Method and device for inspecting availability of gas in liquid flow
FIELD: measurement engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method and device can be used in systems for survey, transportation and preparation of oil. Continuous and simultaneous measurement of volumetric discharge Q1 and Q2 is performed in two points standing apart along flow travel in pipeline; the measurements are carried out by means of two flowmeters. Behind the first point Q1, the local hydrodynamic disturbance is generated in flow by means of expansion of cross-section of flow. Second measurement is carried out at expanded part of flow. Availability of gas is judged from excess in setting relatively current values Q1 and Q2, which value is specified in controller to which controller the both flowmeters are connected. Device for realization of the method is made in form of insertion n the pipeline.
EFFECT: improved reliability of measurement.
2 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to technology and engineering control availability of gas in the fluid flow and can be used mainly in information-measuring systems of production, transportation and treatment of oil during its transportation through pipelines.
Note that the production of oil wells is a two-phase gas-liquid mixture (liquid+gas), and more precisely a multicomponent mixture (oil+gas+water+resin+waxes+asphaltenes+solids), so production from producing wells first delivered in group metering stations (GMS) type "Satellite", where in automatic mode by periodic measurement of the flow rate of each well on the components (gas, water, oil, respectively). After gzu gas-liquid mixture enters the separation unit (or unit separator) 1st stage and then is pumped to a comprehensive collection points (PSC) and the Central trade Park (TSC). On TSC crude oil undergoes a full cycle of processing: two - or three-step, degassing, dehydration and desalting to marketable condition (Abramov G.S., Baryshev A.V. Practical flow measurement in the oil industry. M: JSC "VNIIEM", 2002. - S). Brought on physico-mechanical properties, according to GOST 9965-76, to marketable condition, the oil comes in rezervuary the Park, and then the pump is directed through a metering oil (alarming) in the main oil pipeline (MN). Metering is the main (trailing) part of the system of accounting for oil in General, because there are financial relationships of oil companies and consumers. Accordingly, measurement accuracy is subject to strict requirements including in part of the equipment of commercial sites, to the class of accuracy of the used instruments, modes of operation. Commercial metering the gross weight of the oil determine the volume-mass dynamic or dynamic mass (Abramov G.S., Baryshev A.V. Practical flow measurement in the oil industry. M: JSC "VNIIEM", 2002. - S). Implemented these methods turbine or paddlewheel flow converters, converters density of oil and Coriolis mass flow transducers, respectively (Abramov G.S., V.L. Arbuzov, Zimin M.I., Sugars VM nodes in the quality control of oil and metering of oil in a modular configuration design. // NTI automation, program and communication in the oil industry. - M.: JSC "VNIIEM", 2001. - №1-2. - P.19-22). Actually, commercial metering, for any reason, the oil may come with an unacceptable percentage of the gas that is in the trunk oil pipeline measuring transformed what resolutely flow of oil will be accepted as oil, for example, with a modified (reduced) density. These methods and devices that implement these methods, to detect the presence of gas in the main oil pipeline (the consumer) is not possible, otherwise we need some additional tools.
For such objects developed (recommendation. State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Oil. Residual gas content. The method of measurement of MI - 2575 - 2000, Kazan, 1999) devices, for example, of the type WASH-100 RMS to measure the volume content of free gas in the oil after separation. The readings (devices) are used to introduce amendments to the testimony of turbine meters, measure the quality of separation of oil and petroleum products (see here. Appendix A). Structurally, the apparatus consists of a sampling unit and press site. The device is connected to the oil pipe with the inlet and outlet fittings. The device implements a method of determining the gas content by the method of isothermal compression of the sample gas-liquid mixture; after its transition from two-phase to single-phase state the nature of the dependence of pressure on volume changes of the sample becomes linear. The determination of the content of free gas in the sample is performed on the obtained values of pressure and volume change calculations.
Not what ADI method for determining the gas content and devices implementing this method are obvious: the measurements are done in statics, a delay in the obtaining of the time, the manual pressing of the sample, the calculation method for determining the gas content. The measurement refers to the flow of oil, which at the moment probably already inadequate present (valid).
The closest technical solutions (prototypes) of the claimed method and device are the way to measure the component of the flow rate of the liquid and gas components, implemented by the device (Chudin VI, Anufriev CENTURIES, Sukhov D.K. Annular RING counters for measuring the flow rate of oil wells. Materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference "the 25th anniversary of the Tyumen scientific and industrial schools of flow measurement. M: JSC "VNIIEM", 2004. - P.114-122), containing two chamber flow meter connected in series and separated by an adjustable throttle, two gauge pressure established before the first and second flow meters.
