Ceramic element for packing and method of forming layer of packing elements

FIELD: production of ceramic elements for packing.

SUBSTANCE: ceramic element (1, 6, 8) for packing is used as limiter for layers; it is made in form of bow-tie and has constant cross section along axis (1) and many through passages (5) which are parallel to direction of length (L). Proposed method consists in extrusion of mixture which contains one or several ceramic-forming components, sectionalizing of extruded mixture for forming sections and burning of sections for forming packing element. Packing is used for filling the columns where mass-transfer and heat-transfer processes are carried out.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

15 cl, 6 dwg

 

The scope of the invention

The present invention relates to the creation of the elements of the nozzle (elements of the Packed material), often referred to as "disordered" or "bulk" showerhead.

Disordered or bulk nozzle is used to populate the columns in which the processes of mass transfer or heat exchange, or any other chemical reaction. A particularly important application is the use of ceramic elements nozzles in operations heat recovery when it is necessary to provide the most effective contact with the hot gases passing through the reactor. A key factor in ensuring maximum efficiency is to maintain the lowest possible pressure difference between the upper and lower parts of the column. For this purpose, the elements of the nozzle should have a minimum resistance to the flow. This is facilitated by the very open structure, but using only open structures is limited, if the elements in the column to form a nest, when part of one element of the nozzles penetrate into the space of another element. It is therefore important that when designing elements was reduced to a minimum the tendency of the elements to the formation of nests. Another particularly important application of the elements of the nozzle is the coating material layer, which is designed to do is the actual content of the material in the layer, limited possibility of entrainment gas flow or move this thread. Such passion or abrasion causes a significant loss of material in the layer.

Ceramic elements nozzles can be manufactured using extrusion or by drying under pressure, and therefore are mainly homogeneous (constant) cross-section along one axial direction, which forms an axis of symmetry of the element. Already described many of these configuration items, ranging from very simple to quite complex. The basis of all these elements is a cylinder, and they differ from each other mainly by the structure of the inside cylindrical configuration. The simplest structure is the master cylinder completely without internal structure. An element of this type, which is often called the ring process, known already for many years. At the other end of the range in complexity patterns are described in U.S. patent for an industrial design No. 455,029 and in U.S. patent for the invention № 6,007,915. Between them are the configuration in the form of a simple wheel of the car, for example, such as described in U.S. patent No. 3,907,710 and No. 4,510,263. Other configurations are deformed cylindrical structure, for example, described in U.S. patent No. 5,304,423. The patent BE 481 212 R. the hidden element of the nozzle, designed for use in heat exchangers, distillation columns, catalyst carriers and the like, having four end-to-end channel and having the teeth of the external surface. In the patent DE 24 25 058 disclosed ceramic filler with a cylindrical or hexagonal configuration and multiple through holes. In U.S. patent No. 2,172,714 disclosed block Atajanova type regenerative heat exchangers.

For some applications, such as limiting layer, the pressure drop is less important, since the thickness of the stopper layer is relatively small. It is more important that the elements of the nozzle is not included in each other and ensure the free flow of gases, provided that the elements of the nozzle heavier elements forming layer, which are based on elements of the nozzle and the length of which due to this limited.

In accordance with the first aspect of the present invention, it is proposed ceramic element nozzles. The nozzle element is essentially uniform cross-section along the axis passing through the center of the element, and with respect to which the element is symmetrical along the length of the element. The ratio of the width to the length of the element is from 1.5:1 to 5:1. The first and second concave outer surface provided at the ends of the respective axes of the height and width perpendicular to the direction of length. Concave surfaces are connected by means of surfaces, which are selected from the group comprising (i) a convex surface and (ii) the convex surface connected to the concave surfaces using relatively short intermediate flat surfaces. The element has at least three through-channel in the direction of the length. At least one of the channels is of the form bean in cross section. The channel in the form bean has two mainly parallel arcuate surface.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, it is proposed a method of forming an element layer of the nozzle. The method involves the extrusion of a mixture that contains one or more forming ceramics components, partitioning extruded mixture to form sections and roasting sections for the formation of the elements of the nozzle. Each nozzle has first and second concave outer surface at the ends of the respective axes of the height and width perpendicular to the direction of length. Concave surfaces are connected by means of surfaces, which are selected from the group comprising a convex surface and a convex surface connected to the concave surfaces using relatively short intermediate flat surfaces. The element has at least three end-to-end is the anal in the direction of the length. At least one of the channels is of the form bean in cross section. The channel in the form bean has two mainly parallel arcuate surface. The method further provides for the Assembly of the layer elements of the nozzle containing many baked items nozzles.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, it is proposed ceramic element nozzles. The nozzle element has first and second opposite main flat surface. The first and second concave outer surface provided at the ends of the respective axes of the height and width of flat surfaces. Concave surfaces are connected by means of surfaces, which are selected from the group comprising (i) a convex surface and (ii) the convex surface connected to the concave surfaces using relatively short intermediate flat surfaces. The element has a multitude of through channels in the direction of length, with at least one of the through channel has a cross section which is limited to the first arcuate surface and the second arcuate surface, while the second arcuate surface is longer than the first arcuate surface, and is mainly parallel to it.

