a shell on the Central fiber by passing through the solution and the die plate, removing the solvent from the resistive membrane by drying yarns in a current of hot air, as the polymeric binder used polyurethane resin as the Central fiber take the thread from polyacrylonitrile fibers (PAN) or a combined thread of basalt, and polyester fibers, the die plate is installed in a vertical position with the possibility of rotation around its axis with a speed of 10-100 rpm and tilting from the vertical position, the bottom hole Spinneret immersed in a solution of polymer resistive material and has a diameter greater than the upper hole, and drying the filaments is carried out at a temperature of 150-160°C. the Angle of inclination of the nozzle from the vertical position is preferably 10-20°.

These characteristics for the execution of the electric heating fabric and method of making electrically conductive resistive threads for this fabric are essential and interrelated with the formation of a new essential features known from patent and scientific literature.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 presents a General view of the electric heating fabric, figure 2 presents the scheme of the insulation panels with tyres, figure 3 presents the scheme of manufacturing electrically conductive resistive threads, figure 4 shows a variant of the installation of the nozzle at an angle.

Figure 1 shows the electric heating fabric 1, which represents the completed weave fabric, consisting of a conductive resistive threads 2, horizontally-oriented, and electroconductive yarns 3, located vertically in relation to the threads 2. Main electroconductive yarns 3 are used to secure the resistive filaments 2. Electrically conductive resistive threads 2 and the electroconductive yarn 3 form the grid. The grid cell size is chosen depending on the particular goals 3×3 mm to 150×150 mm In some cases with a large interval between the conductive resistive threads to increase the structural strength of the electric heating fabric parallel to these threads may optionally be placed electroconductive yarn. Electrically conducting resistive thread 2 woven evenly along the length of the blade. Step h in the laying of the yarn 2 with a specific linear electric resistance R is chosen in accordance with its calculated values on the form is e

As the electroconductive yarns 3 uses basalt fibres with the number of filaments equal to 500, and a diameter of 10-15 μm, which is environmentally friendly. As the Central fiber (basics) electrically conductive resistive threads 2 used a combined thread of basalt and polyester fiber. Polyester fiber has 1500 filaments with a diameter of 10-12 microns. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of basalt fibers to the cross-sectional area polyester fiber is 1:(1÷5). The combination of basalt and polyester fiber makes impregnated carbon-containing polymer solution thread resistant to mechanical stress. Deviation of the values of electrical resistance from the calculated values after weaving (manufacture mesh) is less than 5%, which is acceptable for a product of this kind. Another alternative is using as the basis the threads of polyacrylonitrile fibers (PAN) with the number of filaments equal to 1500, and a diameter of 10 μm. PAN has a low coefficient of expansion and high modulus of elasticity. The deviation from the calculated values after weaving slightly higher than in the case of using a combination of basalt and polyester fibers (˜8%), which is also valid. However, in this case will be lower sebastain the efficiency of the product.

Metal filaments 4 are located at the edge of the canvas, woven around the bar a few strips and used as the conductive tire 5. The width of the strips is selected in accordance with a current load of the electric heating fabric 1. Electrical contact between the electrically conductive resistive threads 2 and the tire 5 is carried out by means of mechanical contact between bound in the grid of resistive threads 2 and metal threads 4.

Such formation of the electric heating fabric (mesh) ensures reliable electrical contact with different mechanical effects (bending, pressing, stretching and so on). This does not produce thickening in places of contact, allowing the heating element remains generally flat and flexible.

It also does not require a separate technological operations to carry out the electrical contact, which opens up the possibility of automation of technological process in mass production and cost reduction, electric heating fabric.

After the woven fabric with the desired number of tire and electrically conductive resistive threads, it is covered with electrically insulating polymeric material. Conventional methods of insulation, suitable for solid tissues, such as lamination, unsuitable for the proposed electric the heating grid, as this is not stored, the grid structure and, thus, the product does not acquire any advantages compared with solid fabrics.