A disadvantage of this device is its instrument redundancy: two flow meter, two pressure sensor built into the pipeline adjustable choke (otherwise disturbing the fluid flow element).
The method implemented by the device prototype (Chudin VI, Anufriev CENTURIES, Sukhov D.K. Annular RING counters for measurement of flow rate is not the tyano wells. Materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference "the 25th anniversary of the Tyumen scientific and industrial schools of flow measurement. M: JSC "VNIIEM", 2004. - P.114-122)is a continuous measurement of flow volumes of oil and gas mixture, the density of which varies, as it increases the amount of remaining gas in the mixture due to local separation, caused by the action of the throttle.
The disadvantage of this method of determining the quantity of gas is the difficulty of obtaining the dependence of gas flow from the pressure drop ΔR on the throttle when changing the flow of oil and gas mixture in the pipeline (before the first flow meter), because the pressure drop ΔR, in turn, is a function of the flow area of the throttle and oil consumption. To build this dependency requires preliminary bench tests under varying in a wide range of costs. At the same time on objects, in particular in the commercial metering requires more than the actual value of the quantity (flow rate) of gas in the mixture, and the presence of free gas in excess of some specified pumping technology products, the standard limit.
Thus, the purpose of the claimed objects (otherwise the required technical result) is to give the known technical solutions more high consumer properties, and the Menno: in giving them control functions.
The required technical result in the claimed method, according to the prototype consists in a continuous measurement of the two costs and two pressures at the inlet and outlet adjustable throttle, is achieved by the fact that the measure of costs in the narrowed and widened portions of the pipeline, and control the availability of gas is carried out in the presence of inequality of the two charges, and, for example, if the ratio of these costs will not equal the unit at any size, provided the same error flowmeters and her character is judged on the rate of conditionnode (as) of oil on the part of the presence of residual gas.
As the experience of the operation of the prototype, as well as poster and industrial tests of the claimed device, the required technical result in the latter is achieved by a device for monitoring the presence of gas in the liquid stream according to the prototype is made in the form of an insert in the pipeline, and in this channel insert at the end of its sites hosted and operated flow volumetric flow, and between them posted by perturbing the phase equilibrium of the fluid flow element with flow meters with identical measurement error, a controller, electrically connected to the information outputs of these flowmeters, disturbing the fluid element is designed in the form of the of castka insert with the standard, at a certain specific value, the increased channel relative to the end of the inlet pipe and the second flow meter is installed and enabled on the plot device of staff increased channel, with the controller set as setpoint maximum permissible misalignment of information signals from flowmeters for generating and issuing a signal on exceeding the preset.
The drawing shows a schematic diagram of a device for implementing the proposed method of monitoring the presence of gas in the liquid stream.
The device includes (see drawing) of the measuring insert in a pipeline with a normal 1 and advanced 2 plots with a calibrated internal sections of S1and S2where flow meters 3 and 4 General purpose (turbine, vortex, ultrasonic and the like), the outputs of which are connected with the controller (computer) 5.
The device (see drawing) operates and implements the claimed method in the following way. Moving the measuring insert the flow of fluid (oil), if it residual, usually dissolved gas passing through the widened section 2 is subjected to local resentment and separation (that is, as it boils) and, thereby, the structure of the flow of oil in the cross-section of S2becomes inadequate flow structure in the cross section of S1.
Record the General condition of continuity of flow for the liquid (oil) in the cross sections of S 1and S2insert (see drawing):
where S1and S2square sections in the normal and regular extended parts inserted into the pipeline;
V1and V2- the velocity of fluid flow, respectively, in sections S1and S2;
ρ1and ρ2- density of liquid in the sections S1and S2.
When ρ1=ρ2condition (1) is transformed into the expression
where Q is the volumetric flow rate, condition (2) will bring to mind
Therefore, if continuously measure the cost of Q1and Q2in normal (POS. 1 in the drawing) and the standard extended (Ref. 2 in the drawing) parts insertion flow meters 3 and 4 with the same absolute or basic relative errors and the same (+ or -) sign of these errors, i.e. with identical errors, and calculate the ratio of these costs, then the inequality expenses Q1and Q2or the inequality of their relationship Q1/Q2the unit will indicate the phase imbalance of the flow, in other words, the presence of both dissolved and free of residual gas in the oil. In this case it is more convenient to use the inequality
Then, the controller, comparing Δf, that is, the current (calculated) ratio of expenses Q1and Q2and deviation Δyfrom unit (valid on technology transfer numerical value Δyis determined experimentally and is entered as a setpoint in the controller memory)writes to the console, i.e. the relevant services of the signal exceeds the setpoint (Δf>Δythis deviation, which indicates the phase imbalance of the flow or, in other words, the presence of abnormal amounts of gas in oil.