These and other features and advantages of the invention will be more I have are from the subsequent detailed description, in this example, not having restrictive and described with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Figure 1 shows the cross-section of the nozzle element - limiter layer in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 2 shows a side view of the nozzle element 1.

Figure 3 shows a cross section of a second variant of the element nozzle - stopper layer in accordance with the present invention similar to those shown in figure 1, except that provided by the flat outer sections connecting the convex and concave sections.

Figure 4(a-d) shows four different side view, depicting the possible end configuration element.

Figure 5 shows a top view of the third variant of the element nozzle - stopper layer in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 6 shows a perspective view of option 5.

In accordance with this invention features a solid ceramic element nozzle having a mainly homogeneous (constant) cross-section along the symmetry axis in the direction of extrusion, which determines the length of the element. The element has first and second concave outer surface at the ends of the respective axes of the height and width perpendicular to the direction of length. The concave surface is connected with the convex the surface. The element has a multitude of through channels in the direction of the length.

Hereinafter the invention will be described more specifically with reference to the variant shown in figure 1. However, this option does not introduce any unnecessary restrictions in the scope of patent claims, as can be easily understood that many minor changes may be made without leaving the scope of the present invention.

Fig, 1 shows a cross-section of the nozzle element 1. The element has a width W parallel to the axis of the width w, and height H parallel to the axis of height h and width W is greater than or equal to the height H. At each end of the height are the first concave surface 2 and at each end of the width has a second concave surface 3. These first and second concave surfaces 2, 3 are connected by means of convex surfaces 4.

The software is mainly uniform cross-section along the direction defining the length L of the element (figure 2), does not exclude the presence of all elements that are not perpendicular to the direction of length. In fact, sometimes it is preferred that the ends were cut at an angle to the direction of length, since it was found that this reduces the probability of formation of "clusters" or combination of elements that could increase the pressure drop along the reactor, containing such elements. The ends mouthbut cut so to obtain a concave, convex or jagged shape in cross section.

Element in accordance with any option described here can be easily obtained by means of extrusion of a ceramic material, and it should be understood that the ceramic material include, for example, such ceramic materials, which are based on aluminosilicate clays, alumina, Zirconia, cordierite, Titania, in isolation or in mixture with each other or with other forming ceramic components.

Alternatively, the element may be formed by pressing or casting, and in this case, a relatively small intermediate flat surface may be provided on the external surfaces of the joints between the concave and convex surfaces, in order to facilitate the handling of the product during the molding. Intermediate flat surface are shorter compared with the concave and convex surfaces and are designed simply for ease of handling in the production process, when the elements are molded rather, not ekstragiruyut.

In accordance with the first embodiment of the present invention, the dimensions of width and height W, H of the element are not the same, and the ratio of the width W to the height H ranges from 1.25:1 to 3:1 and, in the first embodiment, orie tirovaca from 1.3:1 to 2.0:1. Thus, in appearance, the cross section perpendicular to the length of the preferred element in accordance with the present invention, similar to the classic form of the "dog bone" or "cow site. In the first embodiment, the ratio W: H is approximately 1.5:1.

The length L (figure 2) is mostly less than the width W, and the width to length ratio W: L in the first version is from 1.5:1 to 20:1, and the second variant from 1.5:1 to 4:1. In the first embodiment, N: L is approximately 8:1.

There is at least three channels 5 through the element, and the number can be from 4 to 275 and, in accordance with the first variant, from 7 to 20. In accordance with option 1, the channels through the element mainly distributed evenly, that is, the distance between any two adjacent channels mainly not deviate more than 50%, in the direction of increase or decrease from the average distance between two adjacent channels. Channels 5 may be of any desired cross section, for example, round, oval, flattened, in the form of beans, right or wrong polygon, etc. are Not excluded combinations of two or more forms channels in a single element. In accordance with option 1, all channels 5 have a circular cross-section.

Channels help to reduce drop Yes the lines through the layer, containing elements. Thus, in accordance with the first variant, the number of channels and their cross-sectional area is chosen in such a way as to reduce the pressure drop by at least 50%, compared with equivalent packing layer containing elements without channels.

