Method of and device for detecting defects on roll surface of train wheel

FIELD: railway transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and devices for detecting slides on wheel roll surface. Surface of wheel is irradiated by laser beam. Information of presence and parameters of slide is found by comparing obtained sequence of profiles of flange top by changed distance between flange top and upper edge of rail. Proposed device contains optical measuring systems 1 and 2 connected with electronic information processing unit 3 arranged at a distance from one another to permit taking measurements of flange profile of one and the other half of wheel.

EFFECT: increased speed and facilitated measurements.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of measurement technology and can be used to control the technical condition of the rolling stock, namely, to determine the sliders on the tread surface of the wheel.

The slider is a defect of the wheel, characterized by the presence of flat area on the tread surface resulting from sliding of the wheel on the rail, in particular, due to too strong braking or natuska handbrake of the car. A slider having a value in excess of the maximum allowable, cause grinding or wheel change.

Known device for measuring the deflection of the wheels of railway vehicles, implements contact method of determining sliders and containing measuring and protective rails and the platform with the attached spring-loaded sensors interacting with the rolling surface of the wheel, and the base line in contact with a crest wheels [1]. Implemented in the installation method of determining sliders is to measure the difference in height between the top of the ridge and several points on the wheelset, which is determined by its profile.

The presence of the probe over time causes them to wear, which reduces the accuracy of both the slider and its parameters. Another important nedoschitaetsya, contact method allows to determine the presence of floaters, only at low speeds the passage of a train through the measuring zone, for example, with the speed switch.

Known contactless device to determine the floaters on the surface of the railway wheel, containing a set of measuring modules along the track from the wheel flange and consisting of radiation sources, reflecting reflectors and receivers according to the number of modules [2]. A disadvantage of the known device is that for identification of the slider, for example, on a wheel of a locomotive, you need a large number of measuring modules over a hundred, which is associated with the geometrical dimensions of the controlled slide length ˜70 mm, depth ˜1 mm But even such a large number of measuring modules due to the discrete nature of the collected information does not provide the desired amount of data about the profile and the dimensions of the slider. In addition, a large number of measuring modules complicates the device, reduces the reliability of his work.

As a prototype of the proposed technical solution chosen method of detecting defects on the surface of the wheel when driving rail vehicles and device for the realization of the emission [3].

This method of control wheelset based on the illumination of the surface of the wheel pattern of spaced along the direction of the fan beams are formed, in turn, from the multiple beams, the serial register all of the reflected rays of the fan of each of the photodetectors and detection wheelset, including sliders, by comparing the measured time intervals between the signals of the photodetectors with known distribution intervals for the reference form.

A device that implements the specified method contains at least two optical measuring unit installed on the measuring rail and including light sources and photodetectors, and in front of light sources placed diffraction grating, and an electronic signal processing unit.

The disadvantage of this method and device is that of providing direct access to the wheelset, which is based on the way in rails, you must perform the cuts, reducing its mechanical strength. The consequence of this approach is that measurement - according to the foreign practice of using contactless monitoring parameters wheelset [4] - can be conducted at a speed of rolling stock not more than 15 km/h. In addition, the creation is the probing radiation in the form of raster determines the complexity of this method.

Note also that the modification of the rail in the production environment of the Russian Railways makes practical use of this method is unlikely.

The problem solved by the invention is to increase the measurement rate and simplification of the method.

This task is solved in that in the method for detecting defects on the surface of the wheels of the rolling stock, which irradiate the surface of the wheel by light radiation, get on photoreception device information about the shape of the surface of the wheel and determine the presence and parameters of the slide on the surface, make the exposure of the top of the ridge parallel laser beam; information about the surface of the wheel get in a series of profiles of the top of the ridge, and the presence and parameters of the slide is determined by comparison of the mentioned profiles.

This task is solved in that the device for implementing the method for detecting defects on the surface of the wheels of the rolling stock containing at least two optical measuring unit including light sources and photodetectors, and electronic signal processing unit, introduced the position sensors of the wheel; optical measuring units and light sources and photodetectors in each of the optical measurement unit located along the rail palatana distance from each other not less than half the circumference of the wheel; the light sources are made in the form of a source of a beam of parallel laser beams and optical means for forming a continuous probe radiation with dimensions in the area of the top of the ridge, the large size of the top of the ridge, while the light sources and photodetectors are equipped with mirrors with movement mechanisms.

Optical means forming a continuous probing radiation in the region of the top of the ridge can be made in the form of the aspherical lens.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings. Figure 1 shows the structural diagram of the optical measuring system, figure 2 illustrates the main functional elements of the device that implements the inventive method, rail cloth, figure 3 shows a picture of illumination with a wide beam of parallel laser beams to the top of the ridge.

