Optical member

FIELD: optical devices with variable optical parameters, applicable in manufacture of miniature objective lenses with a variable focal length.

SUBSTANCE: the optical member has a container. The container comprises two transparent immiscible liquids with various indices of reflection. They are transparent in the area of operating wave-lengths. The first one is a dielectric. The second one features the properties of electric conduction. The liquids are engageable with each other with formation of an interface separating them. The interface curvature determines the optical parameters of the optical member. For control of the curvature of this interface the container is provided wits electrodes. A porous matrix with liquids with formation of an interface separating them is performed by impregnation.

EFFECT: developed a modification of an optical member with variable optical parameters using the effect of curvature of the interface formed on the boundary of engagement of two immiscible liquids with various indices of reflection, adapted to mass reproduction and featuring a stability to mechanical actions.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to an optical device with variable optical properties and can be used, for example, in the manufacture of miniature lenses with variable focal length.

Known lenses with variable focal length, based on the use of moving optical elements, see for example [1] - US No. 4097124, G 02 B 15/18, 27.06.1978; [2] - US No. 4099844, G 02 B 15/14, 11.07.1978; [3] - US No. 4861146, G 02 B 7/11, 29.08.1989; [4] - EN No. 2093867 (C1), G 02 B 3/14, 20.10.1997; [5] - US No. 5075709, G 03 B 1/18, 24.12.1991; [6] - US No. 5267044, H 04 N 5/232, H 04 N 5/225, 30.11.1993. Structurally, these lenses represent a system of lenses, in which the individual lenses or lens group have the ability to change its position to change the focal length of the lens. For such lenses is characterized by the presence of a fairly complex mechanical assemblies and drive mechanisms for moving lenses or lens groups in the process of changing the focal length. The resulting structural complexity of implementation and the inability of miniaturization is the main disadvantage of such devices.

Known optical device with variable optical properties, based on the use of deformable optical elements.

For example, in the device described in [7] - US No. 5138494, G 02 B 1/06, G 02 C 1/10, 11.08.1992 (fig.5, 6) and [8] - EN No. 2234722 (C2), G 02 C 7/04, G 02 B 3/12, 20.08.2004 applied pricheski element, consisting of two lenses, the first of which is a lens with fixed parameters, and the second deformable liquid lens with variable optical properties. The second lens on the one hand limited by the surface of the first lens, and with another - transparent deformable membrane, and the space between the membrane and the first lens is filled with a transparent fluid of constant volume. The refractive indices of the liquid membrane and the first lens is selected as close as possible to each other. Transparent deformable membrane is enclosed in a rigid annular rim, which is connected to the peripheral part of the first lens is a flexible jumper, giving the possibility to change the distance between the rim of the membrane and the first lens. Changing the distance between the rim of the membrane and the first lens is a mechanical drive, for example a screw. Changing this distance the fluid that fills the volume between the membrane and the first lens, changes the deflection of the membrane, which in turn changes the focal length of the optical element.

The same principle change the focal length, based on the deformation of the liquid lens, implemented in the optical element described in [9] - EN No. 2046388 (C1), G 02 C 7/08, A 61 F 9/00, 20.10.1995. This optical element is a hollow lens made of transparent elastic e is actiongo material, and one of the surfaces of the lenses are made with a constant radius of curvature, and the other with capability curvature under the pressure of the liquid in the cavity of the lens. Unlike devices [7] and [8] the volume of liquid in the cavity of the lens is not fixed, and is regulated by the piston mechanism, forcing the liquid through the nozzle from the corresponding reservoir. Due to the pressure created by the fluid, the deformable surface of the lens is bent by changing the focal length of the optical element.

Shared optical elements, described in [7]-[9], is the presence of mechanical power transmission components for the reconstruction of optical parameters, which limits the possibility of miniaturization and narrows the scope of possible applications of such optical elements.

The desire to withdraw from the motor drive units for adjustment of optical parameters leads to the development of optical elements, in which the reconstruction is carried out under the influence of physical fields.

For example, known optical element described in [10] - EN No. 2037164 (C1), G 02 B 3/14, G 02 F 1/29, G 02 F 1/33, A 61 F 9/00, 09.06.1995 in which the change of the focal length is carried out under the influence of an electric field. This optical element contains made of transparent dielectric material of the disc-shaped cell, n is the maturity of which put a drop of transparent dielectric fluid, for example glycerine. The size of the cavity of the cell in the direction of the light flux is selected based on the magnitude of the capillary constant of the system "liquid - material of the cell", so that is provided by the capillary effect of the adhesion of the liquid with the walls of the cuvette. In the front wall of the cuvette (the first side luminous flux) performed a round recess in the zone of which is formed of a flexible deformable area of the free surface of the liquid - kind deformable liquid lens, the curvature of the surface which depends on the surface tension forces and the bulk pressure. On external surfaces of both walls of the cuvette, placed in the path of the light flux, and on the inner surface of the front wall around the specified excavation posted by transparent film electrodes, for example, of In2O3. These electrodes through a control circuit connected to the power source, creating a space between the electrodes an electric field which acts on the surface tension and volume pressure in the liquid lens. As a result of influence of the electric field of the liquid lens is deformed, changing the curvature of its surface and, consequently, the refractive properties, which in turn changes the focal length of the optical element. The advantages of an optical element e are entranoe management of its optical properties and the ability to perform in small dimensions, the disadvantage is the instability of the parameters in terms of mechanical stress (vibration, shaking and so on).

