# Method, transmitter, and receiver for digital communications with expanded signal spectrum by way of modulation using complementary golay numbers

FIELD: modulation and demodulation in reception and transmission including when using expanded signal spectrum.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for digital communications with signal whose spectrum is expanded by modulation using complementary Golay numbers involves following procedures: during transmission input binary data are integrated into η groups of m = log_{2}A bits, A modulation by peak values, spectrum expansion by means of η complementary Golay numbers or by complementary Golay numbers whose phase and sign are changed, modulation in N-phase keying mode, and transmission over communication channel; reception involves phase demodulation, convolution with respective Golay complementary numbers, amplitude demodulation, and source data generation.

EFFECT: enhanced transfer speed and spectrum expansion ratio.

7 cl, 4 dwg

The technical FIELD

The present invention relates to a method of modulation and demodulation, as well as to the transmitter and receiver capable of transmitting and receiving data using any transceiver means, in particular, in those cases where it is necessary or desirable to use a wider range of signal.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

The principle of operation of systems with "spread spectrum" (with broadband or noise-like signal) was developed for military communications taking into account the fact that such systems have a high noise immunity. It is based on the use of certain binary sequences, which have some characteristics similar to noise, but can be registered as a signal receiver, which this sequence is known. Similarly, pulse compression using binary sequences may be useful in radar, underwater acoustics and ultrasound due to the fact that it allows to increase the resolution in the detection of objects. However, in recent years these systems have found wide application in space technology in the areas of communication, such as mobile telephony, DS-CDMA system, multiple access, code-division multiplexing using the code direct sequence), plumes access radiotelephone systems, to blunt to the Internet, wireless local area networks, deep space communication, etc. they are All based on digital modulation sequences suitable for use in the above areas, due to their inherent characteristics of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation. For this reason, a number of international organizations (IEEE - Institute of electrical and electronics, UIT - international Union for telecommunications and others) began to regulation and standardization modulation systems that simplify the use of some sequences to modulate the transmitted binary data and to receive due to this characteristics, allowing the use of, among others, some of the frequencies that are allocated for industrial, scientific and medical purposes (so-called ISM band - 918, 2450, 5800 and 22 500 MHz) and the use of which does not require any special authorization of the governing bodies. The need to transfer the maximum possible amount of information has led experts in the field of communications to develop commercial systems that use the IEEE 802.11 standard for broadcast on local networks with more significant speeds thanks to the use of such binary sequences, as 11-bit Barker sequence (for the floor the minimum value of the coefficient of the spread spectrum signal, equal to 10.4 dB) or 5-bit Walsh sequence, and various modulation techniques (BPSK - off phase, QPSK - quadrature phase, mwok, QMBOK etc)that can achieve transfer speeds up to 11 Mbit/s with this standard it is possible to work within three frequency bands with a spectral width of the first zeros equal to 22 MHz, i.e. in the so-called range (2.4 GHz).

Similarly, you need a reliable transfer methods for so-called deep space communication between spacecraft and ground bases, providing large coefficients of expansion of the spectrum of the signal due to the necessary limitations of emissivity on-Board transmission equipment, as well as due to the decrease of the signal-to-noise when receiving these signals.

As shown below (figure 1), the length of the coding sequence (Barker, psevdochumoy, Walsh and others) depend on both the expansion rate of the signal spectrum, and the band width. Typically, when attempting to increase the coefficient of expansion of the spectrum of the signal decreases the transmission rate that is constantly forced to compromise between these two parameters. The transmission speed can be improved by increasing the number of phase modulation, however, as the reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiving increasing the variety of restrictions, associated with this method.

The INVENTION

Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that there is a need for such a method of digital modulation spread spectrum signal, which would, on the one hand, to increase the transmission rate, and on the other hand, to achieve a higher coefficient of expansion of the spectrum of the signal so that it became possible to reduce the required transmit power or increase of the signal-to-noise ratio at the reception, while reducing the complexity of the currently existing tables modulation.

According to the invention is provided the use of pairs of complementary sequences of the cell to modulate the spread spectrum and DS-CDMA amplitude-modulated binary data in combination with N-phase phase shift keying or modulation, is widely used in digital communication systems and denoted by the Russian acronym FMN or English abbreviation PSK.

The main feature of the sequences used here is that unlike Barker sequences, with side lobes, the sequence of cell differ perfect autocorrelation or, in other words, correspond to the ideal Kronecker symbol, satisfying the following conditions:

where C_{A}and C_{n}- individual autocorrelation sequences a and b,
the components of the selected pair of complementary sequences of the cell with length M, whose values belong to the two-element set (1, -1).

