Ablative reactor

FIELD: chemical mechanical engineering; reactors for fast pyrolysis of wood and peat.

SUBSTANCE: proposed reactor has pyrolizer equipped with rotor made in form of hollow cylinder with blades rigidly secured on its lateral surface and located at equal distance relative to one another for smooth heating of its lateral surface; reactor is also provided with loading bin. Pyrolizer is provided with turbine mounted under rotor; turbine has several blades rigidly secured on its shaft. Turbine shaft and hollow cylinder of rotor are rigidly interconnected. Loading bin is engageable with hollow cylinder. Pyrolizer is made in form of truncated cone whose larger base is directed upward; it is mounted in housing for rotation about its axis. Rotor is located in upper part of pyrolizer coaxially relative to it for rotation around its axis in direction opposite to direction of rotation of pyrolizer at rate equal to rate of pyrolizer. Blades of rotor and turbine are made in form of right-angled trapeziums whose large bases are directed upward.

EFFECT: high yield of vapor-and-gas product.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of chemical engineering, in particular to the reactor for fast pyrolysis of wood, peat, hydrolytic lignin and other liquid products which are of great interest due to their high energy density and potential use as a liquid fuel.

A device for the speed of thermolysis (A.S. USSR №1663010, CL. 5 10 In 53/02, 1989)containing cylindrical body with tangetsialnogo pipe at the top and taper at the bottom, the Central tube in the shape of a truncated cone, facing the top up, and located between the helical plate, forming a spiral channel inside which the outside is equipped with an external heater.

Processed biomass (lignin, peat, sawdust) is fed through a tangentially located with respect to the casing tube with the coolant in the screw channel, made tapering and educated when placing the screw plate in the direction of flow of the coolant recyclable material between the casing and the Central tube.

In the known device for the speed of thermolysis of the efficiency of conversion of biomass into a gas-vapor state depends on the flow velocity of the mixture in a monotonically tapered screw channel and the center of the foreign forces particles of biomass, providing oblique impacts of particles on the heated surface of the housing, whereby the area of contact of the particles on the hot surface is small, so the output vapor-gas product of pyrolysis small.

Heat transfer particles heated sand particles of the crushed biomass has a statistical character. The likely direct impact of particles is evaluated in accordance with the law of mass and takes an extremely small value. When the oblique shock value dynamic effects of sand on the particle biomass is permissible to neglect.

Known ablative cone of fast pyrolysis reactor, developed in 1989-1993 at the University of Twente (the Netherlands). The reactor is a rotating cone, through the wall of which is fed to the heat required for the implementation of the pyrolysis reaction. Particles of biomass load through the bottom of the cone together with hot sand. Under the action of centrifugal forces, a mixture of particles of biomass and sand moves in a spiral path along the walls of the cone (Sci Tec Library - Analytic reviews. Seite 6 von 8, 22.08.03).

The disadvantage of this ablative cone reactor is a low efficiency of transformation of the processed biomass in the baseline condition, caused by an insufficient rate of pyrolysis, depending on the speed of rotation of the heated cone and heat transfer t is planocytes particles of biomass. But even with good speed cone heat transfer from the heated obstacles particles of biomass to ensure the effective pyrolysis will be insufficient because of the presence of oblique shock of biomass particles on the rotating wall of the cone. Heat transfer particles of sand particles of the crushed biomass has a statistical nature and is so small that it is permissible to neglect.

Elements, correcting the direction of movement of the particles of biomass to the source of thermal energy in the reactor no.

The problem solved by this invention is to provide a simplified reactor low-temperature fast pyrolysis of biomass, providing a high output vapor-gas product.

Put in the invention the problem is solved in the following way. In ablative reactor containing pyrolization made in the form of a truncated cone, the large base is facing up, and mounted in the housing for rotation around its axis and uniform heating of the lateral surface, and the hopper in the upper part of pyrolysate aligned him with the possibility of rotation around its axis in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of pyrolysate, with a speed equal to the speed of rotation of pyrolysate, a rotor, made in the form of a hollow cylinder rigidly mounted on its side by the front surface equal to each other the distance of the blades. Under the rotor installed turbine, containing a number of blades rigidly mounted on its shaft passing through the axis of pyrolysate, with the turbine shaft and the hollow cylinder are rigidly connected to each other, and the hopper is connected with the hollow cylinder. In addition, the rotor blades and the turbine blades are made in the form of a rectangular trapezium, the large base is facing up and the turbine shaft in its upper part provided with a spiral thread.