Known controlled optical element described in [11] - US No. 6369954 (B1), G 02 B 1/06, G 02 B 26/00, G 02 F 1/13, 09.04.2002, in which the optical surface is formed at the interface of two immiscible liquids with different refractive indices. This optical element as the most similar in essential features adopted as a prototype.

The optical element taken as a prototype, includes a container comprising two immiscible transparent in the region of wavelength of the liquid, which differ in their refractive indices. As the first fluid dielectric fluid with a refractive index n≈1,45, as the second fluid - conducting fluid with a refractive index n≈1,35.

The container is made transparent in the region of wavelength cuvette made of a dielectric material. On the inner surface of the first wall of the cell is the drop of the first fluid, the remaining space of the cavity of the cuvette filled with the second liquid. Fluid interact with the formation of the separating their interfacial surfaces, curvature which defines the optical parameters of the optical element,in particular its focal length.

For fixing the position of this interfacial surface area of the inner surface of the first wall of the cell, the surrounding area that is in contact with the droplet of the first liquid to be treated, providing its high wettability by the second fluid. Meanwhile, other portions of the inner surfaces of both walls of the cell, including the area of the inner surface of the first wall of the cell that is in contact with the first drop of liquid remains untreated, and retain the original characteristics of wettability.

Changing the focal length of the optical element is performed by deformation of the interfacial surface under the influence of an electric field. For this purpose, the optical element has two electrodes. The first electrode is located on the outer side of the first wall of the cuvette ring and covers the area where the droplets of the first liquid. The second electrode is in direct contact with the second liquid. The electrodes via a control circuit connected to the power source - the source of DC voltage 250 C. When the power supply of the liquid to be under the influence of an electric field, affecting the conditions of forming the separating their interfacial surfaces, which leads to its deformation (change of curvature). Changing the voltage using the CX what we can control, within certain limits, to change the curvature of the interfacial surface and thereby to control the focal length of the optical element.

Advantages of the optical element, taken as a prototype, are electronic control its optical properties and the ability to perform in small dimensions, and the disadvantages of the instability parameters in terms of mechanical stress (vibration, shaking, etc. and complexity play in mass production. The first disadvantage is due to the absence of any mechanical fixation formed inside the cell interphase surface. The second disadvantage is due to the complex, poorly mehaniziruet manufacturing technology and related low frequency characteristics from sample to sample.

The problem to which the invention is directed, is to develop a modification of the optical element with variable optical properties, using the effect of the curvature of the interfacial surface formed on the boundary of the interaction of two immiscible liquids with different refractive indexes adapted to reproduce in mass production and resistant to mechanical stress (vibration, shaking and so on).

The invention consists in the following. The optical element includes a container made of transparent in the region of wavelength dielectric material comprising a two prozrachnyi region wavelength immiscible liquids with different refractive indices, the first of which is a dielectric, and the second has the properties of electrical conductivity, interacting with the formation of the separating their interfacial surfaces, curvature which defines the optical parameters of the optical element, and the container is equipped with electrodes serving to control the curvature of this interfacial surface. Unlike the prototype, as the container is used porous matrix, the filling of which these liquids with the formation of the separating their interfacial surfaces carried out by impregnation.

In private cases, the implementation of the inventive optical element as the material of the porous matrix is used porous silica glass brand "DV-1" or equivalent material, the porous matrix has a cylindrical shape and impregnated with the first liquid from the first end and the second fluid from the second end face and lateral surface.

The essence of the invention and the possibility of its implementation are explained by the schematic drawing shown in the drawing illustrating the composition and interaction of the main parts of the inventive optical element on the sample with a porous matrix of cylindrical shape.

The inventive optical element in this exemplary embodiment contains a porous matrix 1 cyl is nticeship form, made from transparent to the operating wavelength of the dielectric material and serves as a container for the two transparent at the operating wavelengths of immiscible fluids 2 and 3 with different refractive indices. The liquid 2 is an insulator and fills his part of the porous matrix 1 from its first end face 4. Liquid 3 has the properties of electrical conductivity and fills the rest of the porous matrix 1 from its second end face 5 and the side surface. Filling the porous matrix 1 dielectric fluid 2 and the electroconductive liquid 3 is implemented by sequential impregnation of these liquids.