Thus, the proposed method and realizing it device combines the functionality and flow measurement gassy liquid and controlling the presence of gas in it.
Essential features (including distinctive) the proposed method of monitoring the presence of gas in the fluid flow and device for its implementation achieve the desired technical result, meet the criteria for an "invention" and subject to the protection of the security document (patent) of the Russian Federation in accordance with the request of the applicant.
1. The method of controlling the presence of gas in the liquid stream consisting of continuous and simultaneous measurement of the volumetric flow rate Q1and Q2at two points spaced along the flow in the pipeline, after the first withwhich in the stream create a local hydrodynamic perturbation to modify an existing phase state, characterized in that the hydrodynamic perturbation flow create an expanded cross-section by increasing the bore of the pipeline, flow measurement performed with the same accuracy, while the second measurement is carried out on the extended section of the fluid flow, and on the availability of gas is measured by excess current ratio Q1and Q2the set point.
2. The control device of the presence of gas in the liquid stream is made in the form of an insert in the pipeline and contains disturbing the phase equilibrium of the fluid flow element and the flow volume flow, is placed in the channel of the insert, characterized in that it is provided with a controller, electrically connected to the information outputs of the flowmeters that have identical measurement error, disturbing the fluid element is designed in the form of a plot of insertion with a staff, on a certain specific value increased channel relative to the end of the inlet pipe is inserted and a second flow meter is installed on the site with the standard extended channel, the controller is the setpoint maximum permissible misalignment of information signals with flowmeters for generating and issuing a signal on exceeding the preset.
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automated determination of solution concentrations, in particular from measured boiling temperature, and can be used in natural gas fields and in underground gas holders on gas absorption drying installations, wherein aqueous solution of di- or triethylene glycol is used as absorbent. Concentration of aqueous glycol solution comprises measurement of boiling point and vapor phase pressure over boiling solution. Sought concentration is calculated from following relationships: (1) Cg=Mg*Xg*100/(Mg+Xg+Mw*(1-Xg)), where Xg=(10Zw(T)-P)/(10Zw(T)-10Zg(T); (2) Zw(T)=8.006-1691/(230+T); (3) Xg(T)=9.270-3035/(230+T) for diethylene glycol; (4) Xg(T)=8.54-2927.5/(230+T) for triethylene glycol; where Zw(T) is exponent value in determination of saturated water vapor pressure, Zg(T) is exponent value in determination of saturated glycol vapor pressure, Mw=18 kg/kmole (molecular mass of water), Mg is molecular mass of glycol, Mg=106 kg/kmole for diethylene glycol, Mg=150.17 kg/kmole for triethylene glycol, T is boiling temperature of glycol solution, °C, P is pressure of vapor phase over boiling solution, kg/cm2.
EFFECT: increased determination accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: in through portion of pipe with choking of through portion cavitation flow lock mode is set, and in zone of low density value of critical pressure of cavitation and liquid flow are determined, which flow is used to determined liquid speed in pipe neck. Received critical pressure value of cavitation is aligned with pressure of saturated steam of pumped liquid, after that to specially built calculation graph dependencies of relative value of critical pressure of critical speed of flow in channel neck are applied in the moment of setting of lock mode with different concentration of cores target concentration of cores of cavitation of pumped liquid is determined.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes upper mold-half and lower metallic mold-half. Upper flask is filled with sand and it has cavity for pouring melt metal and heat-insulation ring. Lower mold-half has base, sleeve and heat insulation cylinder. Sample of sand is placed into said cylinder and it is fixed by means of net. There is cavity between net and lid; said cavity is communicated with atmosphere through opening of lid and duct in which sampler is mounted. Other opening of lid is communicated with carrier-gas source through gas flow rate pickup. Gases are generated in sample by action of temperature of cast metal and they are filtered into cavity between net and lid where said gases are mixed with carrier gas. Flow rate of carrier gas is registered by means of pickup calibrated according to flow rate of selected carrier gas. Formed gas mixture is directed to sampler and in atmosphere. Mass speed of toxic gas separation is calculated on base of flow rate of carrier gas and concentration of toxic gas contained in samples of gas mixture. It is possible to use samples of different diameter.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining parameters of gas separation out of poured casting mold.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring in given sequence of appropriate parameters with following calculation of determined characteristics on basis of certain relation. Device for determining characteristics for sublimation of liquid oil products contains sublimation retort with dimensions, allowing to place 5-15 ml of analyzed probe therein, device for heating retort in its lower portion with constant and adjusted heating intensiveness, two inertia-less temperature sensors providing for continuous measurement of true value of temperature of sample in steam couple, device for continuous pressure measurement in stem phase of sample during sublimation, which includes pressure sensor as well as capillary and receiving and signals processing sensors, sent by temperature sensors and pressure sensor.