It is clear that the greater the number of channels 5, the smaller the cross-sectional area usually must have a single channel 5. In the first embodiment, the maximum cross-section D of each channel 5 should not exceed two-thirds the size N of the element. In a specific embodiment, the dimension D should not exceed half the size N of the element and in another embodiment, should not be more than one third of this size. In the first embodiment, shown in figures 1 and 3, the channels are circular and have the same dimensions. In the first embodiment, the ratio D: H is at least 1:10 and may be at least 1.5:10.

In the cross section of the nozzle element, the area formed by the full cross-section of the channels may be at least about 20% of the total cross-sectional area of the element and can reach approximately 75% of the total cross-sectional area. In the first specific embodiment, the cross-sectional area of the channels is at least 30% of the total cross-sectional area. In another specific embodiment, area is the cross-section of the channels is at least 40%, and in yet another specific embodiment, up to 67% of the total cross-sectional area of the element.

Concave surfaces 2, 3 create a region of reduced width and height of an element, which is the narrowest in the middle of the concave surfaces. The width and height of the element in the most narrow point, which coincides, in the shown embodiment, with the respective axes of the width and height w, h, called respectively the Central width of N and a Central height of M In the first embodiment, the ratio of M:N is approximately from 0.4 to 0.85. In a specific embodiment, the ratio of M: N is from 0.5 to 0.8. In the first embodiment, the ratio of N: W is approximately from 0.6 to 0.98. In a specific embodiment, N: W is from 0.7 to 0.95.

In the first embodiment, the radius of curvature of concave surfaces 3 are equal or almost equal (for example, with a tolerance of ±10%) of the curvature radius of the convex surfaces 4. In the first embodiment, the radius of curvature of the concave surface 2 is less than or equal to W. In the first embodiment, the radius of curvature of the concave surface 3 is less than or equal to N.

Shown in figure 1 embodiment, the element has a uniform cross section along its length, as shown in figure 2. Concave surfaces 2, 3 can be considered as channels in the outer surface of the element along the length of the element. Many channels 5 go through the element parallel to the size of lengths is. The channels are mostly uniform in cross section along the length and shown in figures 1 and 2 element have the same diameter of about one-third of the height dimension N.

In the first embodiment, the element is symmetrical with respect to the axes h and w. Each of the four quadrants of the nozzle element comprises at least one mainly round the corner channel 5A, which is located mainly in the centre of the area covered by the convex surfaces 4, so that the convex surfaces form an arc with the center, located inside the angular channel 5A and the center, in the first embodiment, coincides with the center of the channel 5A.

In addition to the four corner channels 5A, each quadrant contains at least one additional intermediate channel 5b (or part thereof)that is located between the corner channel 5A and the center of the element formed by the intersection of the axes h and w. Central circular channel 5C is located so that its center coincides with the center of the element. Additional channels 5d are located on the w-axis.

In option 3, the ceramic element of the nozzle 6 has a small flat outer surface 7, which connect the concave and convex sections. However, in other respects this form of the same element.

Figure 4 shows four possible education consolamentum. On figa-4d shows (for the left and right ends, respectively, in each case) is concave and straight cut ends; two toothed end; two concave end and the gear and concave ends.

In version 5 and 6 shows the element 8 having a peripheral shape similar to those shown in figure 1, however, is not excluded also peripheral shape with a flat outer surfaces 7, similar to those shown in figure 3.

With regard to item 5, this element is symmetrical with respect to the axes h I. w. Central circular channel 5C is located in the center of the element. The four corner channel 5A are in accordance with the previous description of figure 1. Instead of two intermediate channels 5b figure 1, located between the corner channels 5A and the Central channel 5C, a channel 5e in the form bean, which intersects the w-axis, so the areas of the channel 5e are in adjacent quadrants. The second channel 5e in the form bean, which is a mirror image of the first channel shape and location, is located in the other two quadrants. Channel 5e in the form bean has a corresponding inner and outer arcuate surfaces 10, 11. The inner surface 10 is shorter in length than the outer surface 11, and is parallel or almost parallel to it. In the shown embodiment, each of the arcuate surfaces 10, 11 are the two which is the arc of the corresponding imaginary circle, having a center which coincides or almost coincides with the center of the element; however, the center of the imaginary circles can be located closer to the channel 5e or farther from him than the center of the element. Arcuate surfaces 10, 11 are connected at their ends by means of convex surfaces 12, 13, however, it is possible that the surfaces 12, 13 can be straight or slightly concave. Arcuate surfaces 10, 11 and connecting the convex surface 12, 13 together form an angle of αless 120°and mainly about 90°. Channel 5e in the form bean can have the greatest dimension D, which is estimated to be 2/3 of the height H of the element. In the first embodiment, D is less than or equal to M

Channel 5e in the form bean allows you to create structurally sound element to optimizing the flow through the element. Theoretical calculations show that the pressure drop of the gas flow through the packing layer formed of the elements shown in figure 5 type, significantly less than in the case of spherical elements (balls), and in the first embodiment, the differential pressure is approximately 50% less pressure drop in the layer with the spherical balls.