Electrical isolation is performed by electrophoresis. Scheme of implementation of the electrical insulation of the fabric shown in figure 2

Canvas 6 is passed through the bath 7, which contains the solution containing the polymeric insulating material. This solution can be used an aqueous emulsion of electrical insulating materials, for example polyethylene, silicone, PTFE, polyurethane and other metal filaments, which are conductive electrodes, receives a positive electric potential and negative potential is applied to the electrodes 8 located on both sides of the blade 6. Under the influence of an electric potential of the particles of insulating material will stick to the electrically conductive parts of the fabric, i.e. the metal electrodes and conductive resistive threads. Passing through the bath, the fabric 6 is placed into a drying oven 9, and then is wound on the receiving shaft 10. The electric potential on the current-carrying electrodes is supplied through the suction shaft 10, which is electrically connected to the electrodes. The magnitude of the electric potential depends on the type of solution, as well as units operating voltage of the product. For example, the R, if the operating voltage of the product is U, then the voltage during electrophoresis should significantly exceed this value. In this case, we have a reliable electrical insulation.

Work made electric heating fabric 1 (figure 1) as follows. The electric heating fabric 1 is mounted in a specific heating system or heater. To live tyres 5 of the heating element the wires to be included in the electrical network. If necessary, the electric heating fabric 1 is connected through a voltage regulator that allows you to install the set temperature.

The following is an example of a specific execution of the electric heating fabric.

Example

As the main electroconductive yarns 3 is used basalt fiber. As the basis of electrically conductive resistive threads 2 uses a combination of basalt and polyester fibers with ratio of their cross-sectional areas S BV:S PV=1:1. According to the formulacalculated step h in the laying conductive resistive threads 2. Thus, when the width of the web d=0.6 m, the voltage U=220 V, linear electric filament resistance R=120 ohms/m, the power density P=150 W/m2step h is 7.5 mm

If the electroconductive yarn at aim also at a distance of 7.5 mm from each other, it turns out the canvas in a grid with a cell size of 7.5×7,5 mm With additional styling electroconductive filaments form a grid cell will not necessarily be square, it can be rectangular.

Thus the lower side of the cell must be at least 3 mm, otherwise technologically very difficult to keep the cell open after coating with an insulating material.

The invention is in part a method of manufacturing a conductive resistive threads is illustrated by a drawing illustrating a process diagram (figure 3).

The supply reel 11 to the original thread 12 (combination of basalt and polyester thread or yarn from acrylic fiber) comes to soaking in a bath with a solution of the polymer resistive material 13, passes through the lower opening 14 of the nozzle 15 with the speed of pulling the threads of 4-10 m/min. After passing the impregnated strands 12 through the die plate 15, it will fall into the heating zone between the heaters 16, where at a temperature of 150-160°it is drying. Ready resistive thread delivered to the receiving reel.

Filler 15 installed vertically, with the possibility of rotation around its axis. Rotation of the nozzle 15 around its axis provides uniform distribution of resistive material over the entire surface of the original thread. The value of the specific electric resistance of the filament is avisit the diameter of the nozzle or gap width in the case of the use of a slotted device. However, the effectiveness of the diameter of the nozzle or slit width quickly diminish as time filler or crack overgrown. The effect of vegetation is observed when using water, and the organic solution of the polymer material, in the latter case, the occlusion occurs earlier due to faster evaporation of the organic solvent. The obliteration of the nozzle leads to the increase of electrical resistivity, resulting in the filament obtained is non-uniform. To avoid overgrowth of the die by its rotation around its axis. Filler 15 having an elongated shape, in the process of impregnation with polymer resistive material is subjected to a rotation with a relatively low speed (10-100 rpm) by a motor 17. The bottom hole 14 of the nozzle 15, which has a larger diameter than the upper hole 18, immersed in the impregnating solution 13.

The upper part of the nozzle, which has a large diameter ˜0.6-0.8 mm, plays a major role in the formation of a carburized filament, removing excess carbon solution and thereby determining the value of the linear resistivity. The main role of the lower part submerged in the solution, is to protect the solution from drying and sticky, so it can be larger in diameter, which facilitates its manufacture. The diameter of the bottom part of the can with the add ˜ 3 mm or more.