EFFECT: simplified construction, higher speed of operation.
2 cl, 4 ex, 10 tbl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of testing petroleum derivatives, in particular to testing hygroscopicity of aviation synthetic oils, and can be utilized in institutions engaged in development and application of lubricating oils for aircraft techniques and for estimating changes in quality conditions of aviation synthetic oils from tendency of oils to water absorption under operation conditions. In a method of estimating hygroscopicity of oils from amount of absorbed water, including sampling oil, keeping sample at specified relative humidity and temperature in presence of distilled water, and then calculating amount of absorbed water using thus obtained dependence, additionally calculating content of water in initial sample (C0), specifying keeping time (t) for sample of oil at specified relative humidity and temperature, and calculating amount of absorbed water (C1) in oil sample from mathematic dependence taking into consideration experimentally found maximum water solubility constant (Cmax) and constant coefficient (ka) for particular kinds of aviation synthetic oils.
EFFECT: reduced determination time and labor expenditure for determination, increased sensitivity of method under oil operation conditions without losses in accuracy and reproducibility.
1 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use as a means of metrologically supporting measurement techniques in determination of total alkaline number of motor oils and lubricating materials. This means is represented by composition containing 75-84% liquid hydrocarbons, 0.05-6% water-soluble alkali component, and 15-20% aliphatic alcohol. Use of standard specimen allows performing reliable estimation of quality of motor oils and lubricating materials by accessible acid-base titration technique requiring no special instrumentation equipment.
EFFECT: simplified analytical procedure.
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; analysis of the materials by the chemical methods.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of analysis of the materials by the chemical methods (by titration, with utilization of chemical indicators), containing the organic compounds of magnesium and may be used in chemical and a petrochemical industry at exercising control over the quality of petroleum. The invention provides, that magnesium chloride from the oil test is produced by impregnation of the ash-free filter with the tested oil with its subsequent incineration up to the complete ashing. Then the ash is dissolved in 30-40 cm3 of the weak 6 Mole/dm3 solution of hydrochloric acid. The produced solution id boiled within 15-20 minutes, transferred by a spray of the distilled water into the graduated flask. Take the aliquot, in which add the distilled water and neutralize it with ammonia (dropwise) up to pH=10.0, introduce the ammoniacal buffered solution and the indicating device the chromogen black ЕТ-100 and titrate 0.025 Mole/cm3 with the B-trilonum solution till the change of the a crimson-violet color into blue- pale blue, and quantity of magnesium (in mass%), is determined by the empirical formula. The invention allows to reduce the time duration for determination of the contents of magnesium, to improve the labor conditions due to exclusion from the process of the toxic and flammable benzole without reduction of requirements on toxicity and reliability of the produced results.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the time for determination of the contents of magnesium, improvement of the labor conditions, exclusion from the process of the toxic and flammable benzole without reduction of requirements to toxicity and reliability of the produced results.
FIELD: the invention may be used directly at wells or collecting sites of primary processing of gas-condensate or oil output.
SUBSTANCE: the invention has a built-in a pipeline a tube section with a measuring channel and measuring devices of speed, a cross-section of liquid fraction, of pressure, temperature and a cross-section of water component connected with corresponding inputs of a computing control block. The measuring device of the cross-section of liquid fraction is fulfilled in the shape of a panoramic measuring device of amplitude-frequency characteristics and includes a microwave generator whose output is connected with the input of a microwave resonator located in the measuring channel. The measuring device of speed is fulfilled in the shape of a Doppler microwave radiolocator and has a receiver-transmitter connected with an antenna built-in into the tube section. The measuring device of the cross-section of water component is fulfilled in the shape of a dielectric carcass with two identical bobbins one of which is winded upon the carcass and is connected with a measuring master oscillator. The other bobbin is winded upon an electric screen with longitudinal slot overlapping the carcass and is connected with the second master oscillator.
EFFECT: the invention provides possibility of measuring consumption of condensate and water with simultaneous increasing of accuracy of measuring at the expense of compensation of influence of salinity of water component.