The rate of pyrolysis of biomass, which characterizes the efficiency of converting it into a vapor state determines the design of the particular device for the implementation of this technology.

The presence of turbines in the reactor design allows pseudocyesis layer of fine plant materials without sand and nitrogen and thus greatly simplify its design.

The rotor is designed to give the particles of plant material, located in pseudocyesis layer, rotational motion with circular speed, guaranteeing the meeting of the particles of vegetable raw materials with the heated surface of pyrolysate and providing the direct impact of particles on the heated surface, which is the maximum thermodynamic effect of biomass loading. Because of this increased efficiency ablative pyrolysate.

The velocity of the particles in the torque is I the air is the sum of the centrifugal speed of the particles of biomass and speed of motion of a particle on a circle. Due to the rotation of the heated conical surface of pyrolysate in the opposite direction with respect to the direction of rotor rotation with the same angular velocity, the rotating flow of air with particles of plant materials as it stops, and speed of motion of a particle in a rotating air in this case will emerge only from the centrifugal velocity of the particles of biomass, depending on the speed of rotation of the rotor, and to provide a blow particles of plant materials on the heated surface of a rotating cone with angle close to zero, i.e. it will be a direct impact of particles on the heated barrier, which is the maximum thermodynamic effect of biomass loading.

The execution of the rotor blades and turbine blades in the form of a rectangular trapezium, the large base is facing up, you can repeat the same shape of pyrolysate made in the form of a truncated cone, the large base facing upward, and thereby create a uniform gap between the side surface of pyrolysate and rotor blades and turbine, providing undisturbed environment for particles of plant materials during their movement to the wall of the cone. This fact is important to ensure that the direct impact of particles of plant materials on the heated barrier.

The invention is illustrated in h is rteam.

The drawing shows ablative reactor, General view.

Ablative reactor contains mounted in the housing 1 for rotation around its axis pyrolization 2. He is a truncated hollow cone, the large base is facing up. Its lateral surface is evenly heated four infrared electric heaters 3 with the possibility of changing the heating temperature in the range 700-C.

In the upper part of pyrolysate 2 aligned him with the possibility of rotation around its axis in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of pyrolysate 2, a rotor, made in the form of a hollow cylinder 4 is rigidly attached to the lateral surface at equal from each other a distance of eight blades 5 having the shape of a rectangular trapezium, a large base facing upward.

Through the axis of pyrolysate 2 passes the turbine shaft 6, which is a Cup 7 with eight blades 8, which are rigidly mounted on the shaft 6 of the turbine and as well as rotor blades have the shape of a rectangular trapezium, the large base is facing up. Cup 7 of the turbine is rigidly mounted in the housing 1 of the reactor and has the shape of a hollow cone, the large base is facing up.

The hollow cylinder 4 of the rotor is rigidly connected with the shaft 6 of the turbine and connected to a hopper 9. Through the hollow cylinder 4 of the download the full tank 9 is crushed plant material is fed to the Cup 7 of the turbine. For a more effective flow of raw materials into the Cup 7, the shaft 6 in its upper part provided with a spiral thread 10.

Rotation of the shaft 6 is provided from the motor 11.

Removing the resulting pyrolysis gas-vapor and solid pyrolysate from pyrolysate 2 is realized by means of vacuum, respectively pipelines 12 located in the upper part, and through the bunker-a collection of 13 solid pyrolysate in the lower part of pyrolysate 2.

To ensure thermal protection pyrolysate 2 and increase thermal resistance ablative reactor serves as a thermal insulating jacket 14.

Ablative reactor operates as follows.

Dry crushed to particles with a diameter of 5-10 mm vegetable raw materials (wood, peat) are loaded into the hopper 9.