As the dielectric fluid 2 can be used, for example, mineral oil, in particular a transparent colorless mineral oil Marcol 52 (refractive index n≈1,46). As the electroconductive liquid 3 can be used, for example, water (refractive index n≈1,33). As the material of the porous matrix 1 can be used, for example, porous silicate glass brand "DV-1 (refractive index of glass n≈1,47) or similar material. All of these liquid and the material is transparent to light of the visible range.

The internal structure of the porous matrix 1, is made of porous silicate glass "DV-1" or equivalent is the material, is a sponge-like structure with a solid frame and through pores in the form of randomly distributed interconnected cavities, the volume of which can reach about 30% of the total volume of the porous matrix 1.

Inside porous matrix 1 filling her pores of the dielectric fluid 2 and the electroconductive liquid 3 interact with the formation of the separating their interfacial surface 6.

The curvature of the interfacial surface 6 defines the optical parameters of the optical element, in particular its focal length. The curvature of the interfacial surface 6 is controlled by a parameter that is dependent on the electric voltage applied to the electrodes 7 and 8. As presented in the drawing example, the electrode 7 is made in the form of a flat ring, adjacent to the porous matrix 1 from the end face 4 (i.e. from the side of the dielectric fluid 2), and the electrode 8 made in the form of cylindrical sleeves, covering the porous matrix 1 from the side (i.e. from the side of the electroconductive liquid 3). The position of the electrodes 7 and 8 on the porous matrix 1 fixed frame 9 made of a dielectric material. The electrodes 7 and 8 by means of respective wires are connected through the control circuit to a power source, for example, as in the prototype, to the source of DC voltage 250 V (for which Artie not shown). Power supply and control circuit provides the ability to build the necessary voltage for changing the curvature of the interfacial surface 6.

If necessary, sealing the inventive optical element is placed, for example, in a sealed chamber (not shown), equipped with the appropriate optical Windows that allow the passage of light along the optical axis, perpendicular to the end faces 4 and 5 of the porous matrix 1.

The manufacturing process of the inventive optical element consists of manufacturing porous matrix 1, impregnating it with liquids 2 and 3 and equipping the electrodes 7 and 8.

The process of manufacturing porous matrix 1 can be illustrated on the example of manufacture of a porous silicate glass "DV-1". Porous silica glass "DV-1" industrial manufactured material used, in particular, in drying the cartridges; the technology of its production and characteristics are described in detail, for example, in [12] - Maskowski I.K. Composite optical materials based on porous matrices. The monograph. - St.-Petersburg, 1998 (p.3-13, 56-69, 184-198, 271-273, RIS). In General, the process of manufacturing porous glass "DV-1" consists in the following. Porous glass "DV-1" is produced on the basis of composition: Na2O - 7 (%, mol), In2About3- 23 (%, mol), SiO2- 70 (%, mol). Technology is ology manufacturing consists of the following main stages: melting and production of blanks, annealing of workpieces, chemical treatment (leaching). At the first stage of preparing a homogeneous melt containing Na2O2About3, SiO2from which in the process of hardening of the formed blanks of desired shape, in this case cylindrical rods of a certain size. Then, at the second stage, the resulting billet, representing a glassy solidified solution of oxides, are subjected to heat treatment, in which there is a collapse of the homogeneous solution into two phases. The result of this process, the solid body having the chemical heterogeneity of the enriched acid-soluble components of glass: Na2O2O3. With appropriate choice of treatment mode these areas form a disperse phase in the form of closed inclusions related to each other. The third phase is the leaching of these inclusions. Leaching leads to a transition in the solution the main part of Na2O2O3and some fraction of SiO2. Since the oxides, passing into the solution formed before the fragments of glass, then transition them to the solution leads to the emergence of interconnected caverns, the combination of which forms a porous structure with chaotic arrangement of through pores, resembling a natural sponge. Solid Kark is with such porous glass is solidified melt SiO 2(dielectric, transparent to light of the visible range, the refractive index n≈1,47). However, depending on the treatment conditions on the second and third stages can be obtained porous glass with a defined pore size selected in a wide range of values (from tens to thousands of angstroms and above)that provides the ability to implement a variety of options practical performance of the proposed optical element.

From the obtained pieces (porous glass cylindrical rods) by means of mechanical processing, including cutting and polishing of the end faces, is made are required for the production of optical elements, the number of porous matrices 1.