The formation of such sequences based on the use of well-known up to the present time the so-called main engines 2, 10 and 26 bits (rules sequencing of cell is described in the article Mdiehl "Complementary sequences", published in IRE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. IT-7, pp.82-87, April 1961).

Thanks to the proposed communication system, it becomes possible to establish end-to-end or multi-point physical connection with the transmission rate determined in use, available bandwidth and an acceptable error rate.

This system consists of two separate components: transmitter and receiver.

The transmitting equipment is used to perform the following tasks:

receiving data and generating a symbol corresponding to each group of (m) bits, as a function of the sequence of cell number (η) with the selected length (M)number of amplitudes (a) for the symbol, the number of phases (N)used for modulation, and the coefficient of expansion of the spectrum of the signal required to meet the quality requirements of the system;

the addition of different phases to generate N-phase phase manipulation is AI (FMN) and thereby generating a transmitted signal;

transmitting the composite signal to the transmitter, for example, using RF cascade and antenna.

Receiving equipment is used to perform the following operations:

the demodulation information concerning the N-phase phase-shift keying (QPSK), and the separation of the components of each of the individual phases;

matching, filtering and correlation of the selected components with their respective complementary pairs or sequences of cell;

summing correlations and thereby obtaining the original data stream in the form of digital levels;

decoding levels to obtain the original data.

The first advantage of this method is that it allows to obtain an arbitrarily large ratio spread spectrum signal independently, as will be shown below, from the speed only by increasing the length of the selected sequence of the cell, resulting to obtain a large signal-to-noise ratio is unnecessarily high transmission power. In this case, the coefficient of expansion of the spectrum of the signal (in decibels) is defined by the formula:

where M corresponds to the length of the sequences of the cell used for modulation. This feature is extremely important in those applications where it is desirable low transmit power (portable features : the main terminals, space vehicles and communication satellites), when communication is carried out over large distances (deep space communication) and even in the military field, where the reliability and quality of transmission dependent posed by enemy interference or encryption of the transmitted signal.

In addition, the described method allows to simultaneously transmit over the communication channel information streams in the same frequency bands through the use of different sequences of the cell with low mutual correlation, which facilitates the creation of communication subnets within the same band or increase the speed of transmission in the number of times proportional η.

Similarly, perhaps even greater increase in the transmission rate if pre-modulation of the input data using the And amplitudes.

Thus, from the above we can conclude that the transmission rate or bandwidth (S)that can be obtained in the system of spread spectrum communications signal by this method is:

where (in Hertz) used the spectral width by the first zeros, N is the number of phases used in the modulation degree (number 4), And the number of amplitudes used for encoding binary data, a η - the number of pairs used com is elementarnykh sequences of the cell. From the above expressions one can see that does not depend on M

Thus, the invention allows to create a powerful communications system that can be applied in cases spread spectrum signal in a DS-CDMA, in an environment with adverse external influences that have restrictions on the transmit power, or simply in cases where you need to improve the communication quality without reducing the data transfer rate.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Figure 1 presents a diagram illustrating the main method of transmission using spread spectrum signal and, in particular, the 11-bit Barker sequence, which is using the function "XOR" provides a wider spectrum of the original signal data. You can see that the bit frequency (transmission frequency bits) 11 times less than the frequency used for the Barker sequence, which makes it possible to obtain the coefficient of expansion of the spectrum of the signal is 10·log_{10}(11) of 10.4 DB.

Figure 2 is a diagram illustrating the basic principle used to create the proposed method of transmission, and the possible execution of the corresponding transmitter with N=4. Binary data (1) groups ηxm bits arrive in the emitter. Each group i m bit is multiplied with the sign of (3) using sequences Goal is I and corresponding to the number of the basic block modulation) i. The results of both multiplications independently accumulated in each phase and in each element of the shift register (4), then move to the right in anticipation of the next character.

Then the output values of the shift register of each of WWII are summed (5), resulting in phase and quadrature modulated work, for example, with the sign of the sine and cosine of (6). The result goes to the normal transmitting cascade (7).

Figure 3 shows a diagram illustrating the basic principle used to create the proposed method, and an example of executing a corresponding receiver when N=4. Both phases weaken by 4-phase phase demodulation with one phase and the other quadrature signal (1). The received analog in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals are subjected to quantization and enter all BDB (basic blocks demodulation), then the results of both operations are subjected to correlation with the corresponding original sequences (3), the sum (3) both threads gives the amplitude-coded signal that corresponds to each subset of m of the source bits, past demodulation. In block seal (4) performs decoding and bit ordering in order to restore the original data stream.

Phi is .4 illustrates a possible example of the modulation. For simplicity here only the case of phase 1 (phase Q is the same, with the difference that the modulation is carried out using complementary sequences). Therefore illustrates only one of the registers of the cell (1), only one of the batteries and the shift registers (2) and only one multiplier (3).