Motor 11 report of the rotational movement of the shaft 6 with a speed not less than 250 min-1and in the opposite direction through gear - pyrolization 2, the side surface of which is uniformly heated by the heater 3 to a temperature of 700-900 K.

Simultaneously with the shaft 6 rotate rigidly associated hollow cylinder with 4 blades 5, and the blades 8 of the turbine.

Raw materials from the hopper 9 through the hollow cylinder 4 is supplied into the Cup 7 on a rotating turbine blades 8, providing pseudocapsule state crushed races is sustained fashion the raw material, particles which form a swirling cloud. Under the influence of centrifugal force, it is continuously expanding and takes the form similar to an inverted cone. Next, swirling cloud of particles of plant materials is caught by the blades 5 of the rotor. Under the action of centrifugal force created by the rotor, the particles of plant materials are discarded to the heated wall of pyrolysate 2. Against her, undergoing at the moment of impact explosive ablation. Ash solid mass of raw material (ablation) at a temperature of not less than 720 K occurs due to the destruction of his biological structure to the molecular state, break the chemical bonds of polar compounds and their transformation into low molecular weight substances.

The main products of pyrolysis residues are gases: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, cyclohexane, ethane, couples over 40 substances that are condensable at the temperature of more K, and the char formed during the concentration of the biomass recovered carbon. Fumes and gases to form a gas-vapor pyrolysate, which is the target product ablative pyrolysis of plant material, which during cooling condenses in-like substance that can be split into fractions of liquid fuels and valuable raw materials in the chemical industry.

Perogative pyrolysate of the development zone pyrolytic reactions is removed by vacuum through the pipeline 12, and unified balance - solid pyrolysate through the hopper collector 13.

The speed of chopped biomass is heated to the barrier - wall rotating pyrolysate depends in this reactor the rotation speed of the rotor. Therefore, the process of transformation of biomass crushed plant materials in a vapor state is controlled character and the reliability impact of the particles on the heated barrier is guaranteed. In addition, due to the direct impact of particles of plant materials on the heated wall of pyrolysate the contact area of each particle of vegetable raw materials with the heated surface maximum. All this provides a very high efficiency combined-cycle of the product.

Prototype declared ablative reactor.

The efficiency of the process of rapid low-temperature conversion of biomass in like condition characterized by mass of a combined-cycle pyrolysate and playtimevideo solid residue to the weight of piraliyeva raw materials and is not less than 60% and not more than 40%, respectively.

The rate of pyrolysis of biomass, which determines the efficiency of converting it into a vapor state, depends on the diameter (thickness) of the particle. The finer the particle, the faster it warms up and is undergoing explosive pyrolysis of biomass, leading to its ablation. Dostava the face of the destruction of biomass at the impact of particles on the heated surface increases. Because of this increased efficiency of devices for high-speed low-temperature pyrolysis of vegetable raw materials.

To meet the requirements of technology rapid heating of the biomass and to provide a high output vapor-gas product, it is necessary to have a sufficiently small particle size of the biomass, but this is a costly requirement, so the reactors using particles of larger size, have the advantage.

Thanks to the possibility to control the process of conversion of biomass vegetation feedstock in the vapor state, in the claimed reactor it is possible to use particles of larger size than is additionally due to the advantage of the design of this reactor.

1. Ablative reactor containing pyrolization equipped with a rotor made in the form of a hollow cylinder rigidly mounted on the lateral surface equally from each other a distance of vanes and mounted in the housing with the possibility of uniform heating of its side surface, and the hopper, characterized in that it has established under the turbine rotor with a number of blades rigidly mounted on its shaft passing through the axis of pyrolysate, with the turbine shaft and the hollow cylinder of the rotor are rigidly connected to each other, and the hopper is connected with the hollow cylinder, in addition to the CSO, pyrolization made in the form of a truncated cone, the large base is facing up, and installed in the housing for rotation around its axis, and the rotor is placed in the upper part of pyrolysate aligned him with the possibility of rotation around its axis in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of pyrolysate, with a speed equal to the speed of pyrolysate, with the rotor blades and the turbine is made in the form of a rectangular trapezoid, large grounds facing upward.

2. Ablative reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the turbine shaft in its upper part provided with a spiral thread.



 

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