The ratio of the total area of the channels to the area of the element when the element 5 may be the same as in the case of item 1 and 2. In the first specific embodiment, the channels 5 together take 35-50% of the area of the cross what about the section element 8. Relations W:L and H:L may be the same as in option 1. In the first embodiment, N:L is approximately from 5:1 to 15:1, and in the second case, approximately 8:1.

The element 8 has a constant cross-section in the direction of the length, as shown in figure 2, i.e. it has a first flat surface 14, which is parallel to the opposite second flat surface 15; however, it should be borne in mind that can also be used and the structure shown in figa-4d.

In addition to using as a stopper layer or as part of an orderly nozzle, creating a surface for mass transfer and/or heat transfer, it is possible that an element with a porous structure, which is suitable for use as a catalyst carrier, deposited in the pores of the element and through the channels of the element. Thus, you can create a catalyst layer containing a porous components of the catalyst carrier with a conventional catalyst, with the restriction that layer using elements in accordance with the present invention, which not only perform the function of limiting layer, but also react with any remaining reagents that have not been converted during the passage through the area of the layer that contains supporting the catalyst components.

PR is cosmotron option in accordance with which the elements having the above-described structural characteristics and functions as a stopper layer, are items that are made of plastic and not ceramic.

1. Ceramic element nozzle, having a constant cross-section along the axis (1) length (L) of the element passing through the center (C) of the element relative to which the element is symmetrical, characterized in that the ratio of the width (W) to length (L) is from 1.5:1 to 5:1, and has first and second concave outer surface (2, 3) at the ends of the axes of the height and width (h, w), which is perpendicular to the direction of length, and these concave surfaces are connected by means of the surfaces selected from the group that includes a convex surface (4) and a convex surface (4), United with the concave surfaces with the help of short intermediate flat surfaces (7), the element contains at least three end-to-end channel (5) in the direction of the length, at least one of the channels (5e) has the form bean in cross section, with the channel in the form bean has two mainly parallel arcuate surface.

2. The element according to claim 1, in which the concave surface (2, 3) are connected directly with the convex surfaces (4).

3. The element according to claim 1, in which the size in width is not and height (W, H) item are different, and the ratio of the width to the height is from 1.25:1 to 3:1.

4. The element according to claim 3, in which the ratio of the width to the height is from 1.3:1 to 2.0:1.

5. The element according to claim 1, in which the element contains from 3 to 275 channels.

6. The element according to claim 1, in which at least multiple channels (5A, 5b, 5C, 5d) are round in cross section and the diameter (D) each round channel is less than approximately half the height (H) of the element.

7. The element according to claim 6, in which multiple channels (5A, 5b, 5C, 5d) are the same size.

8. The element according to claim 1, in which at least one channel (5e) in the form bean has the largest size (D), which amounts to 2/3 of the height (H) of the element.

9. The element according to claim 1, in which the total cross-sectional area of the channels is from 20 to 75% of the total cross-sectional area of the element.

10. The element according to claim 9, in which the total cross-sectional area of the channels is from 30 to 67% of the total cross-sectional area of the element.

11. The element according to claim 1, in which the ceramic material is a porous material.

12. The element of claim 1, wherein the channels include a variety of second channels (5A, 5C, 5d), with the second form, and at least one channel in the form bean is located between at least one of the multiple second channels and the center of the element.

13. E is ement according to claim 1, in which the ratio of height to width of the element N:L is approximately from 5:1 to 15:1.

14. Item by item 13, in which the ratio of H:L is approximately 8:1.

15. The method of forming an element layer of the nozzle, which includes the following steps: extruding a mixture which contains one or more forming ceramic components; partitioning extruded mixture to form sections; the firing sections for the formation of the elements of the nozzle (1, 6, 8), and each nozzle is characterized by the presence of the first and second concave external surfaces (2, 3) at the ends of the respective axes of the height and width (h, w)perpendicular to the length (L), and these concave surfaces are connected by means of surfaces, which are selected from the group which includes a convex surface (4) and a convex surface (4), United with the concave surfaces using relatively short intermediate flat surfaces (7), and the ratio of the width (W) to length (L) is from 1.5:1 to 5:1, this element contains at least three end-to-end channel (5) in the direction of length, with at least one of the channels (5e) made in the form of beans in cross section, with the channel in the form bean has two mainly parallel arcuate surface; assembling layer elements of the nozzle, which sod is rgit many baked items nozzles.



 

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