During the rotation of the nozzle 15 is its purification from the impregnating solution 13. Cleansing is more effective if the die plate 15 to install from its vertical position at an angle selected from a range of 10-20°and thus filler 15 is positioned beneath a selected angle with respect to the direction of movement of the thread (figure 4). The rotation of the die makes the thread more homogeneous. Thus, when the rotation speed of 10 rpm variation of electrical resistance along the length of the filament is reduced from 10-15% to 2-3%. When the rotation speed of 100 rpm variation of electrical resistance along the length of the thread is ˜1%.

The inclination of the nozzle 10-20° promote more effective self-cleaning of the nozzle and thus increases the time of her life, i.e. the time during which the value of the electrical resistance does not change. Without rotation the lifetime of the die is 3-5 hours, when rotating at a speed of 100 rpm, it increases up to 100-120 hours, and when the rotation of the tilt axis (rotation) up to 10-20° time life is practically unlimited, it is limited to mechanical wear material Spinneret.

The following is an example of the complete method.

Example

By dissolving 100 mass parts of the polyurethane resin with stirring in 400 mass parts of acetone to prepare a solution of polyurethane resin. In polucen the second polymer solution add 20 mass parts of carbon black, the mixture was thoroughly stirred and fray, then it add 40 mass parts of fine graphite (<50 μm) and again stirred and fray. The resulting polymer resistive material is applied on the original thread, representing a combined thread of basalt fibers with the number of filaments equal to 500, and d=10-15 μm and polyester fibers with the number of filaments equal to 1500, and with d=10-12 microns.

The process of applying a resistive material on the thread is carried out at room temperature with a speed of pulling the threads 10 m/min by passing through rotating around its axis, the die plate, the diameter of which controls the degree of impregnation of the thread. Dried ready thread is wound on the take-up reel.

The results of the measurements show that the resulting electrically conducting resistive thread has the same resistance throughout the length of the resulting product. Characteristics of the electrically conductive resistive threads and electric heating fabric made according to the invention, and the characteristics of the prototype are presented in the table.

From the presented data it is seen that the electric heating fabric obtained according to the invention (examples 1-4), has a smaller percentage deviations of the values of electric resistance electric heating fabric from the settlement compared to the prototype.

Yo is my technical solution applicable in industry. The main consumers of electric heating fabric, manufactured using the present invention is the construction, textiles and other

The electric heating fabric has a wide range of industrial applications. Made in the form of mesh fabric is very comfortable for sealing under the linoleum, inside of linoleum or plastic, for laying under the cement screed in the manufacture of heated floors that use the heater cable type.

For laying of these cables required cement screed thickness not less than 10, see the Application of the proposed electric heating fabric in a grid allows to reduce the thickness of the cement screed up to 1 cm or less, which naturally reduces the inertia of the system. In addition, the mesh fabric embedded in the cement, plays the role of a reinforcing element. Fabric solid type is not suitable to be embedded in cement screeds, because the top and bottom layers will be separated by the cloth.

Good flexibility and elasticity allows the use of fabric for preventive heating water, gas and sewer systems. The change of the linear electric resistance at a 10-fold bending is ˜2%. Very efficient use of the tissue for heating equipment monolithic construction (casing overlapping and others).

The use of electric heating fabric in a grid has the following advantages compared with solid fabrics. Solid fabric requires reliable electric insulation double-sided coating of insulating material that can be accomplished, for example, by lamination. This significantly increases the weight of the product.

In addition, be quite significant material costs on the fabric material, and insulating material. Manufactured according to the invention, the electric heating mesh fabric facilitates weight 5-6 times. The specific weight of the obtained products may be up to 200 g/m2.