The PREFERRED IMPLEMENTATION

The following is one possible implementation of the method applied to the system through an external radio. For the sake of simplicity, figure 2 illustrates an example transmitter quadrature-phase modulation (N=4), which provides the modulation data using η sequences of the cell, modulated using And amplitudes. Thus, if we apply the expression (1.2), the data transfer rate will be:

In accordance with the above, the starting point is a number η pairs of sequences of the cell of M bits are generated and stored in the transmitter by using, as a rule, 2η binary registers (values 1 and -1), which must be subjected to amplitude modulation with, And amplitudes and 4-phase quadrature-phase-shift keying (4-phase phase manipulation). On the same figure 2 shows in detail one of the basic blocks modulation (WWII).

The transmitter performs the following is e surgery (R - the transmission rate in characters):

(1) Encoder. The digital data type NRZ (no return to zero), taken with the speed ηxmxR bits received in coded form and are combined in η groups m=log_{2}A bit. In each of WWII is parallel processing of groups of m bits, then the system transfers ηxm bits per symbol. The bit with the largest weight in each group corresponds to the sign and m-1 with less weight module.

(2) The Register Of The Cell. Formed by two binary registers of length M, where a pair of complementary sequences a and b whose values belong to the set (1, -1), for modulation of data processed in the corresponding block BMB.

(3) the Multiplier. Consists of two multipliers with sign (a bit higher weight) pairs of sequences of cell a and b block BMB with arithmetic value of the corresponding group within the multiple groups of input symbol.

(4) Dual battery and shift register. Perform arithmetic summation of the work of the multipliers with the contents of the dual shift register (upper route and, And internal - In) and produce a shift register in the right part of each cycle of the symbol with the update of the register, remote maximally to the left of him, to zero. The shift register formed by the basic elements in which the stored value is of the signal. Therefore, the number (n) of bits used in each basic element of the specified register should be chosen so as to prevent overflow in the process of accumulation. Thus, the number of elements in the shift register must equal or exceed M for each of the routes a and B.

(5) an Adder. Independently summarizes the data corresponding to the output of each shift register of each block WWII with getting this summed signal I_{t}and O_{t}that subsequently modulate.

(6) the QPSK Modulator. Modulating output signals of the adder, multiplying them by two quadrature symbol, such as a sine wave symbol with the phase of the f_{0}(via I_{t}and the second quadrature (through Q_{t}), after which summarizes the results of both phases with the receipt of a transmitted signal modulated in QPSK mode.

(7) Output stage. Consists of a cascade of d/a Converter and a conventional high-frequency cascade, which, for example, sends a signal to the transmission medium.

Figure 3 shows an example structure of a receiver for N=4, which is formed η basic blocks demodulation (BDB), shown in detail on the same scheme. The receiver consists of the following blocks:

(1) the QPSK Receiver. Provides amplification of the RF input signal and, if necessary, converting it to temporarily the second frequency (FC), obtaining information about the phase and demodulation and recovery of different streams (in-phase I and quadrature Q), which correspond to the phasesThe signals I and Q are converted into digital form, and the result is passed to the block correlation, common for all BDB.

(2) The Correlator Of The Cell. Provides the ability to correlate different threads taken from the corresponding sequences of the cell. Given that these sequences are normalized in the range from +1 to -1, the correlation is reduced to the operations of summation and subtraction.

(3) the Adder and the detector. Provide this sum correlations (two and two), in which the result is the original amplitude-modulated data. The last set thresholds and they are converted into binary data, generated with a frequency of occurrence of symbols at the output of each block.

(4) the Decoder. Merges groups, taken in the flow of information, which correspond to the data transmitted in the order in which they were transmitted with the speed ηxmxR bits/s

Two of the above described device, taken together, form a transmitting system.

1. The way digital communication signal with enhanced through modulation using complementary sequences of cell range, according to which when I transfer the derivative of the binary data are combined in η
groups m=log_{2}A bit, And modulate the amplitude values extend the range by η complementary sequences of the cell, or the complementary sequences of the cell with the modified sign and phase modulate mode N-phase manipulation, transmit over the communication channel, when receiving produce phase demodulation, convolution with the corresponding complementary sequences of the cell, amplitude demodulation and generation of initial data.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use complementary sequence of the cell with low mutual correlation.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the results of multiplying the input data on the complementary sequence of the cell, or on the complementary sequence of the cell with the modified sign and phase, summarize all together or in any combination.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that for changing the phase sequence of the cell using a dual shift register.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the summation modulate mode N-phase manipulation.

6. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that it includes the stages:

(a) the introduction of amplitude-modulated binary input data are grouped into m-bit, η basic blocks modulation (WWII);

(b) storing pairs included InterNIC sequences of the cell, whose values are in the range from 1 to -1, in the dual shift registers of length M in the specified WWII;

(C) obtaining works of complementary sequences of the cell with the corresponding group of m bits, the sign of which corresponds to a sign bit with the largest weight, and the module presents the remaining m-1 bits, resulting in the formation of two sequences I and Q of length M elements;

(g) elementwise accumulation values of M that are contained in the dual shift register of length M, with corresponding M elements of each of the sequences obtained in the previous step;

(d) shift the contents of the specified registers in the side of the M-th element and adding to the basic elements of the first order of the specified register zero values;

(e) obtain the total quadrature sequences of I_{t}and Q_{t}by summing η values obtained independently from the outputs of the sequences I and Q of each of the blocks WWII;

(W) modulation mode N-phase manipulation of sequences of I_{t}and Q_{t}and tabulation manipulation with the purpose of receiving the transmitted signal;

(C) transmitting the received signal by means of the transfer.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes the stages:

(a) coordination and sync is the received signal,

recovery quadrature sequences in the phase demodulation, introducing them to each of the η basic blocks demodulation (BDB);

(b) performing a convolution of these two sequences with η pairs of complementary sequences of the cell through correlation or matched filtering;

(C) summing the results of the convolution, corresponding to the same pair of complementary sequences of the cell, with the aim of obtaining η information flows, modulated And amplitude values;

(g) receiving the results of the amplitude demodulation η groups m=log_{2}A bit;

(d) forming a source stream of data by the compression of the specified groups.

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FIELD: technology for recognizing radio-signals, in particular, methods for detecting type and modulation parameters of radio signals.

SUBSTANCE: for realization of method during recognition received radio signal is digitized by time and quantized by level. Value of bearing and clock frequencies of signal are determined and cophased and quadrature components of radio signal are formed. These are then filtered and selection counts of cophased and quadrature components of radio signal are selected, taken in counting time moments, determined by value of clock frequency. After that, selection counts of cophased and quadrature components of radio signal are corrected in complex form, using gradient algorithm for adjusting corrector coefficients. Then estimate of selections is split onto given number of clusters, equal to position coefficient of recognized signals, and values of clusterization error functional are calculated, received values are compared and decision is taken about relation to class by minimum of error functional value.

EFFECT: increased probability of correct recognition under multi-beam conditions.

5 cl, 9 dwg

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1 dwg

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2 dwg

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6 dwg

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**EFFECT: reduced power requirement of subordinate system units and/or enhanced range of their operation.**

**1 cl, 2 dwg**

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**1 cl, 8 dwg**

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable in antiference radiolinks.

SUBSTANCE: the method is featured by the fact that the pseudorandom sequence with clock pulse f_{p} and for expansion of the spectrum is divided into two orthogonal sequences, one of which contains only even harmonics of the initial pseudorandom sequence, and the other - only the odd ones, then each of the obtained sequence is multiplied with a simple phase-manipulated signal, then the upper side band is separated from the spectrum of one obtained signal, and the lower side band - from the spectrum of the other signal, these unlike side bands are summed up, in each side band two narrow sections of the spectrum symmetrical relative to frequency f_{0}+1/2f_{p}, in the upper side band and relative to frequency f_{0}-1/2f_{p} in the lower side band, one of the separated sections of the spectrum in each side band of the separated spectrum sections is amplified to the known magnitude, and the other, symmetrical to it, is inverted, after which the separated and remained non-separated sections of the spectrum in both side bands are summed up, the separated narrow spectrum sections in each side band are altered according to the pseudorandom law.

EFFECT: enhanced anti-interference of the radiolink is attained due to the fact that in the method of normalization of the composite phase-manipulated signal consists in expansion of the spectrum of the simple phase-manipulated signal obtained by multiplication of the carrying sinusoidal oscillation with frequency f_{0} and the binary information signal.

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FIELD: radio engineering.

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FIELD: technology for recognizing radio-signals, in particular, methods for detecting type and modulation parameters of radio signals.

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EFFECT: increased probability of correct recognition under multi-beam conditions.

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FIELD: modulation and demodulation in reception and transmission including when using expanded signal spectrum.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for digital communications with signal whose spectrum is expanded by modulation using complementary Golay numbers involves following procedures: during transmission input binary data are integrated into η groups of m = log_{2}A bits, A modulation by peak values, spectrum expansion by means of η complementary Golay numbers or by complementary Golay numbers whose phase and sign are changed, modulation in N-phase keying mode, and transmission over communication channel; reception involves phase demodulation, convolution with respective Golay complementary numbers, amplitude demodulation, and source data generation.

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3 cl, 8 cl

FIELD: data transmission.

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