Next, the porous matrix 1 impregnated with a dielectric fluid 2 and the electroconductive liquid 3. The impregnation is carried out, for example, as follows. Initially dosed drop the dielectric fluid 2 is applied in the center of the surface of the end face 4. Due to the wetting liquid 2 pore walls in which there is a capillary flow, under which the liquid 2 fills in the corresponding part of the body of the porous matrix 1 from the end face 4. It is then impregnated porous matrix 1 electroconductive liquid 3, for example, by dipping the porous matrix 1 in a bath of liquid 3. As a result, the liquid 3 fills the remaining net assets shall be porous matrix 1 and comes in contact with the liquid 2. Due to the interaction of liquids 2 and 3 inside the porous matrix 1 is formed separating the liquid interfacial surface 6, the curvature of which determines the optical parameters of the optical element. In this case, since the liquid 2 and 3 are connected pores of the porous matrix 1, thus formed interfacial surface 6 is very resistant to mechanical stress. Furthermore, the impregnation of the porous matrix 1 is increasing its transparency and the reduction of light scattering in comparison with the original "dry" condition. This is caused by the displacement of air from the pores of the porous matrix 1 and replacing it with liquids 2 and 3, the refractive index of which is closer to the refractive index of the material of the porous matrix 1 than the refractive index of air.

Then to the porous matrix 1 pristykovyvayas electrodes 7 and 8, equipped with the appropriate wires, after which the electrodes 7 and 8 are fixed on the surface of the porous matrix 1 with the frame 9. If necessary, the whole structure is sealed.

So manufactured optical element is ready for use.

During operation of the optical element control its focal length is carried out, as in the prototype, by changing the voltage applied to the electrodes 7 and 8. This voltage affects cushie conditions of formation of the interfacial surface 6, resulting in a change in its curvature and, hence, the focal length of the optical element.

The considered design of the inventive optical element differs adaptability, allows you to automate the manufacturing processes and to obtain samples with repeatable characteristics, which, moreover, are characterized by their resistance to mechanical stress. Last, as noted above, due to the fact that the formation of the interfacial surface 6, the separating immiscible liquids 2 and 3, made in a ditch when free liquids that takes place in the prototype, and inside a porous solid, transparent body inside the porous matrix 1, where these fluids are in a bound state, forming a stable composition with a porous matrix material 1. All these positive qualities of the inventive optical element, along with electronic control of optical parameters and possibility of miniaturization, making the inventive optical element suitable for reproduction in conditions of mass production and attractive for a wide range of applications, for example in miniature lenses with variable focal length.

Thus, the discussed shows that the claimed invention is feasible and solves the task of developing modifications to pricescope element with variable optical properties, using the effect of the curvature of the interfacial surface formed on the boundary of the interaction of two immiscible liquids with different refractive indexes adapted to reproduce in mass production and resistant to mechanical stress.

Sources of information

1. US No. 4097124, G 02 B 15/18, publ. 27.06.1978.

2. US No. 4099844, G 02 B 15/14, publ. 11.07.1978.

3. US No. 4861146, G 02 B 7/11, publ. 29.08.1989.

4. RU # 2093867, (C1), G 02 B 3/14, publ. 20.10.1997.

5. US No. 5075709, G 03 B 1/18, publ. 24.12.1991.

6. US No. 5267044, H 04 N 5/232, H 04 N 5/225, publ. 30.11.1993.

7. US No. 5138494, G 02 B 1/06, G 02 C 1/10, publ. 11.08.1992.

8. RU # 2234722, (C2), G 02 C 7/04, G 02 B 3/12, publ. 20.08.2004.

9. RU # 2046388, (C1), G 02 C 7/08, A 61 F 9/00, publ. 20.10.1995.

10. RU # 2037164, (C1), G 02 B 3/14, G 02 F 1/29, G 02 F 1/33, A 61 F 9/00, publ. 09.06.1995.

11. US No. 6369954, (B1), G 02 B 1/06, G 02 B 26/00, G 02 F 1/13, publ. 09.04.2002.

12. Maskowski I.K. Composite optical materials based on porous matrices. The monograph. - St.-Petersburg, 1998 (p.3-13, 56-69, 184-198, 271-273, RIS).

1. An optical element containing a container made of transparent in the region of wavelength dielectric material comprising two transparent at the operating wavelengths of immiscible liquids with different refractive indices, the first of which is a dielectric, and the second has the properties of electrical conductivity, interacting with about the education share their interfacial surfaces, curvature which defines the optical parameters of the optical element, and the container is equipped with electrodes serving to control the curvature of this interfacial surface, characterized in that the container uses a porous matrix, the filling of which these liquids with the formation of the separating their interfacial surfaces carried out by impregnation.

2. The optical element according to claim 1, characterized in that the porous matrix has a cylindrical shape and impregnated with the first liquid from the first end and the second fluid from the second end face and lateral surface.

3. The optical element according to claim 1, characterized in that the material of the porous matrix is used porous silica glass brand "DV-1" or equivalent material.



 

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