Device for detecting defects on the surface of the wheels of the rolling stock includes two optical measuring systems 1 and 2, associated with an electronic processing unit 3. Measuring systems 1 and 2 are located between the rails 4 along the track in the direction of the composition, at a distance from each other not less than 1.5 times the circumference of the wheel 5. The composition of each of the measuring system 1 and 2 includes a radiating module 6, consisting of a laser 7, the aspherical lens 8 and the mirror , associated with the mechanism for moving the mirror 10, the receiving module 11, consisting of a lens 12, the photodetector 13 and the mirror 14 that is associated with the mechanism for moving the mirror 15, and the position sensors of the wheels 16-19 (in the measuring system 1) and 20-23 (in the measuring system 2)located between the crest and base of the rail. The distance between the mirrors 9 and 14 in each of the measuring system is not less than 1.5 times the circumference of the wheel 5.

Optical measuring systems 1 and 2 are used to determine the crawler on the surface of one of the wheel pair. A similar measuring system 24 and 25 located on the opposite hand, detect the presence of the slide on the other wheel of the pair of wheels.

The inventive method is implemented as follows.

Determination of the RAM on the wheelset put the fact that during operation of the wheel wear ridge (in particular, its vertices) is missing, so the appearance of the slide corresponds to the increase of the distance between the top of the ridge and the upper edge of the rail, or the change of the distance from the top of the ridge to some reference level).

In the initial position of the mirror 9 and 14 by means of the movement mechanisms of the mirrors 10 and 15 are in the lowest position to eliminate the possibility of their destruction during the passage of trains. When K is de wheel 5 to the measuring range of the system 1 (the direction of movement of the wheel shown in figure 2, arrow) position sensor wheel 16 emits a corresponding signal to the block 3, includes emitting and receiving units 6 and 11. When the wheel 5 is in a position between the emitting and receiving units 6 and 11, block 3 generates the signal of the mechanisms for moving the mirrors 10 and 15, and the above-mentioned mechanisms raise mirrors 9 and 14, locking them in position. Laser 7 generates a beam of parallel rays, which through the aspherical lens 8 is converted into an extended spot round or rectangular shape with the help of the mirror 9 is designed in the region of the top of the wheel flange. Since the dimensions of the spot 26 in the area of the top of the ridge are selected larger than the ridge width and height, blowout comb wide beam of parallel rays leads to the crest of discards on the photodetector 13, the shadow projected to the surface of the photodetector 13 by means of a mirror 14 and lens 12 and the photodetector 12 is registered with the profile of the top of the ridge. The passage of the measuring wheel 5 zone system 1 is fixed by the position sensor wheel 18.

During rotation of the wheel 5 and passing the distance between the emitting and receiving units 6 and 11 on the photodetector 12 is registered sequence of images of the profile of the ridge corresponding to half the circumference of the wheel 5.

With the passage of the measuring wheel 5 zone system 2 (the approach of the wheel to the measuring area is recorded by the sensor 2, and leaving the area sensor 22) withdrawal of the profile of the ridge are repeated for the other half of the circumference of the wheel 5. Then in block 3 by comparing the images of the profile of the ridge, obtained for the full circumference of the wheel 5, and the results of the analysis of these images is determined by the presence of the slide and its dimensions - length and depth.

The device can operate with the motion of the wheel in the opposite direction, thus fixing the position of the wheels is carried out by sensors 23, 21, 19, 17.

Compared to taken as a prototype method and device proposed solution does not require for the detection sliders - direct access probe radiation to the wheelset and the corresponding modification of the rail. This allows you to measure the speed of the rolling stock ˜50 km/h. The formation of the probing radiation in the form of wide spots, round or rectangular shape is much easier in comparison with the formation of the raster rays in the method prototype.

Thus, the task of increasing the velocity measurements and simplified method for detecting defects on the surface of the wheels of the rolling stock is resolved.

Literature

1. RF patent №2146630, CL 61 K 9/12, 2000

2. U.S. patent No. 5133521, NCI 246/169R, 1992

3. RF patent №2122956, CL 61 K 9/12, 998, (prototype).

4. Asennettu. Contactless control parameters wheelset. Railways of the world, 2004, No. 10, p.61-65.

1. The method for detecting defects on the surface of the wheels of the rolling stock, which consists in irradiating the surface of the wheel by light radiation, receiving the sensor information about the shape of the surface of the wheel and determining the existence and parameters of the slide on the surface of the ski, characterized in that irradiate the top of the ridge beam of parallel laser beams; information about the surface of the wheel get in a series of profiles of the top of the wheel flange, and the presence and parameters of the slide is determined by comparison of the mentioned profiles by changing the distance between the top of the ridge and the upper edge of the rail.

2. The device for implementing the method according to claim 1, containing at least two optical measuring system including the light sources and photodetectors, and electronic control unit and signal processing, characterized in that the device entered the position sensors of the wheel; optical measuring systems are located from each other at a distance that allows you to remove the profile of the crest of one and the other half of the wheel, respectively, one and the other optical system, the light sources are made in the form of a source of a beam of parallel laser lucai equipped with optical means forming a continuous probe radiation with dimensions in the area of the top of the ridge, the large size of the top of the ridge, while the light sources and photodetectors are equipped with mirrors with movement mechanisms.

3. The device for implementing the method according to claim 2, characterized in that the optical means forming a continuous probing radiation in the region of the top of the ridge made in the form of the aspherical lens.



 

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