Table
# exampleView threadS BV/S PVLinear electrical resistance of the electrically conductive resistive threads, kω/mDeviation of the values of electric resistance electric heating fabric from the settlement, %
electroconductiveelectrically conductive resistive
1basalt fibercombined thread of basalt and polyester fiber1:1803
2 -II--II-1:3904
3-II--II-1:51205
4-II-PAN1:31008
The placeholdernylonfiberglass-8020
RF patent 2182406nylonsynthetic thread-8060

Solid fabric not always easy to seal in the heating system, which significantly limits the scope. For example, for the manufacture of heated blankets, clothing, electric heating fabric with double-sided electrically isolated almost unusable due to heavy weight, lack of flexibility, air leakage. The electric heating fabric in a grid devoid of these shortcomings.

1. Electric heating cloth, representing the completed weave fabric, consisting of a main electroconductive filaments with the first direction, and having a second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads, each of which consists of a Central fiber with a sheath of polymeric resist the main material, containing carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite, and is equipped with a conductive tire, characterized in that the main electroconductive yarns and conductive resistive threads interwoven in a grid with the formation of cells, the step size h between the electrically conductive resistive threads is determined from the equation

where U is the working voltage,

P is the power density of the heating element,

d - width,

R - linear electrical resistance of the electrically conductive resistive threads, the main electroconductive yarn made of basalt fiber, electrically conductive resistive threads are made of acrylic fiber, or a composite yarn made of basalt, and polyester fibers, and the ratio of the cross-sectional area of basalt fibers to the cross-sectional area polyester fiber is 1:(1÷5), the canvas across its entire surface is covered with electrically insulating polymeric material.

2. A method of manufacturing electrically conductive resistive threads, including the production of a solution of the polymer resistive material by dissolving a polymeric binder in a solvent and mixing the resulting solution with carbon is the second filler, applying the mixture obtained in the form of a shell on the Central fiber by passing through the solution and the die plate, removing the solvent from the resistive membrane by drying yarns in a current of hot air, characterized in that as the polymeric binder used polyurethane resin as the Central fiber take the yarn from acrylic fiber or combined thread of basalt, and polyester fibers, the die plate is installed in a vertical position with the possibility of rotation around its axis with a speed of 10÷100 rpm and with the possibility of its inclination from the vertical position, the bottom hole Spinneret immersed in a solution of carbon-containing polymer resistive material and has a diameter greater than the upper hole, and drying the filaments is carried out at a temperature of 150÷160°C.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the angle of inclination of the nozzle from the vertical position is 10÷20°.



 

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FIELD: air transport.

SUBSTANCE: device contains thermal mat made of flexible woven electric heater closed by protective electric insulating material. Water repellent material and double layer of heat insulation and water repellent are placed at internal and external surfaces of protective electric insulating material. There is DC power supply source. Thermal mat is divided into number of sections, each having its heating area. Sections of flexible woven electric heater are divided into number of units with different power defined by preset length and width of flexible woven electric heater. Thermal mat is fixed at horizontal surface of aircraft by tapes or fast-type fixing.

EFFECT: enhancement of efficiency in snow and ice removal from lateral surfaces of the aircraft; ecologic cleanliness of maintenance with use of safety power supply at optimal regulation of power consumption and simplification of structure.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for heating domestic and industrial rooms, as well as for manufacturing such electric heaters. Ceiling film electric heater includes resistive radiating element having in plan view a meander shape and arranged between two layers of electric insulating films. Resistive radiating element is equipped with outputs to be connected to electric mains. Parallel strips of resistive radiating element are connected in series by means of their L-shaped bending towards the next strip transversely on one and the other side. Edges of upper and lower electric insulating layers are connected be means of tape with self-adhesive base. According to invention, room heating system includes heat insulator representing a foam heat-insulating material with reflecting layer. Outputs of resistive radiating element of ceiling film electric heater are connected via control and protection devices to power network. Device for manufacturing the bed of ceiling film electric heater includes uncoiler for strips of resistive radiating element, uncoilers of upper and lower layers of electric insulating films, device for supply of tape with self-adhesive base, laminating machine with thermal shafts and winding shafts of the ready bed, which are installed in one process line.

EFFECT: low production cost and possible use in large-scale production.

16 cl, 9 dwg

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